Castambul is a small locality near Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the Adelaide Hills Council local government area. Castambul was named Sixth Creek, but was renamed Castambul by Price Maurice after the Kastamonu region in the Black Sea area of Turkey. In the 1850s, Australia's first payable gold mine was located in the area; the area was home to Price Maurice, who moved to Castambul in 1856 and bred Angora goats for wool. Angora goats were introduced from Turkey to South Australia by John Haigh, who bred them near Port Lincoln. After purchasing Haigh's flock, Maurice was impressed with their potential and soon sent to Turkey for additional animals, his enterprises in South Australia were successful but he returned to Britain with his family in 1862 for health reasons. Kastambul Post Office opened on an unknown date and closed at the end of 1971. Today little exists of the old settlement. In 1966, work started on the Kangaroo Creek Reservoir, a dam of the River Torrens, in 1969, it was completed at a cost of $5.3 million.
Apart from supplying water to eastern Adelaide, it serves a flood protection role and holds 19,160 megalitres. Castambul is located east of Montacute on the road out of Adelaide via Athelstone. Castambul has a CSR calcite quarry and tea gardens, both located on Gorge Road, the former Victoria Goldmine on Batchelor Road is a heritage-listed site; the area is not serviced by Adelaide public transport
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Electoral district of Heysen
Heysen is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It is named after a prominent South Australian landscape artist, it is a 1,074 km² electoral district that takes in some of the outer southern suburbs of Adelaide before fanning south-east to include most of the Adelaide Hills, as well as farming areas some distance from the capital. It includes the localities of Aldgate, Belvidere, Biggs Flat, Blackfellows Creek, Blewitt Springs, Bridgewater, Bugle Ranges, Bull Creek, Chapel Hill, Crafers, Dorset Vale, Flaxley, Green Hills Range, Highland Valley, Hope Forest, Jupiter Creek, Kuitpo, Kuitpo Colony, Longwood, Macclesfield, McHarg Creek, Montarra, Mount Magnificent, Paris Creek, Prospect Hill, Red Creek, Sandergrove, Scott Creek, Strathalbyn, The Range, Willunga Hill, Wistow, Yundi. Although geographically it is a hybrid urban-rural seat, it is counted as a metropolitan seat; as Heysen combines both wealthier suburbs in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills and rural areas further east, it has been a stronghold for the Liberal Party and its predecessor, the Liberal and Country League since its creation in the electoral redistribution of 1969 as a replacement for Stirling.
It was first contested at the 1970 election. It was abolished at the 1977 election, forcing then-member David Wotton to move to the seat of Murray. However, Wotton returned to Heysen, he subsequently held the seat until his retirement in 2002, when he was replaced by former opposition leader Isobel Redmond. Redmond was replaced by Josh Teague; the 1997 election saw the Democrats receive 47.9 percent of the two-candidate preferred vote, the closest they had come to a seat any Australian lower house. The 2002 election saw; the 2006 election saw their vote collapse with Labor being brought back into the two-candidate race. Out of 47 lower house seats, the SA Greens have polled strongest in Heysen. Greens candidate Lynton Vonow came within a few percent of winning the overlapping federal seat of Mayo at the 2008 by-election. Vonow contested Heysen for the Greens at the 2014 election and overtook the Labor candidate coming second after preferences with a 39 percent two-candidate preferred vote from a 19.7 percent primary vote.
The Greens polled well in neighbouring seats such as Kavel and Davenport with primary votes over 15 percent. The 2018 election saw Nick Xenophon's SA-BEST receive 48.2 percent of the two-candidate preferred vote in Heysen, the closest they came to winning a lower house seat. ECSA profile for Heysen: 2018 ABC profile for Heysen: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Heysen: 2018
Ashton, South Australia
Ashton is a town in South Australia. It was named by George Hunt in 1858 after his home Ashton in England. Ashton is from the old English word'aesctun', which means'ash tree town'; the Ashton General Store and post office was established in 1890 by Herbert and Emily Lovibond until 1941. During this time it was known as "Mrs Lovibonds Emporium". In 1986 the Post office was run by B & E Robertson and by C. Beauchamp but closed on 1 January 2009, although there is an adjoining community post office with restricted hours from 8-10am Monday to Friday; the Ashton oval was home to the Eastern Rangers Football Club until it merged with Uraidla Football Club in 1997. The clubrooms and grounds are still home to Eastern Ranges Cricket Club as well as a venue for Scout meetings and private functions; the venue is now home to the Rangers Junior Soccer club. Facilities include one football/cricket oval, practice nets, tennis courts, change rooms, bar and club rooms. Ashton Located in the town's center, the Ashton Hall is available for hire for public and private functions.
Facilities include full kitchen and external canteen windows, car park and stage in addition to the large, wood floored hall. The original inhabitants of this area were the Peramangk aboriginal people. Fruit orchards represent a significant part of the land history of Ashton. Yearly crops include cherries, lemons, pears as well as many other fruits and vegetables. In addition, Ashton is home to facilities for the cold storage of produce although today's ease of transport and close proximity to Adelaide has meant they aren't as extensively used as in the past. Ashton is located on Lobethal road 20 minutes or 17km from the Adelaide CBD; the simplest route from the City is North Terrace, Magill Road, Old Norton Summit Road, Lobethal Road. The Eastern Rangers Football Club was formed when the Lenswood Rangers Football Club, Ashton Football Club merged to form one club. Known as the saints, the Football club competed in the Hills Football League until the club merged with the neighboring Uraidla Football Club to form the Uraidla Districts Football Club.
The Eastern Rangers club tasted A Grade premiership success in just one season in 1987 in the Hills Football League's First Division. After tasting Premiership success the club struggled in the leagues first division and therefore moved to the HFL's second division; the club made one last shot at glory making the second division's grand final in 1995 but lost the game. After talks with the Uraidla football club the club decided to merge creating the Uraidla Districts football club; the new club tasted A grade premiership success in 2005 and were the front runners in the 2006 and 2007 season but lost the grand final to the Mount Lofty District Football Club
Adelaide Hills Council
Adelaide Hills Council is a local government area in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia. It is in the hills east of Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, extends from the South Para Reservoir in the north to the Mount Bold Reservoir in the south; the council was established in 1997 by the amalgamation of the District Council of East Torrens, the District Council of Gumeracha, the District Council of Onkaparinga and the District Council of Stirling. The current council as of November 2018 is: The Adelaide Hills Council contains the following suburbs and localities: Adelaide Hills Council website Adelaide Hills Council community profile
Crafers, South Australia
The town of Crafers is in the Adelaide Hills to the south-east of Adelaide, South Australia. Although technically considered to be an outer suburb of Adelaide, with many residents commuting to the city to work, locals consider Crafers to be more a suburb of the nearby township of Stirling. Crafers was moved to the area. With his wife he established an inn, the Sawyers Arms, in 1839 three years after South Australia was first settled, he built the Norfolk Arms on 16 acres in 1840 with banquet seating for 150. He moved to Adelaide and sold the Norfolk Arms in 1842, at which point it was known as The Crafers Inn. A new hotel was built on the site in 1880, remaining into the 21st century as The Crafers Inn, but the original building was burned down in 1926. At the time the area at the foot of nearby Mount Lofty was known as the Tiers, infamous for being the haunt of numerous Tiersmen and woodcutters on the run from authorities in Adelaide; the historic Crafers Primary School was first established in the area in 1865 by Mr Edward Smith.
The school was located in small premises in Atkinson Road, moved to its present location in Piccadilly Road in 1928. The historic stone and brick building was opened on 31 August of that year; the late 1970s saw extensive upgrading of the school facilities under Principal Allan Stanley-Smith, including construction of the Ruth Beare Hall in 1976 named after Ruth Beare who taught at the school from 1937 to 1944 and 1947 to 1975. The Church of the Epiphany, Epiphany Place, Crafers has played a prominent role in the life of the district since it was built in 1878 on land donated by Henry Scott, it has a splendid music tradition, a lively choir and one of the finest pipe-organs in South Australia. The Church of the Epiphany is a favourite church for many couples for their marriage service. For many years Crafers was well known for being the start point of the South Eastern Freeway linking Adelaide with the town of Murray Bridge, to the Princes Highway leading to Melbourne, it wasn't until 2000 that the Heysen Tunnels project was completed to extend the freeway to Glen Osmond on the outskirts of Adelaide.
Prior to the tunnel opening, the winding road from Adelaide to Glen Osmond via Eagle On The Hill was the scene of horrific vehicle accidents involving semi-trailers. The Mount Lofty Botanic Garden is nestled in the hills behind Crafers; the gardens, opened in 1977, include an extensive mix of European and Australian native plants and are at their finest in the spring months. On 16 February 1983, Crafers was hard hit by the Ash Wednesday bushfires. Many homes adjacent to bushland on the western side of the suburb were destroyed as the fire came roaring out of Cleland Conservation Park, the devastation would have been much worse if a change in weather had not occurred right when the township of Crafers itself was being threatened. A memorial on Mount Lofty Summit is dedicated to those in the Adelaide Hills who lost their lives that day. Crafers is under the administration of the Adelaide Hills Council, is in the state electoral district of Bragg and the federal electorate of Mayo. Crafers West is in the state electoral district of Heysen.
Crafers is well served by Adelaide Metro bus services throughout every day. Routes that operate through Crafers are: 830F, T840, 841F, T842, 860F, 863, 863F, T863, 864, 864F & 865 connect Crafers with the City. Route 830F continues to Lobethal, routes T840, T842, 860F, 864 & 864F continue to Mount Barker, routes 841F & T842 continue to Nairne. Routes 863, 863F, T863 & 865 continue to Aldgate. Routes that commence and terminate in Crafers are: 823, 865S, 866, 893 & 894. Route 823 continues to Cleland Wildlife Park. Routes 865S & 866 operate to Stirling and routes 893 & 894 operate to Blackwood interchange via Upper Sturt. Eurilla Conservation Park Adelaide Hills Council town history
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land, dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals. Floods can occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers.
While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry. Some floods develop while others such as flash floods can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or large, affecting entire river basins; the word "flood" comes from a word common to Germanic languages. Floods can happen on flat or low-lying areas when water is supplied by rainfall or snowmelt more than it can either infiltrate or run off; the excess accumulates in place, sometimes to hazardous depths. Surface soil can become saturated, which stops infiltration, where the water table is shallow, such as a floodplain, or from intense rain from one or a series of storms. Infiltration is slow to negligible through frozen ground, concrete, paving, or roofs.
Areal flooding begins in flat areas like floodplains and in local depressions not connected to a stream channel, because the velocity of overland flow depends on the surface slope. Endorheic basins may experience areal flooding during periods when precipitation exceeds evaporation. Floods occur in all types of river and stream channels, from the smallest ephemeral streams in humid zones to normally-dry channels in arid climates to the world's largest rivers; when overland flow occurs on tilled fields, it can result in a muddy flood where sediments are picked up by run off and carried as suspended matter or bed load. Localized flooding may be caused or exacerbated by drainage obstructions such as landslides, debris, or beaver dams. Slow-rising floods most occur in large rivers with large catchment areas; the increase in flow may be the result of sustained rainfall, rapid snow melt, monsoons, or tropical cyclones. However, large rivers may have rapid flooding events in areas with dry climate, since they may have large basins but small river channels and rainfall can be intense in smaller areas of those basins.
Rapid flooding events, including flash floods, more occur on smaller rivers, rivers with steep valleys, rivers that flow for much of their length over impermeable terrain, or normally-dry channels. The cause may be localized convective precipitation or sudden release from an upstream impoundment created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier. In one instance, a flash flood killed eight people enjoying the water on a Sunday afternoon at a popular waterfall in a narrow canyon. Without any observed rainfall, the flow rate increased from about 50 to 1,500 cubic feet per second in just one minute. Two larger floods occurred at the same site within a week, but no one was at the waterfall on those days; the deadly flood resulted from a thunderstorm over part of the drainage basin, where steep, bare rock slopes are common and the thin soil was saturated. Flash floods are the most common flood type in normally-dry channels in arid zones, known as arroyos in the southwest United States and many other names elsewhere.
In that setting, the first flood water to arrive is depleted. The leading edge of the flood thus advances more than and higher flows; as a result, the rising limb of the hydrograph becomes quicker as the flood moves downstream, until the flow rate is so great that the depletion by wetting soil becomes insignificant. Flooding in estuaries is caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by winds and low barometric pressure, they may be exacerbated by high upstream river flow. Coastal areas may be flooded by storm events at sea, resulting in waves over-topping defenses or in severe cases by tsunami or tropical cyclones. A storm surge, from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone, falls within this category. Research from the NHC explains: "Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm and above the predicted astronomical tides. Storm surge should not be confused with storm tide, defined as the water level rise due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.
This rise in water level can cause extreme flooding in coastal areas when storm surge coincides with normal high tide, resulting in storm tides reaching up to 20 feet or more in some cases." Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built environment in more densely populated areas, caused by rainfall overwhelmi