For the Department of Energy facility, see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border; the Savannah River drainage basin extends into the southeastern side of the Appalachian Mountains just inside North Carolina, bounded by the Eastern Continental Divide. The river is around 301 miles long, it is formed by the confluence of the Seneca River. Today this confluence is submerged beneath Lake Hartwell; the Tallulah Gorge is located on the Tallulah River, a tributary of the Tugaloo River that forms the northwest branch of the Savannah River. Two major cities are located along the Savannah River: Savannah, Augusta, Georgia, they were nuclei of early English settlements during the Colonial period of American history. The Savannah River is tidal at Savannah proper.
Downstream from there, the river broadens into an estuary before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. The area where the river's estuary meets the ocean is known as "Tybee Roads"; the Intracoastal Waterway flows through a section of the Savannah River near the city of Savannah. The name "Savannah" comes from a group of Shawnee, they destroyed the Westo and occupied established Westo lands at the Savannah River's head of navigation on the Fall Line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee were called by several variant names that all derive from their native name, Ša·wano·ki; the local variants included Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name was derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the colonial southeast; the Spanish word was borrowed from the Taino word zabana. Other theories interpret the name Savannah to come from Atlantic coastal tribes, who spoke Algonquian languages, as there are similar terms meaning not only "southerner" but "salt".
Historical and variant names of the Savannah River, as listed by the U. S. Geological Survey, include May River, Westobou River, Kosalu River, Isundiga River and Girande River, among others; the Westobou River was the former name of the Savannah River, derived from the Westo Native American Indians. The Westo were thought to have come from the northeast, pushed out by the more powerful tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, who had acquired firearms through trade; this migration beginning in the late 16th century resulted in the Westo Indians reaching the present area of Augusta, Georgia, in what was to be the 1660s. The Westo used the river for fishing and water supplies, for transportation, for trade, they were strong enough to hold off the Spanish colonists making incursions from Florida. The Carolina Colony needed the Westo alliance during its early years; when Carolinians desired to expand its trade to Charleston, they viewed the Westo tribe as an obstacle. In order to remove the tribe, they sent a group called the Goose Creek Men to arm the Savanna Indians, a Shawnee tribe, who defeated the Westo in the Westo War of 1680.
Following this, the English colonists renamed the river as the Savannah. They founded two major cities on the river during the colonial era: Savannah was established in 1733 as a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean, Augusta is located where the river crosses the Fall Line of the Piedmont; the two large cities on the Savannah served as Georgia's first two state capitals. In the nineteenth century, the sandy river channel changed causing numerous steamboat accidents. During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a blockade around the Confederate states, forcing merchantmen to use specific ports along the coast best suited for this purpose; the harbor at Savannah became one of the busiest ports for blockade runners bringing in supplies for the Confederacy. The Savannah River was significant during the 1950s when construction started on the U. S. government's Savannah River Plant for making tritium for nuclear weapons. In 1956 Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines detected neutrinos with an experiment carried out at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant, after a preliminary experiment at the Hanford Site.
They placed a 10-ton tank of water next to a powerful nuclear reactor engaged in making plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. After shielding the neutrino trap underground and running it for about 100 days over the course of a year, they detected a few synchronized flashes of gamma radiation that signaled the interaction of a few neutrinos with the protons in the water; the neutrinos were not themselves observed, they never have been. Their presence is inferred by an exceedingly rare interaction. One out of every billion billion neutrinos that pass through the water tank hits a proton, producing the telltale burst of radiation. In 1995 Reines was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this accomplishment, but Cowen did not live long enough to share it. Between 1946 and 1985, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers built three major dams on the Savannah for hydroelectricity, flood control, navigation; the J. Strom Thurmond Dam, the Hartwell Dam, the Richard B. Russell Dam and their reservoirs combine in order to form over 120 miles of lakes.
Donnie Thompson named a small subdivision "Westobou Crossing", located in North Augusta, South Carolina. The area of the subdivision is located marks the first natural ford that crosses the Savannah River, thus promoting trade and allowing travel. Many native a
The Satilla River rises in Ben Hill County, near the town of Fitzgerald, flows in a easterly direction to the Atlantic Ocean. Along its 235-mile course are the cities of Waycross and Woodbine; the Satilla drains 4,000 square miles of land, all of it in the coastal plain of southeastern Georgia. It has white sandbars and is the largest blackwater river situated within Georgia; the river derives its name from a Spanish officer named Saint Illa, over a period of time the name was merged to form the word Satilla. The name St. Illa River was in use alongside the name Satilla River in the early nineteenth century; the Satilla enters the Atlantic Ocean about 10 miles south of Brunswick, at the 31st parallel north. Satilla River Marsh Island is one of the few places in Georgia for observing nesting sites of brown pelicans. In May 2010, the city of Waycross purchased the Bandalong Litter Trap and installed it in Tebeau Creek, a tributary of the Satilla River; the trap is manufactured in the United States by Storm Water Systems.
Although the city has maintained a good standing with the Environmental Protection Division, the city wanted to take action to reduce the amount of human generated trash entering the Satilla River and the Atlantic Ocean. Governor Sonny Perdue said, "Water is one of Georgia's most important and precious resources... the litter trap installed by Waycross is a model of stewardship for the state and the nation." The Satilla River litter trap is only the second in the nation. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Satilla River http://www.satillariver.com http://www.satillariverkeeper.org/ Georgia's Coast in photographs and more Bandalong Litter Trap Installed Waycross, Georgia Takes Bold Step in Pollution Control for Satilla River
Piedmont (United States)
The Piedmont is a plateau region located in the Eastern United States. It sits between the Atlantic coastal plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New Jersey in the north to central Alabama in the south; the Piedmont Province is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division which consists of the Gettysburg-Newark Lowlands, the Piedmont Upland and the Piedmont Lowlands sections. The Atlantic Seaboard fall line marks the Piedmont's eastern boundary with the Coastal Plain. To the west, it is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains, the easternmost range of the main Appalachians; the width of the Piedmont varies, being quite narrow above the Delaware River but nearly 300 miles wide in North Carolina. The Piedmont's area is 80,000 square miles; the name "Piedmont" comes from the French term for the same physical region meaning "foothill" from Latin "pedemontium", meaning "at the foot of the mountains", similar to the name of the Italian region of Piedmont, abutting the Alps.
The surface relief of the Piedmont is characterized by low, rolling hills with heights above sea level between 200 feet and 800 feet to 1,000 feet. Its geology is complex, with numerous rock formations of different materials and ages intermingled with one another; the Piedmont is the remnant of several ancient mountain chains that have since been eroded away. Geologists have identified at least five separate events which have led to sediment deposition, including the Grenville orogeny and the Appalachian orogeny during the formation of Pangaea; the last major event in the history of the Piedmont was the break-up of Pangaea, when North America and Africa began to separate. Large basins formed from the rifting and were subsequently filled by the sediments shed from the surrounding higher ground; the series of Mesozoic basins is entirely located inside the Piedmont region. Piedmont soils are clay-like and moderately fertile. In some areas they have suffered from erosion and over-cropping in the South where cotton was the chief crop.
In the central Piedmont region of North Carolina and Virginia, tobacco is the main crop, while in the north region there is more diversity, including orchards and general farming. The portion of the Piedmont region in the southern United States, is associated with the Piedmont blues, a style of blues music that originated there in the late 19th century. According to the Piedmont Blues Preservation Society, most Piedmont blues musicians came from Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia. During the Great Migration, African Americans migrated to the Piedmont. With the Appalachian Mountains to the west, those who might otherwise have spread into rural areas stayed in cities and were thus exposed to a broader mixture of music than those in, for example, the rural Mississippi delta. Thus, Piedmont blues was influenced by many types of music such as ragtime and popular songs—styles that had comparatively less influence on blues music in other regions. Many major cities are located on the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the eastern boundary of the Piedmont.
The fall line, where the land rises abruptly from the coastal plain, marks the limit of navigability on many major rivers, so inland ports sprang up along it. Within the Piedmont region itself, there are several areas of urban concentration, the largest being the Philadelphia metropolitan area in Pennsylvania; the Piedmont cuts Maryland in half. In Virginia, the Greater Richmond metropolitan area is the largest urban concentration. In North Carolina, the Piedmont Crescent includes several metropolitan clusters such as Charlotte metropolitan area, the Piedmont Triad, the Research Triangle. Other notable areas include the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area in South Carolina, in Georgia, the Atlanta metropolitan area. Cecil Piedmont Atlantic Piedmont region of Virginia Interstate 85 Godfrey, Michael A.. Field Guide to the Piedmont. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4671-6. Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History "Piedmont Plain". New International Encyclopedia.
Walton County, Georgia
Walton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 83,768, it is located about 30 miles east of the city of Atlanta. Monroe is the county seat. Walton County is part of GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Walton County was created on December 15, 1818, it is named for George Walton, one of the three men from Georgia who signed the United States Declaration of Independence. The other two were Lyman Hall. Developed by planters for cotton plantations in the antebellum era, the county depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans. During and after Reconstruction, whites used lynchings of blacks and other attacks to re-establish white supremacy and maintain social control; the county had a total of nine documented lynchings of African Americans in this period, including the first half of the 20th century. While the peak period in the South was from 1880 to 1930, nearly half the number of lynchings in Walton County took place in a mass murder in 1946, after World War II.
This postwar period was a time of social unrest in many areas. A Supreme Court ruling in April 1946 ruled that white primaries were unconstitutional, enabling some black citizens in Georgia to cast ballots for the first time during the primary race that summer; this increased social tensions in many areas, as most blacks had been disenfranchised since the turn of the 20th century. Walton County has been home to, the birthplace of, or claimed residence of seven Georgia governors: Wilson Lumpkin, Howell Cobb, Alfred Colquitt, James Boynton, Henry McDaniel, Clifford Walker, Richard Russell, Jr.. In July 1946, the county was the location to one of the last mass lynchings of the pre-Civil Rights Era. A committee placed a highway marker near the site; the inscription reads: 2.4 miles east, at Moore’s Ford Bridge on the Apalachee River, four African-Americans - George and Mae Murray Dorsey and Roger and Dorothy Dorsey Malcom - were brutally beaten and shot by an unmasked mob on the afternoon of July 25, 1946.
The lynching followed an argument between a local white farmer. These unsolved murders played a crucial role in both President Truman’s commitment to civil rights legislation and the ensuing modern civil rights movement; the sign is at 33 ° 51.417 ′ N, 83 ° 36.733 ′ W. Marker is near Georgia, in Walton County. Marker is at the intersection of U. S. 78 and Locklin Road, on the right when traveling east on U. S. 78. In 1998, a biracial memorial service honoring the victims was held at Moore's Ford Bridge. On-site reenactments and media publications, the most seminal being, Fire in a Canebrake: The Last Mass Lynching in America, by author Laura Wexler, have been staged or written about the subject. Although the case has been re-opened and closed on a federal level sentiment persists that it be reviewed yet again to a more conclusive state in the suiting to the multi-ethnic committee. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 330 square miles, of which 326 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water.
The western half of Walton County, in a half circle from Social Circle through Monroe to northeast of Loganville, is located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The eastern part of the county, east of that curve, is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Barrow County – north Oconee County – northeast Morgan County – southeast Newton County – south Rockdale County – southwest Gwinnett County – northwest Walton County doesn't have any pedestrian trails. However, there are trails in neighboring Gwinnett and Rockdale county such as the Arabia Mountain Path, Conyers Trail and Cedar Creek Trail Loop. There was a noted decline in population from 1900 to 1960, as farm workers left the rural area for opportunities in cities that had industrial jobs; this was the period of the Great Migration, when many African Americans moved to the North and West Coast for jobs and opportunities. As of the census of 2000, there were 60,687 people, 21,307 households, 17,002 families residing in the county.
The population density was 184 people per square mile. There were 22,500 housing units at an average density of 68 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.03% White, 14.42% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.64% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. 1.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 21,307 households out of which 39.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.70% were married couples living together, 12.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.20% were non-families. 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 32.20% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 9.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females, there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,479 and the median income for a family was $52,386. Males had a median income of $37,482 versus $25,840 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,470. About 8.00% of families and 9.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.30% of those under age 18 and 10.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United
The Chattooga River is the main tributary of the Tugaloo River. Its headwaters are located southwest of Cashiers, North Carolina, it stretches 57 miles to where it has its confluence with the Tallulah River within Lake Tugalo, held back by the Tugalo Dam; the Chattooga and the Tallulah combine to make the Tugaloo River starting at the outlet of Lake Tugalo. The Chattooga begins in southern Jackson County, North Carolina flows southwestward between northwestern Oconee County, South Carolina, eastern Rabun County, Georgia; the "Chattooga" spelling was approved by the US Board on Geographic Names in 1897. The Chattooga River flows into Tugalo Lake. After flowing through Tugalo Dam the combined rivers become the Tugaloo River which, along with the Seneca River, becomes the Savannah River below Lake Hartwell. Downstream from that point, the water flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Georgia; the Chattooga was used as a setting for the fictional Cahulawassee River in the book and film Deliverance. The Chattooga River serves as part of the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina near latitude 35°N.
The Chattooga River was not the original boundary line between South Georgia. A treaty of 1816 extended the South Carolina boundary to its current location. Prior to 1816, the Chattooga was on the lands of the Cherokee Indian Nation; the Blue Ridge Mountains, where the Chattooga starts, are considered to be ancient by geological standards. The rock is granite. Geologists believe, it flowed southwesterly into the Chattahoochee riverbed and on to the Gulf of Mexico, but at some point, the Savannah River eroded its northern headland until it intersected the Chattooga and diverted it to the Atlantic. The rocks in the riverbed fell from the ridge above, but those rocks do not remain where they fall. In times of great downpours, high water, fast currents, rocks can become dislodged and move downstream, taking other rocks and debris with them. During Hurricane Ivan in 2004, the wind force and waters knocked down big boulders off the sides; the hurricane released enough water in the Chattooga watershed to bring the river to its highest recorded flow rate, around 26,000 cu ft/s to 28,000 cu ft/s, rivaling the typical flow of the Grand Canyon.
Since May 10, 1974, the Chattooga River has been protected along a 15,432-acre corridor as a national Wild and Scenic River. 39.8 miles of the river have been designated “wild”, about 2.5 miles “scenic”, 14.6 miles “recreational” for a total of about 57 miles. On the commercially rafted sections there is a 1/4 mile protected corridor of National Forest on both sides of the river, allowing no roads to the river or development of any kind. There are a few areas on the river where access has been made more accessible on Section III, but much of Section IV is remote; the Chattooga bisects the Ellicott Rock Wilderness which straddles three states and three National Forests. Much of the Georgia portion of the river is within the Chattooga River Ranger District of the Chattahoochee National Forest. Known as the "Crown Jewel" of the southeast, the Chattooga was the first river east of the Mississippi to be granted the Wild & Scenic designation, is still the only one, commercially rafted; the river is split into three forks.
The Chattooga River is the main fork. The East Fork Chattooga River runs in from Jackson County, North Carolina and Oconee County, South Carolina, is 7.4 miles long. The West Fork Chattooga River runs 6.0 miles in from Rabun County, is a variant name for that county's Holcomb Creek, one of its own tributaries. One of the largest tributaries in the Chattooga basin that flows through private lands is Stekoa Creek, which flows southeast for 18 miles from its headwaters in Mountain City, through Clayton, Georgia, to its mouth at the Chattooga River. Stekoa Creek has been the single greatest threat to the Chattooga's water quality for over 40 years, due to raw sewage leaking from the City of Clayton, GA's old sewage collection system, storm drains overflowing, sediment-laden runoff, poor agricultural practices, failing septic systems, dumping from apathetic individuals; the Chattooga Conservancy, a non-profit organization dedicated to the protection and restoration of the Chattooga River watershed, has made the neglected issue of improving water quality in Stekoa Creek a top priority.
The Stekoa Creek Basin is 45 square miles in size. In the late spring, the river is lined with white mountain laurel. Early spring is a great time to go rafting, kayaking, or canoeing because of the higher flows and cooler temperatures; the Chattooga is a free-flowing river which responds to rainfall or drought conditions. As a drop-pool style river, rapids are followed by calm pools for swimming; the Chattooga headwaters start near Cashiers as a small stream, but Green Creek is the start of the boatable section. Section I is ideal for tubing and class II float trips. Section II starting at Highway 28 is a class. Section III has Class II-IV rapids which kayakers frequent; the final rapid in Section III is Bull Sluice. Section IV inc
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
St. Marys River (Florida–Georgia)
The St. Marys River is a 126-mile-long river in the southeastern United States. From near its source in the Okefenokee Swamp, to its mouth at the Atlantic Ocean, it forms a portion of the border between the U. S. states of Florida. The river serves as the southernmost point in the state of Georgia; the St. Marys River rises as a tiny stream, River Styx, flowing from the western edge of Trail Ridge, the geological relic of a barrier island/dune system, into the southeastern Okefenokee Swamp. Arching to the northwest, it loses its channel within the swamp turns back to the southwest and reforms a stream, at which point it becomes the St. Marys River. Joined by another stream, Moccasin Creek, the river emerges from Okefenokee Swamp at Baxter, Florida/Moniac, Georgia, it flows south east north east-southeast emptying its waters into the Atlantic, near St. Marys and Fernandina Beach, Florida. On 6 July 1805 Lieutenant Robert Pigot of HMS Cambrian arrived off the harbour in the French privateer schooner Matilda, which the British had captured three days earlier.
On 7 July Pigot took Matilda twelve miles up the St Marys River to attack three vessels reported to be there. Along the way militia and riflemen fired on Matilda; the British reached the three vessels, which were lashed in a line cross the river. They consisted of a Spanish privateer schooner and her two British prizes, the ship Golden Grove and the brig Ceres, which the Spanish privateer had captured some two months earlier; the Spaniards had armed Golden Grove with eight 6-pounder guns and six swivels, given her a crew of 50 men. The brig too was armed with small arms; the Spanish schooner carried a crew of 70 men. Pigot engaged the vessels for an hour, after Matilda had grounded, took his crew in her boats and captured Golden Grove; the British captured the other two vessels. Lastly, Pigot fired with a field gun, dispersing them; the British had two men killed, 14 wounded, including Pigot, who had received two bullet wounds to head and one to a leg. A crowd of Americans on the Georgia side of the river watched the entire battle.
See Battle of Fort Peter Martin, Charles. Where the River Ends. New York, Broadway Books, 2008. ISBN 9780767926980. An artist and his dying wife fulfill her wish of one last canoe ride from the headwaters of the St. Marys to the sea. List of rivers of Florida List of rivers of Georgia South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region State of Florida: Guide to the St. Marys River St. Marys River Watershed - Florida DEP