Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th
Bergh Apton is a village and civil parish in the South Norfolk district of Norfolk, England, 7 miles south-east of Norwich just south of the A146 between Yelverton and Thurton. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 428 in 186 households, the population increasing to 442 at the 2011 Census. Bergh Apton was two separate villages. Apton was served by the church of St. Martin which lay near the present day Church Farm on Dodgers Lane, its last recorded use being in 1555 and the remains being cleared in 1834. Bergh was served by the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul which stands on a low hill overlooking the River Chet which marks the southern boundary of the now combined parish; the church appears to have been reconstructed in the 14th century, with local flint with ashlar and brick details. The village school was closed in 1981 and the children transferred to Alpington and Bergh Apton CofE voluntary-aided school in Alpington; the village shop and Post Office closed on 31 December 2012.
In August 2015 the Post Office reopened its Bergh Apton branch within the Green Pastures Plant Centre and Farm Shop on Mill Road. The village hall, opened on the day of Queen Elizabeth's coronation on 2 June 1953 was refurbished in 2013 and reopened in November of that year with new facilities and all-ability access; the hall is used by village societies, the Parish Council, numerous activities that include a microscopy study group, painting and dog-training. Bergh Apton is served by bus route 570 operated by Konectbus providing five services a day into Norwich and out to Seething and Loddon. Beginning in 1997 and repeated in 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011, the village hosted six sculpture trails with works from over 60 artists both local to Norfolk and from across the UK, displayed in private gardens and public places; the trails were organised by Bergh Apton Community Arts Trust and became significant South Norfolk tourist attractions. In the years 2005, 2008 and 2011, they drew over 10,000 visitors over three weekends in late May/early June.
During the 2011 Sculpture Trail, the village, with assistance from the Bishop of Norwich, performed “A Mighty Water”. This Mystery Play, based on the story of Noah, was commissioned from internationally renowned story teller, Hugh Lupton. In May and June 2014, Bergh Apton was joined by inhabitants of 11 neighbouring villages to perform a Cycle of four Mystery Plays based on the Bible stories in the Legend of the Rood commissioned from Hugh Lupton. Bergh Apton Anglo-Saxon cemetery Ordnance Survey Pathfinder map of Bergh Apton Bergh Apton website 2002/5 Sculpture Trail on Flickr
Bunwell is a parish situated in the county of Norfolk, England 7 miles south-east of Attleborough. The parish includes the hamlets of Bunwell Hill, Bunwell Street, Great Green, Little Green and Low Common. Overlooked as visitors head for quaint New Buckenham, this oddly widespread community is centred on a church, primary school, village hall and homes of mixed heritage—although some date from Shakespearean times. Most residents commute to town of Diss; the recreation ground is home to Bunwell FC, winners of the South Norfolk league division 3 in 2008, during the winter months and Bunwell CC in the summer. Three members of the band Mona McNee's Love Children, which played around Norwich in the 1990s, came from the village; the Bunwell Heritage Group is researching and writing a comprehensive history of the parish. Their findings are being published in the form of self-contained essays on the internet. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward stretches south to Tibenham with a total population taken at the 2011 census of 2,737.
Bunwell parish community website Diss Express – The village's local newspaper website
Bracon Ash is a village and civil parish in the South Norfolk district of Norfolk, England. According to the 2001 United Kingdom national census, the Bracon Ash and Hethel Parish covered an area of 9.84 km2 and had a population of 446 people, spread between 171 households.. The population at the 2011 census had increased to 460; the B1113 road runs through the village, about 6 1⁄2 miles south of the city of Norwich. Media related to Bracon Ash at Wikimedia Commons
Brooke is a village and civil parish in the South Norfolk district of Norfolk, about 7 miles south of Norwich and equidistant from Norwich and Bungay. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 1,242 in 554 households, including Howe the population increasing to 1,399 at the 2011 census; the church of Brooke St Peter is one of 124 existing round-tower churches in Norfolk. In common with most small Norfolk villages public services are few, however the village is better served than most by one primary school, a garage and petrol station, post office, farm store & butcher, two pubs including a popular restaurant. – An electoral ward of the same name exists. This ward had a total population of 2,662 at the 2011 Census. Sir Astley Paston Cooper, 1st Baronet, English surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, the pathology and surgery of hernia. Edward Brian Seago RBA ARWS RWS was an English artist who painted in both oils and watercolours, who lived at Brooke Lodge.
Bernard Matthews, founder of the poultry empire Bernard Matthews Farms, the son of a mechanic, was born in Brooke, in 1930. Transsexual model Caroline Cossey was born in Brooke on 31 August 1954, she appeared as a James Bond girl and was the first acknowledged transsexual to pose for Playboy magazine. Website with photos of Brooke St Peter, a round-tower church
Clavering hundred was a hundred – or geographical subdivision – comprising parishes and settlements in Essex and Norfolk. Hundreds were divisions of areas of land within shires or counties for administrative and judicial purposes – and for the collection of taxes. In the Domesday Book of 1086, there were 27 places listed as part of the hundred; the two largest settlements within the hundred were Raveningham, with 115.5 households - according to the Domesday Book - and Clavering, with 80 households. Clavering had the largest taxable value within the hundred. Bentfield Bury Berden Bollington Hall Clavering Farnham Manuden Peyton Hall Pinchpools Ugley Pledgdon Hall Aldeby Ellingham Gillingham Haddiscoe Hales Heckingham Kirby Cane Norton Subcourse Raveningham Stockton Thurlton Toft Monks WheatacreFour further Clavering hundred settlements in Norfolk - Ierpestuna, Naruestuna and Torvestuna - are mentioned in the Domesday Book, however these names no longer exist and the sites can only be located approximately.
List of Essex Hundreds in 1844 Hundreds of Essex Hundreds of Norfolk