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Alcohol

In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol referred to the primary alcohol ethanol, used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH. Simple monoalcohols that are the subject of this article include primary and tertiary alcohols; the suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority. When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name; the suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-. Alcohol distillation originated in the Indus valley civilization as early as 2000 BCE.

The people of India used an alcoholic drink called Sura made from fermented rice, barley and flowers of the madhyaka tree. Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century; the Arab chemist, al-Kindi, unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physician, alchemist and philosopher Rhazes is credited with the discovery of ethanol; the word "alcohol" is from a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was used for the fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb2S3, it was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic; the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" authors for "fine powder."

Vigo wrote: "the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre."The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium." By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". Johnson glosses alcohol vini as "quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat." The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850. The term ethanol was invented in 1892, combining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol". IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy.

In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g. as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane". When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the -ol: propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy-is used, e.g. as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol, is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain; as described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix.

Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH; the simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RR'CHOH, the simplest of, 2-propanol. For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR'R"COH; the simplest example is tert-butanol, for which each of R, R', R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R', R" represent substituents, alkyl or other attached organic groups. In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending. For instance, 3COH can be named trimethylcarbinol. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: methanol

Wilbur M. Cunningham

Wilbur Morrill Cunningham was an American football player and coach, attorney and author. Cunningham was born in 1886 in Michigan, his father, George Cunningham, was an insurance agent. Cunningham attended the University of Michigan where he studied law played college football for Fielding H. Yost's Michigan Wolverines football teams from 1907 to 1910, he graduated from Michigan's Law Department as part of its Class of 1912. During the fall of 1912, he served as the head coach of the Kentucky University football team. After completing his legal education, Cunningham opened a law practice in his hometown of Benton Harbor, Michigan; when the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Cunningham closed his legal practice and began serving on active duty in the United States Navy. He served with the rank of lieutenant in the paymaster's department and aboard the USS Massachusetts. Upon his discharge from the Navy in 1919, he resumed his law practice, he served two terms as prosecuting attorney for Berrien County from 1929 to 1933 and for 23 years from 1933 to 1956 as the city attorney of Benton Harbor, Michigan.

Cunningham was a noted historian and archeologist specializing in Native American artifacts. In 1961, he published "Land of Four Flags: An Early History of the St. Joseph Valley," a history of southwestern Michigan. Cunningham died in 1974 at age 89 and was buried at the Crystal Springs Cemetery in Benton Harbor, Michigan. Wilbur M. Cunningham at Find a Grave

Saint John the New Monastery

Saint John the New Monastery is a Romanian Orthodox monastery in Suceava, Romania. Built between 1514 and 1522, the monastery church is one of eight buildings that make up the churches of Moldavia UNESCO World Heritage Site, is listed as a historic monument by the country's Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs, its construction began during the reign of voivode Bogdan III the One-Eyed of Moldavia, after the nearby Mirăuți Church was devastated in 1513. The construction was completed by Stephen IV of Moldavia; the monastery church served as metropolitan cathedral of Moldavia until 1677 and, since 1991, it serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Suceava and Rădăuți. The church is dedicated to Saint George and it has frescoes painted on the outside, typical of the region; the monastery is dedicated to Saint John the New of Suceava, a Moldavian monk who preached during Turkish occupation and was subsequently martyred in Cetatea Albă, present-day Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in Ukraine. Alexander I of Moldavia brought his relics to Suceava in 1402.

Besides the monumental church, the monastery complex includes a bell tower built in 1589 during the reign of Peter the Lame of Moldavia, a chapel founded by clergyman Anastasie Crimca in 1626-1629, old cells for monks, a house for the abbot and the surrounding walls. Cathedral of the Nativity, Suceava