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Aldrich–Vreeland Act

The Aldrich–Vreeland Act was passed in response to the Panic of 1907 and established the National Monetary Commission, which recommended the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. On May 27, 1908, the bill passed the House on a party-line vote of 166–140, with 13 Republicans voting against it and no Democrats voting for it. On May 30, it passed in the Senate with 43 Republicans in favor and five Republicans joining 17 Democrats opposed. President Roosevelt signed the bill that same night; the act allowed national banks to start national currency associations in groups of ten or more, with at least $5 million in total capital, to issue emergency currency. These bank notes were to be backed by not just government bonds but just about any securities the banks were holding; the act proposed that this emergency currency had to go through a process of approval by the officers of these national currency associations and distributed by the Comptroller of the Currency. However, it is possible that because there was a 5 percent tax placed on this emergency currency for the first month it was "outstanding" and a 1 percent increase for the following months it was "outstanding," no bank notes were issued.

Another possible explanation that the emergency currency was never issued might have been that it was unnecessary. Congress modified and extended the law in 1914 when British and other foreign creditors demanded immediate payments, in gold, of amounts which would ordinarily have been carried over and paid through exports of commodities. Senator Nelson W. Aldrich was responsible for the Aldrich-Vreeland Currency Law and became the Chairman of the National Monetary commission; the co-sponsor of the legislation was a Republican from New York. A usage of the law occurred at the outbreak of the World War I in 1914 when the first great financial panic of the 20th century befell the world, necessitating the closure of the New York Stock Exchange. Secretary of the Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo appeared in New York City and assured the public that ample stocks of emergency banknotes had been prepared in accordance with the Aldrich–Vreeland Act and were available for issue to the banks; as of October 23, 1914, $368,616,990 was outstanding.

The Federal Reserve Act of December 23, 1913, took effect in November 1914 when the 12 regional banks opened for business. The emergency currency issued under the Aldrich-Vreeland Law was withdrawn. Silber, William L. "The Great Financial Crisis of 1914: What Can We Learn from Aldrich-Vreeland Emergency Currency?." American economic review: 285–289. Online Laughlin, J. Laurence. "The Aldrich-Vreeland Act." Journal of Political Economy 16#8 pp: 489–513. in JSTOR West, Robert Craig. Banking reform and the Federal Reserve, 1863-1923 Wicker, Elmus; the Great Debate on Banking Reform: Nelson Aldrich and the Origins of the Fed Federal Reserve History: 1908-1912: The Stage is Set for Decentralized Central Bank


Patrapur is one of the block headquarters of Ganjam district situated south of Odisha bordering to Andhra Pradesh. It is located southeast of Chikiti, it is one of the biggest villages of Ganjam district, having more than 15,000 people. Patrapur is a business center catering to surrounding villages; the major occupations are agriculture and self-employment. People are dependent on rain for crops. There are 3 Primary Schools, one Middle English School, one Girls' High School and one Co-educational High School. Banks like State Bank of India, Canara Bank, Co-operative Bank and important offices like JMFC Court, Block Office, Tahasil Office, Sub-Registrar Office, a Community Health Centre, Fire Station and other establishments encourage people from nearby villages to come to the town. People speak Odia as mother tongue, however Telugu is an additional language because Patrapur borders with Andhra Pradesh Thakurani Yatra is celebrated with much funfair, around 50000 people gather daily for 10 days of the yatra.

A news story about Patrapur

George Lam

George Lam Tse Cheung known professionally by his surname Lam, is a Hong Kong-based veteran Cantopop singer, singer-songwriter, music producer and actor. He has remained popular for more than four decades. Lam produces most of his own albums, writes many of his own songs writes for other artists, covers other people's songs, he is many of his LP/CD cover designs. Being innovative, he came up with the first Cantopop rap, "Ah Lam's Diary", with lyrics written by himself. In addition, he pioneered the stringing together of many hit Cantopop songs to create a 10-minute long medley called "10 Minutes 12 Inches". Over the years, he has introduced a wide variety of songs to the Hong Kong music scene, with many of his own compositions and covers becoming classics of Cantopop. One of his special talents is in picking which songs to do covers of among a wide variety of sources, including songs from the United Kingdom, United States, Continental Europe, Middle East, Latin America, etc; the songs he chose for such covers range from classical music, songs from musicals, Hebrew folk song, to funk and rock and roll.

His own compositions and covers encompass a wide stylistic range, from country rock and blues, rock and roll, jazz, Chinese-style tunes to tango and bossa nova. He is skillful in interpreting and performing all songs in his own inimitable style. Lam is known for excelling in many different genres of music, he can sing powerfully in fast rhythmic numbers and in a heartfelt way in romantic ballads. In recognition of his contribution to the music scene, Lam was awarded numerous awards, including the Golden Needle Award in 1994, the CASH Hall of Fame Award in 2003, the J. S. G. Lifetime Achievement Award in 2015, the RTHK Hall of Fame Award in 2016. In addition to his singing career, Lam has acted in many films, making his film debut in Luckies Trio in 1978, his most memorable role was as a Japanese journalist in Boat People, directed by Ann Hui. Lam was born in Hong Kong, he was born with both his father and paternal grandfather being doctors. He attended Tak Sun Primary School Diocesan Boys' School, a predominantly English-language boys school, where he was a boarder.

At the latter school, he chose to study French rather than Chinese. Lam started to pick up music at a young age, his grandfather took him to movies, both Chinese and Western ones, which exposed him to film music. In addition, his mom loved to sing and dance while his dad loved listening to music and playing piano. All this constant music around him kindled his interest in this art form, he started to love listening to music on the radio when he was a teenager and taught himself to play guitar. In 1965, Lam left Hong Kong to further his studies in the U. K. During this time and his subsequent stay in the United States his musical horizon was further broadened by exposure to a great variety of musical genres in those countries; when he first went to the U. K. in 1965, he attended Dover College under the headship of Timothy Cobb. His long time pal Ching Y. Wong, S. C. went to the college from Diocesan Boys' School. After about a year, he transferred to Barcote School of Coaching to join Tony. There he formed The Midnighters, with two friends.

Lam paid a return visit to both colleges in January 2019. After his studies in the U. K. Lam worked for a few years there before moving to California, where he coached tennis and worked in a stock brokerage firm, it was at this time. Not long thereafter, he returned to Hong Kong to launch his music career. Lam was one of the lead singers in a band called "Jade". In 1976, he went solo with his first English album,"Lam", his first Cantonese album came out in 1978. In 1980, both his own compositions《在水中央》and《分分鐘需要你》won the Top Ten Chinese Gold Songs Awards. Throughout the 1980s, Lam had 23 songs that topped the RTHK Chinese Pop Chart, second only to Alan Tam, who had 28. Lam has hosted some TV music programs, acted in some TV dramas, played lead roles in many films. In May 2003, Lam accidentally fell down a 2.5-metre deep floor opening while he was performing on stage at the Hong Kong Coliseum as a guest of Lisa Wang. This fall injured his right ear, which lost part of its hearing in high frequencies, resulted in tinnitus.

Thereafter, he could only hear sounds in mono. A few months after his injury, he purposely put on a series of concerts in southern China to get used to his new hearing problems. Within a short period of time, he managed to adapt to this new reality and was able to perform well on stage and resume his career in full. Lam has remained popular in Hong Kong for more than four decades. Over time, Lam has not only gained the recognition and respect of his peers such as Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, Paula Tsui, he has played a part in shaping the Hong Kong music scene, as many of today's top singers such as Eason Chan, Hacken Lee, Andy Lau were influenced by his music. Lam married Ng Ching Yuen in 1980. Together, they have a son, Alex Lam Tak Shun, a singer and actor, a daughter. Lam and Ng divorced in 1994. On 17 July 1996, he married actress Sally Yeh. Lam has a wide tenor range, his highest notes could reach F5, D#6 in full head voice and volume rather than soft falsetto, a rock-like break in his voice.

His lowest note is G2, ten notes below middle C. Cantonese Albums: 各師各法 抉擇 摩登土佬 一個人 活色生香 海市蜃樓 愛情故事 愛到發燒 林子祥創作歌集 林子祥85特輯 十分十二吋 誘

Screen-Free Week

Screen-Free Week is an annual event where children, families and communities are encouraged to turn off screens and "turn on life". Instead of relying on television programming for entertainment, participants read, explore, enjoy nature, spend time with family and friends. Over 300 million people have taken part with millions participating each year. In 2010, Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood became the home of Screen-Free Week at the request of the Board of the Center for SCREEN-TIME Awareness, which ran the initiative since 1994. CCFC launched a new website and developed a new Organizer's Kit, fact sheets, other materials for Screen-Free Week 2011 and beyond; the Screen-Free Week Organizer's Kit is available as a free download. In 1994, the week was first championed by TV-Free America, promoted by Adbusters magazine and other organizations. TV-Free America became Center for SCREEN-TIME Awareness. CSTA was an organization that encouraged all people to use electronic screen media responsibly and have more time for a healthy life and more community participation.

It was a grassroots alliance of many different organizations, with participation in over 70 nations around the world. Screen Free week happens in Canada. CCFC changed the name of TV-Turnoff to Screen-Free Week in 2010, since entertainment media are delivered through a variety of screens, not just traditional television commercials. In 2008, Adbusters changed the name of TV Turnoff Week to Digital Detox Week to reflect the growing predominance of computers and other digital devices; the 2019 event took place from 29 April to 5 May. Important members of the network include Adbusters in Canada and White Dot in the UK. A related organization, Asesores TV La Familia Internacional, works in many countries with large Spanish-speaking populations. In France, Casseurs de pub is part of the event. In Brazil, Instituto Alana promotes. More than seventy other organizations, such as the American Heart Association, the American Medical Association, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America the YMCA, the Association of Waldorf Schools of North America support the movement in the US.

In 2004, a major partnership was created with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Culture jamming Digital addict Digital detox Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television History of television Media psychology Social aspects of television Television studies Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. USA: Penguin. ISBN 0-670-80454-1. Postman, Neil; the Disappearance of Childhood. London: Vintage. ISBN 0-679-75166-1. Jean Lotus. Get a Life!. Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. ISBN 0-7475-3689-9. Cheryl Pawlowski. Glued to the tube: the threat of television addiction to today's society. Naperville, Ill: Sourcebooks. ISBN 1-57071-459-2. Marie McClendon. Alternatives to TV Handbook. Whole Human Beans Co. ISBN 0-9712524-0-8. Winn, Marie; the plug-in drug: television and family life. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-200108-2. Ellen Currey-Wilson; the Big Turnoff: Confessions of a TV-Addicted Mom Trying to Raise a TV-Free Kid. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. ISBN 1-56512-539-8.

"Turning Off the TV" article at The Washington Post. April 24, 2006. Accessed December 23, 2008. Official website Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood Adbusters Media Foundation

Emmy Drachmann

Emmy Drachmann was a Danish writer and the wife of Holger Drachmann. Emmy Drachmann was born as the youngest of nine children parented by Frederik Leopold Culmsee and Nicoline Rasmussen, she grew up at the Havreholm Paper Mill which her father owned. She first met Holger Drachmann, a friend of her elder brother, when he visited Havreholm in 1866. At the age of 13, Emmy moved to Kristiania with her parents and stayed there until 1876 when she moved to Hamburg to study language. Drachmann paid her a visit but when she realized it was due to his interest in her sister Polly Thalbitzer she left for England where she assumed a position as German teacher in a pastor's house. During a holiday with friends in Hamburg in 1878, she was contacted by Drachmann's sister who informed her about the writer's breakdown after Polly had left him, she went to Copenhagen to nurse him and they were married in St Paul's Church on 17 May 1879. They had four more children, their marriage marked the beginning of a productive period for Holger Drachmann.

Emmy assisted him with the translation of Byron's Don Juan. She translated Gottfried Keller's Der grüne Heinrich as well as works by authors such as Rudolf Baumbach, Peter Rosegger, Sergey Stepnyak-Kravchinsky and Peter Kropotkin. In 1887, Holger Drachmann began an affair with the cabaret singer "Edith" and in 1892 left their home. Emmy Drachmann travelled with her children to Dresden, where they lived for five years while she began her career as an author. Emmy and Holger Drachmann were divorced in 1903, she is buried at Vestre Cemetery in Copenhagen. Emmy Drachmann published the novel Grevinde Cossel in 1899, it was followed by Villa Mackenzie, Inger, a fictional account of her marriage, Mødre. Her memoir Erindringer. Barndom og Ungdom til 1883 was published in 1925

The Broken Hearted Bride

The Broken Hearted Bride is the 17th studio album by English band Strawbs. "The Call to Action" – 7:38 "Christmas Cheer" – 4:39 "Too Many Angels" – 5:55 "The Broken Hearted Bride" – 5:11 "Shadowland" – 4:48 "Through Aphrodite's Eyes" – 7:26 "Deep in the Darkest Night" – 4:38 "You Know as Well as I" – 3:44 "Everybody Knows" – 4:30 "Action Replay" – 4:54 "We'll Meet Again Sometime" – 6:02 Dave Cousins – lead vocals, backing vocals, keyboards Dave Lambert – lead vocals, backing vocals, guitar Chas Cronk – backing vocals, bass guitar, keyboards, programming Rod Coombes – drumsAdditional personnelJohn Hawken – keyboards Ian Cutler – fiddle The Big Deal Choir – vocalsSteve Grant Vince Martyn Gordon May Chris Tophill Howard Werth Sophie Morish Charlotte Tophill Elizabeth Tophill Frances Tophill The Broken Hearted Bride on Strawbsweb