Ibi is a town located in the comarca of Alcoià, in the province of Alicante, Spain. As of 2009, Ibi has a total population of c. 24,000 inhabitants. The town, located 37 km from the city of Alicante, is surrounded by mountains and gorges; the economy of Ibi is chiefly based on the most important of this kind in Spain. As a result, many other related industries have emerged in the last years: plastic, metal and others. There are some factories making ice creams and tiger nut milk, also; some of the most important monuments in Ibi are the Catholic Church of the Transfiguration and the monument to the Three Wise Men the only one in the world. Ibi was the location for the issue of both the 25 céntimos and 1 peseta by the Republicans during 1937. Worldwide, it is famous for the centuries of annual festival of Els Enfarinats. Tomelloso, Spain Font Roja Natural Park Official site
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Province of Alicante
Alicante, or Alacant, is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the Valencian Community. The second and third biggest cities in the Valencian Community are located in this province. Alicante is bordered by the provinces of Murcia on the southwest, Albacete on the west, Valencia on the north, the Mediterranean Sea on the east; the province is named after the city of Alicante. According to the 2018 population data, Alicante ranks as the 4th most populous province in Spain, with 1,838,819 inhabitants. Cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the province are Alicante, Torrevieja, Benidorm, Alcoy and San Vicente del Raspeig; the province has the largest ratio of foreigner population among all Spanish provinces. The total of 446,368 foreigners are registered in the province, which represents 23.6 percent of the total population. Out of 141 municipalities that make up the province, foreign population is above 25% in 54 municipalities, above 50% in 19 municipalities; the latter include San Fulgencio, Benitatxell, Algorfa, Llíber, Daya Vieja.
From the 50 provinces of Spain, Alicante is the only one with three metropolitan areas—Alicante–Elche, Elda–Petrer and Benidorm—even though only one of them is ranked within the Spanish top ten metropolitan areas. It has an area of 5.816,5 km², so it has a population density of 313.8 hab/km². The province is mountainous in the north and west, whereas it is flat to the south, in the Vega Baja del Segura area. All of these peaks are a part of the Subbaetic Range; the coast extends from the cape, Cap de la Nau, in the north to reaching the Mar Menor in the south. With regard to water sources, due to the dry rain regime there are no major rivers, but ramblas, which fill in with water when torrential rains occur; the only remarkable streams are the Vinalopó, the river Segura. Other minor seasonal creeks are Girona, Algar and Ebo. There are saline wetlands and marshlands along the coast such El Fondo and the former wetlands and now salt evaporation ponds in Santa Pola and Torrevieja. All of them are key Ramsar Sites which make the Alicante province of high relevance for both migratory and resident seabirds and waterbirds.
Important coastal dunes are present in the Guardamar area which were planted with thousands of pine trees during the 19th century in order to protect the ville from the dunes advancing, which has created now an area of remarkable ecologic value. The climate is strikingly diverse for such a reduced area. Three major areas can be cited, it goes along the coastal plain from La Vila Joiosa through the southernmost border. Summers are long, hot to hot and dry, winters are cool to mild and its most prominent feature is scarce precipitation below 300mm. Per year and most to happen during spring and autumn; the reasons for this lack of precipitation is the marked rain shadow effect caused by hills to the west of the Alicante province. Most of its few rainy days happen during Spring; the predominant vegetation in this part of the province is Matorral Scrublands including thyme, esparto and the like. Proper Mediterranean climate is present in the northeastern areas around Cap de la Nau to its North but to its South, in diminishing grades until disappearing north of Benidorm.
It goes along the coastal plain from the northern border of the province through the Benidorm area. The north slopes of the mountains in the Marina Alta have a remarkably wetter microclimate with an average of up to 900mm of precipitation due to orographic lift, with most of the precipitation occurring in Autumn and Spring; the precipitation in this area is an average four times the one of the semiarid South, with this big precipitation gap occurring in a matter of just 100 km. The vegetation of this part is an enriched version of the Matorral shrubland and Mediterranean pine woods; the Alicante province has a dry Mediterranean to Continental Mediterranean climate. These are the innermost part of some closer to the sea but at a higher elevation. Here winters are cool to cold and a few days of snow are not unusual; the innermost part of this domain is more quite dry while the mountainous part reach higher precipitation figures which allow Kermes Oak woods to thrive, such as the one in La Carrasqueta or in the Mariola range, both near Alcoy.
The Iberians were the oldest documented people living in. Belonging to these there are several archaeologi
Onil is a town located in the comarca of L'Alcoià, in the province of Alicante, Spain. It has an area of 48.41 km2 and, according to the 2006 census, a total population of 7466 inhabitants and a population density of 154.22 inhabitants/km2. Onil is located next to the mountain called Sierra de Onil in the Sierra de Mariola, 36 km from Alicante city; the economy of Onil is based on the industries of toy and farming. The most important monuments in Onil are the Palace-Fortress from the 16th century, the headquarters of the town council; the Moros y Cristianos festival of Onil is celebrated each April. Web Oficial de Onil, Official Web page of the municipal government of Onil Índice Estadístico Municipal de Onil. Unidad de Documentación de la Diputación de Alicante Información de Onil Fiestas de Onil Federación Valenciana de Municipios y Provincias - Guía Turística es:Wikipedia:Autorización de copia de web/Federación Valenciana de Municipios y Provincias
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Tibi is a municipality in the comarca of Alcoià, Valencia, Spain. The name of this municipality comes from latin and it means "for you"; this territory was populated with 1,564 people in the year 2018. Two mountain ranges stretches this municipality: Serra de la Penya-roja; the village is places on the slope of the second mountain range. A river whose name is Monnegre or Riu Verd traverses the municipality. During the period in which Muslims occupied the Iberian Peninsula, this current municipality was governed by several kings; the castle, located in Tibi was built in that era. The village belong to the Almohad king Zayt-Abu-Zayt until the year 1240 and it was conquered by James I of Aragon. In the year 1244 the Treaty of Almizra, a result of a pact between the king Alfonso X of Castile and James I of Aragon, was signed. A line that had a border function was traced and it demarcated the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile; the border crossed Tibi and Basot and ended on the coast line. James I of Aragon bestowed the territory to his spouse Ixonis de Soler.
The population of the hamlet consisted of 150 inhabitants in that era. The manor Villa de Tibi and its castle was governed by several lords until the mid 15th century, it became property of the head of the Marquisate of Villena, lord of a territory that extented from area of Jumilla to Villena. In the early 18th century, the current municipality was owned by the head of Marquisate of Dos Aguas until its demise in 1717. Castle in Tibi This castle is located on a long shaped peak, it was built in the 10th century and it belonged to the Almohad dynasty until the year 1240. After the Christian conquer, it became owned by the Crown of Aragon. Reservoir in Tibi It is one of the most ancient work of water blocking and deliver in Europe, its construction was ordered by the king Philip II of Spain in the 16th century for making possible the water supply in the historic region Horta d'Alacant. This work keeps functioning nowadays. Official page of Comunitat Valenciana autonomous community - TIBI
The Baix Vinalopó is a comarca in the province of Alicante. It is bordered by the comarques of Vinalopó Mitjà and Alacantí on the north and Vega Baja del Segura on the south, its capital is the city of Elx/Elche. The other major towns in the comarca are Santa Pola. Vinalopó river flows through this comarca giving its name to it though nowadays is just a tiny stream more than a proper river; the territory is flat except for some of the last ranges belonging to the Baetic System which appear here near the border with the neighbouring comarcas Vinalopó Mitjà, following a general southwest-northeast trend. The highest peaks are found in the Serra de Crevillent, a mountain range close to Crevillent, being its highest the Sant Gaietà with its 816 metres, a local hiking attraction, its climate is dry, with scarce rainfalls—below the Mediterranean climate threshold—which happen in Autumn and Spring amounting an average of 250–300 mm per year and showing warm mean temperatures. Among the herbaceous species and shrub deserve to be mentioned due to their industrial value in the past.
Some important natural places are the swamps in the lower part of the comarca known as El Fondo Natural Park and the Salines de Santa Pola Natural Park, both Ramsar sites. The comarca is industrial in its capital, Elx/Elche, in the town of Crevillent. Agriculture is an important activity in the area. In the coastline around Santa Pola the main activity is tourism and sea salt