An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. The consumption of alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages; some countries ban such activities but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2018. Alcohol is a depressant, which in low doses causes euphoria, reduces anxiety, improves sociability. In higher doses, it causes drunkenness, unconsciousness, or death. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, alcoholism. Alcohol is one of the most used recreational drugs in the world, with about 33% of people being current drinkers; as of 2016, women on average drink males 1.7 drinks a day. In 2015, among Americans, 86% of adults had consumed alcohol at some point, 70% had drunk it in the last year, 56% in the last month.
Alcoholic drinks are divided into three classes—beers and spirits—and their alcohol content is between 3% and 50%. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented drinks existed at least as early as the Neolithic period. Many animals consume alcohol when given the opportunity and are affected in much the same way as humans, although humans are the only species known to produce alcoholic drinks intentionally. Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash, it is made from barley or a blend of several grains and flavored with hops. Most beer is carbonated as part of the fermentation process. If the fermented mash is distilled the drink becomes a spirit. In the Andean region, the most common beer is chicha, made from grain or fruits. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Wine is a fermented beverage produced from sometimes other fruits. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and a long aging process, resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV.
Cider or cyder is a fermented alcoholic drink made from any fruit juice. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine". Fermented tea is a class of tea that has undergone microbial fermentation, from several months to many years; the tea leaves and the liquor made from them become darker with oxidation. Thus, the various kinds of fermented teas produced across China are referred to as dark tea, not be confused with black tea; the most famous fermented tea is kombucha, homebrewed, pu-erh, produced in Yunnan Province, the Anhua dark tea produced in Anhua County of Hunan Province. The majority of kombucha on the market are under 0.5% ABV. Mead is an alcoholic drink made by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, grains, or hops; the alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%. The defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the drink's fermentable sugar is derived from honey.
Pulque is the Mesoamerican fermented drink made from the "honey water" of Agave americana. The drink distilled from pulque is mescal Mezcal. Sake is a popular example of "rice wine". "Fruit wines" are made from fruits other than grapes, such as cherries, or apples. Sparkling wine like French Champagne, Catalan Cava or Italian Prosecco can be made by means of a secondary fermentation. A distilled drink or liquor is an alcoholic drink produced by distilling ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables. Unsweetened, alcoholic drinks that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. For the most common distilled drinks, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%; the term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled drinks from undistilled ones. Vodka, baijiu, whiskey, brandy and soju are examples of distilled drinks. Distilling eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with fusel alcohols in applejack.
Fortified wine is wine, such as sherry, to which a distilled beverage has been added. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, madeira, marsala and the aromatized wine vermouth. Rectified spirit called "neutral grain spirit", is alcohol, purified by means of "rectification"; the term neutral refers to the spirit's lack of the flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity. Rectified spirit lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation. Other kinds of spirits, such as whiskey, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage to preserve the flavor of the mash. Rectified spirit is a clear, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95% ABV, it is used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants.
The March on Washington Movement, 1941–1946, organized by activists A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin as a tool to produce a mass march on Washington, D. C. was designed to pressure the U. S. government into desegregating the armed forces and providing fair working opportunities for African Americans. When President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 in 1941, prohibiting discrimination in the defense industry under contract to federal agencies and collaborators called off the march. Randolph continued to promote non-violent actions to advance goals for African Americans. Future civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and other younger men were influenced by Randolph and his ideals and methods. In the lead-up to the United States' entry into World War II, African Americans resented calls to "defend democracy" against Nazi racism while having to deal with discrimination in all sectors of life and business in the United States the South, where they had been disenfranchised since the turn of the century and oppressed by Jim Crow laws.
By the fall of 1940, the American economy was emerging from the Depression. The defense boom benefited whites, but black workers were denied opportunities because of widespread racial discrimination in employment; some government training programs excluded blacks based on their being refused entry to defense industries, many skilled black workers with proper training were unable to gain employment. In 1940 the president of the North American Aviation Co. was quoted as saying, "While we are in complete sympathy with the Negro, it is against company policy to employ them as aircraft workers or mechanics... regardless of their training.... There will be some jobs as janitors for Negroes." It was in this climate. The March on Washington Movement was an attempt to pressure the United States government and President Franklin D. Roosevelt into establishing policy and protections against employment discrimination as the nation prepared for war. A. Philip Randolph was the driving force behind the movement, with allies from the NAACP and other civil rights organizations.
He had formed and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters beginning in 1925. His leadership in the March on Washington Movement, in which organizing middle and lower class members would be so important, was based on his strong experience in grassroots and union organizing. Randolph's independence from white sources of power was shown when he said of the movement, "If it costs money to finance a march on Washington, let Negroes pay for it. If any sacrifices are made for Negro rights in national defense, let Negroes make them...." Randolph's leadership and strategy defined the nature of the March on Washington Movement. His reliance on grassroots activism and African-American media and organizations was influenced by his childhood, his father was an African Methodist Episcopal preacher, Randolph heard numerous parishioners complain about the state of race relations and discrimination. He and his brother were tutored, raised to believe that they were "as intellectually competent as any white".
On September 26, 1942, after the MOWM had succeeded in gaining an Executive Order against discrimination in industry, Randolph reiterated that the fight would continue despite these gains. He said, "Unless this war sound the death knell to the old Anglo-American empire systems, the hapless story of, one of exploitation for the profit and power of a monopoly-capitalist economy, it will have been fought in vain." The Women's Auxiliary was a group of wives and relatives of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. They were active within the MOWM in fundraising and community efforts, as well as working broadly to promote ideas of "concepts of black manhood, female respectability, class consciousness." Early lobbying efforts to desegregate the military previous to 1941 did not persuade President Roosevelt to take action. On September 27, 1940, the first delegation composed of A. Philip Randolph, Walter White, T. Arnold Hill, met with President Roosevelt and his top officials; the delegation presented a memorandum demanding immediate integration of all blacks in the armed services.
The White House issued a statement saying, "The policy of the War Department is not to intermingle colored and white enlisted personnel in the same regimental organizations." The armed forces were not integrated under President Harry S. Truman. Concerned that traditional meetings were not effective, on January 25, 1941, A. Philip Randolph proposed a March on Washington to "highlight the issue." In the following months, chapters of the MOWM began to organize for a mass march scheduled for July first of that year. During the spring, organizers estimated. A week before the march was to take place, Mayor Fiorello La Guardia of New York City met with MOWM leadership to inform them of the president's intentions to issue an executive order establishing the first Fair Employment Practices Committee that would prohibit discrimination in federal vocational and training programs. Before the order was signed, the MOWM demanded that it included a provision for desegregation of war industries. Roosevelt agreed and issued Executive Order 8802, which prohibited discrimination in federal vocational and training programs, in employment in defense industries contracting with the government.
Given this major victory, Randolph agreed to cancel the march. He continued the March on Washington Movement as a way to maintain an organization that could track and lobby for progress, hold the FEPC to its mission; the MOWM continued rallies throughout the summer on these issues, b
St Mary Magdalene's Church is in Broughton-in-Furness, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Furness, the archdeaconry of Westmorland and Furness, the diocese of Carlisle, its benefice is united with those of four other local parishes. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building; the oldest fabric in the present church is the late Norman south doorway, dating from the 12th century. Alterations and additions were made to the church in the 19th centuries. In 1873 -- 74 the church was restored by the Lancaster architects Austin; this included restoring the chancel and adding a new aisle. They reseated the body of the church. Stone from St Bees was used for the external dressings, the interior was faced with Runcorn sandstone. In 1900 the south west tower was replaced by the successors of Paley and Austin; the church is constructed in stone rubble with ashlar dressings, has slate roofs. Its plan consists of a five-bay nave, a three-bay chancel, a south aisle, a south porch, a southwest tower.
The windows and bell openings are round-headed, following the style of the Norman doorway. The tower is with buttresses and a corbel table. At its summit are a coped parapet and gablets to the east and west; the bell openings are louvred. Internally, the arcade is carried on round piers. In the aisle is a restored piscina; the stained glass includes works by Kempe and Hunt, by William Morris. In the churchyard to the south of the church are three more Grade II listed buildings; the sundial is the stump of a medieval churchyard cross. The Atkinson monument consists of a headstone dated 1805. To the south of the church is a group of four tombs dating from the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Listed buildings in Broughton West List of ecclesiastical works by Paley and Austin List of ecclesiastical works by Austin and Paley