Walsall is a large industrialised market town in the West Midlands. Part of Staffordshire, it is located 8 miles north-west of Birmingham, 6 miles east of Wolverhampton and 9 miles from Lichfield. Walsall is the administrative centre of the wider Metropolitan Borough of Walsall. At the 2011 census, the town's built-up area had a population of 67,594, with the wider borough having a population of 269,323; the name Walsall is thought to have derived from the words "Walh halh", meaning "valley of the Welsh speakers". Walsall is first referenced as'Walesho' in a document dated 1002; as a result of a clerical error, it is not referred to in the Domesday Book, while the settlements of Aldridge, Shelfield, Bloxwich, Great Barr and Rushall within the Metropolitan Borough are. However, it is believed that a manor was held here by William FitzAnsculf, who held numerous manors in the Midlands. By the first part of the 13th century, Walsall was a small market town, with the weekly market being introduced in 1220 and held on Tuesdays.
The mayor of Walsall was created as a political position in the 14th century. Queen Mary's Grammar School was founded in 1554, the school carries the queen's personal badge as its emblem: the Tudor Rose and the sheaf of arrows of Mary's mother Catherine of Aragon tied with a Staffordshire Knot; the town was visited by Queen Elizabeth I, when it was known as'Walshale'. It was visited by Henrietta Maria in 1643, she stayed in the town for one night at a building named the'White Hart' in the area of Caldmore. The Industrial Revolution changed Walsall from a village of 2,000 people in the 16th century to a town of over 86,000 in 200 years; the town manufactured a wide range of products including saddles, chains and plated ware. Nearby, limestone quarrying provided the town with much prosperity. In 1824, the Walsall Corporation received an Act of Parliament to improve the town by providing lighting and a gasworks; the gasworks was built in 1826 at a cost of £4,000. In 1825, the corporation built, they were known to the area as'Molesley's Almshouses'.
The'Walsall Improvement and Market Act' was passed in 1848 and amended in 1850. The Act provided facilities for the poor and extending the sewerage system and giving the commissioners the powers to construct a new gas works. On 10 October 1847, a gas explosion killed one person and destroyed the west window of St Matthew's Church. Walsall received a railway line in 1847, 48 years after canals reached the town, Bescot having been served since 1838 by the Grand Junction Railway. In 1855, Walsall's first newspaper, the Walsall Courier and South Staffordshire Gazette, was published; the Whittimere Street drill hall was completed in 1866. Over 2000 men from Walsall were killed in fighting during the First World War, they are commemorated by the town's cenotaph:, located on the site of a bomb, dropped by Zeppelin'L 21' – killing the town's mayoress, two others. Damage from the Zeppelin can still be seen on what is now a club on the corner of the main road, just opposite a furniture shop. A plaque commemorates the incident.
The town has a memorial to two local VC recipients, John Henry Carless and Frederick Gibbs. Walsall's first cinema opened in the town centre in 1908; the first Wurlitzer theatre organ in Great Britain was installed in the New Picture House cinema in Lower Bridge Street in the town centre. It was renamed the Gaumont Odeon. Slum clearances began after the end of World War I, with thousands of 19th-century buildings around the town centre being demolished as the 20th century wore on, with new estates being built away from the town centre during the 1920s and 1930s; these were concentrated in areas to the north of the town centre such as Coal Pool, Blakenall Heath and Harden. After the end of World War II, Beechdale. Significant developments took place nearer to the town centre during the 1960s when a host of tower blocks were built around the town centre; the Memorial Gardens opened in 1952 in honour of the town's fallen combatants of the two world wars. The Old Square Shopping Centre, a modern indoor shopping complex featuring many big retail names, opened in 1969.
The Old Square shopping centre is laying derelict, with shops set to open in the centre soon. Primark and The Co-operative have opened in the former Tesco store, after the supermarket chained moved to Littleton Street by the college. A row of derelict shops were demolished in 2016, rebuilt as a Poundland, which opened on Saturday 15 July 2017, B & M, which opened on 17 August 2017; the Entertainer Ltd. opened a store on 21 October 2017. The County Borough of Walsall, which consisted of Walsall and Bloxwich, was expanded in 1966 to incorporate most of Darlaston and Willenhall, as well as small parts of Bilston and Wednesbury; the current Metropolitan Borough of Walsall was formed in 1974 when Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District was incorporated into Walsall. At the same time, Walsall was transferred from the historic county of Staffordshire to become part of the new West Midlands county; the Saddlers Centre, a modern shopping mall, opened in 1980. On 23 November 1981, an F1/T2 tornado touched down in Bloxwich and moved over parts of Walsall town centre and surrounding suburbs, causing some damage.
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Aldridge is a large village in the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall, West Midlands, England. Part of Staffordshire, in 1974 it was incorporated into the borough of Walsall, having been an independent local authority. Aldridge is an affluent area of the West Midlands that has private homes built since the 1920s. Aldridge was recorded as a settlement in the Domesday Book of 1086, though the now much larger settlement of Walsall was not, it was valued at 15 shillings under the name of "Alrewic", which may have originated from an abundance of Alder trees in the area. Aldridge began as a small agricultural settlement, with farming being the most common occupation up until the 19th century. In the 1800s, Aldridge became an industrial town with coal mines and lime kilns; the coal and clay in the area prompted many to set up brickworks. Aldridge clay is useful in the manufacture of blue bricks; the 1881 census shows that the brickworks were major employers. Because the coal and clay beneath the eastern side of Aldridge is located much deeper under the surface, extraction of this coal and clay would not have been economically viable.
As a result, farms continued to dominate the eastern part, though a sand quarry was set up and still remains on Birch Lane. During the 20th century, modern shops were built in the centre of Aldridge, as well as council buildings. After the Second World War Aldridge became suburb, of Birmingham. A small airport called Aldridge Airport was used during the Second World War and after was used for passenger services. Aldridge became an urban district in Staffordshire in 1894. Other villages within the district included Pelsall, Walsall Wood and Streetly; this merged with Brownhills in 1966 to form Aldridge-Brownhills, became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall in 1974.. The recorded population in 2011 in 26,988. Since 1979, Aldridge's MP was the MP for Aldridge-Brownhills, he stood down at the 2015 General Election. In May 2015 Wendy Morton was selected as the new MP. Aldridge-Brownhills is a safe Conservative seat. Aldridge is made up of two council wards: Aldridge North & Walsall Wood. There are three Conservative Councillors for Aldridge Central & South: John Murray, John Rochelle & Tim Wilson.
Aldridge North & Walsall Wood is covered by three Conservative councillors: Keith Sears, Anthony Harris and Gary Clarke. Aldridge has a number of secondary schools; the primary schools are Jordan, Leighswood, St Mary of the Angels and Whetstone Field. The secondary schools are Aldridge St Francis of Assisi Catholic Technology College. In Aldridge there are a number of factories located on Empire Industrial Park, but towards Walsall Wood along the main road, Northgate; some of the most notable factories include the large Ibstock brick works, the GKN Driveshafts factory, although both of the latter companies have closed in recent years due to relocation and cheaper foreign imports. Birlec, a manufacturer of industrial furnaces relocated to Aldridge in the late 1950s, but has since closed. Aldridge Plastics Ltd, a plastics injection moulder, was set up in the village in 1968 and continued trading for 40 years before ceasing production in 2007. From January 2011, GFP Engineering Ltd, a Glass Reinforced Plastic moulding company, will commence trading after relocating from nearby Lichfield.
There is a marina, Aldridge Marina, which underwent full refurbishment offering facilities for canal boat moorers. Most of the village's shops are located either on High Street, Anchor Road, or in the shopping area known as "The Parade". Well-known shops here include WH Smith, Iceland supermarket, Home Bargains, Boots The Chemist. A purpose-built Safeway opened in 1992 and started operating as a Morrisons from 2004. B & M took over the former Focus DIY in Coppice Lane and opened its doors for the first time on the 1st August 2015. One of the oldest traders in Aldridge is R. H. N. Riley Insurances on Anchor Rd, they have been trading since 1957 and in Aldridge since about 1970. In the area is the newly opened Wetherspoons Public House - it's on the site of the former Avion cinema, latterly a bingo hall before the transition to pub. Many of the original features have been retained including the protected facade. There are a good deal of eateries in the town and these are enjoyed by locals and travellers from further afield.
Aldridge is served by local bus services. Many of the buses in Aldridge were renumbered in April 2010 as part of National Express West Midlands' attempt to simplify bus services in and around the Walsall area. Bus operators operating services through Aldridge are Arriva Midlands, Igo the WMSNT and NXWM. Aldridge had a station on the Sutton Park Line running to Walsall that operated services for passengers; the station was closed in 1966 and since the line has been used only for freight. Ongoing speculation about returning passenger services to Aldridge, which would require a new station to be built, has continued with the apparent inclusion of Aldridge and Streetly stations on a map in the 2016 West Midlands Strategic Transport Plan. Aldridge has a cricket and hockey club called "The Stick and Wicket", located on the green behind the parish church, St. Mary's, the Masonic Hall. Aldridge Hockey Club merged with Walsall Hockey Club in 2011. Aldridge Sailing Club was formed in 1967 and is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2017.
It offers regular training courses. It is located on Barns lane / Stubbers Gr
Sutton Coldfield the Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield, is a town and civil parish in Birmingham, West Midlands, England. The town lies about 7 miles northeast of Birmingham City Centre and borders Little Aston, North Warwickshire, Lichfield and South Staffordshire, its 2011 Census population was 95,107 – an increase of 6.7% since the 2001 Census. In Warwickshire, it became part of Birmingham and the West Midlands metropolitan county in 1974. In 2015, the village elected a Parish/Town Council for the first time in its recent history, it is an affluent town, encompassing the Four Oaks Park Estate and bordering the Little Aston Park private estate where many of the region's wealthiest residents live. The etymology of the name Sutton appears to be from "South Town"; the name "Sutton Coldfield" appears to come from this time, being the "south town" on the edge of the "col field". "Col" is derived from "charcoal", charcoal burners being active in the area. The earliest known signs of human presence in Sutton Coldfield were discovered in 2001–2003 on the boundaries of the town.
Archaeological surveys undertaken in preparation for the construction of the M6 Toll road revealed evidence of Bronze Age burnt mounds near Langley Mill Farm, at Langley Brook. Additionally, evidence for a Bronze Age burial mound was discovered, one of only two in Birmingham with the other being located in Kingstanding. Excavations uncovered the presence of an Iron Age settlement, dating to around 400 and 100 BC, consisting of circular houses built over at least three phases surrounded by ditches. Closer to Langley Brook, excavations uncovered the remains of a single circular house surrounded by ditches, dating from the same period. Near to Langley Mill Farm is Fox Hollies, where archaeological surveys have uncovered flints dating from the New Stone Age. Amongst the finds in the area were flint cores and a flint scraper, retouched with a knife; the presence of flint cores suggest that the site was used for tool manufacture and that a settlement was nearby. Additionally, a Bronze Age burnt mound was discovered in the area.
In his History of Birmingham, published in 1782, William Hutton describes the presence of three mounds adjacent to Chester Road on the extremities of Sutton Coldfield. The site, southwest of Bourne Pool, is called Loaches Banks and was mapped as early as 1752 by Dr. Wilks of Willenhall. Hutton interpreted the earthworks as a Saxon fortification but further archaeological work led Dr. Mike Hodder, now the Planning Archaeologist for Birmingham City Council, to believe that the site was an Iron Age hill-slope enclosure. Centuries of agriculture on the land has affected the visibility of the features, with the earthworks now only apparent in aerial photography. Further evidence of pre-Roman human habitation are preserved in Sutton Park. A major fire in the park in 1926 revealed six more mounds near Streetly Lane, excavations of which uncovered charred and cracked stones within them and pits below the two largest mounds. Although their date of origin is unknown, claims they were of Bronze Age origin were disproved.
The mounds are now covered in rough heathland. The area around Rowton's Well has been the source of many archaeological discoveries such as flint tools, in the 18th century, worked timbers were discovered near the well, suggesting a possible Iron Age timber trackway built across wet land, similar to others discovered elsewhere in the country. A burnt mound was discovered in New Hall Valley; the presence of Romans in the area is most visible in Sutton Park, where a 1.5-mile long preserved section of Icknield Street passes through. Whilst the road connects Gloucestershire to South Yorkshire, the road was important for connecting Metchley Fort in Edgbaston with Letocetum, now Wall, in Staffordshire; the road is most visible from near to the pedestrian gate on Thornhill Road, where the 8 m wide bank that formed the road surface is most prominent. Excavations at the road have showed that it was made from compacted gravel, never having a paved surface. Along each side are intermittent ditches, marked by Roman engineers, beyond these are hollows where gravel was excavated to make the road surface.
At least three Roman coins have been found along the course of Icknield Street through Sutton Park, as well as a Roman pottery kiln elsewhere in the town. Next to the Iron Age property at Langley Brook, the remains of a timber building and field system were discovered. Pottery recovered from this site was dated to the 2nd and 3rd century, indicating the presence of a Roman farmstead. Upon the Roman withdrawal from Britain to protect the Roman Empire on the continent in the 5th century, the area of Sutton Coldfield, still undeveloped, passed into the Anglo Saxon kingdom of Mercia, it is during this period that it is believed Sutton Coldfield may have originated as a hamlet, as a hunting lodge was built at Maney Hill for the purpose of the Mercian leaders. The outline of the deer park that it served is still visible within Sutton Park, with the ditch and bank boundary forming the western boundary of Holly Hurst crossing Keepers Valley, through the Lower Nuthurst and continuing on south of Blackroot Pool.
Due to the marshy ground at Blackroot Valley, a fence was constructed to contain the deer, the ditch and bank boundary commence again on the eastern side, on towards Holly Knoll. This became known as Sutton. Middleton is situated between the two. "Coldfi
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It borders with Cheshire to the northwest and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the southeast, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, Shropshire to the west; the largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority. Lichfield has city status, although this is a smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Tamworth. Smaller towns include Stone, Uttoxeter, Burntwood/Chasetown, Eccleshall and the large villages of Wombourne, Tutbury, Barton-under-Needwood and Abbots Bromley. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest and the Peak District national park. Wolverhampton, West Bromwich and Smethwick are within the historic county boundaries of Staffordshire, but since 1974 have been part of the West Midlands county. Apart from Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire is divided into the districts of Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Staffordshire Moorlands, Tamworth.
Staffordshire was divided into five hundreds: Cuttlestone, Pirehill and Totmonslow. The historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands. An administrative county of Staffordshire was set up in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 covering the county except the county boroughs of Wolverhampton and West Bromwich in the south, Hanley in the north; the Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united in Staffordshire. In 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county corporate, meaning it was administered separately from the rest of Staffordshire, it remained so until 1888. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, thus associated with Warwickshire. Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, became the single county borough of Stoke-on-Trent.
A significant boundary change occurred in 1926 when the east of Sedgley was transferred to Worcestershire to allow the construction of the new Priory Estate on land purchased by Dudley County Borough council. A major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs; the County Borough of Warley was formed by the merger of the county borough of Smethwick and municipal borough of Rowley Regis with the Worcestershire borough of Oldbury: the resulting county borough was associated with Worcestershire. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley a detached part of Worcestershire and became associated with Staffordshire instead; this reorganisation led to the administrative county of Staffordshire having a thin protrusion passing between the county boroughs and Shropshire, to the west, to form a short border with Worcestershire. Under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 the county boroughs of the Black Country and the Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District of Staffordshire became, along with Birmingham and Coventry and other districts, a new metropolitan county of West Midlands.
County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a non-metropolitan district in Staffordshire, Burton forming an unparished area in the district of East Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, Stoke-on-Trent became a unitary authority independent of Staffordshire once more. In July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield; the artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively been dated to the 7th or 8th centuries, placing the origin of the items in the time of the Kingdom of Mercia. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Staffordshire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling; some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society, based in Leek. JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and Bet365, based in Stoke-on-Trent.
The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the world's largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent. Staffordshire has a comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18. Resources are shared. There are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury; the modern county of Staffordshire has three professional football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent. Stoke City, one of the oldest professional football clubs in existence, were founded in 1863 and played at the Victoria Ground for 119 years from 1878 until their relocation to the Britannia Stadium in 1997, they were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888. By the late 1930s, they were establi
Birmingham is the second-most populous city in the United Kingdom, after London, the most populous city in the English Midlands. It is the most populous metropolitan district in the United Kingdom, with an estimated 1,137,123 inhabitants, is considered the social, cultural and commercial centre of the Midlands, it is the main local government of the West Midlands conurbation, the third most populated urban area in the United Kingdom, with a population of 2,897,303 in 2017. The wider Birmingham metropolitan area is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a population of over 4.3 million. It is referred to as the United Kingdom's "second city". A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".
Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided an economic base for prosperity, to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham; the resulting high level of social mobility fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain, was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz; the damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn, its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most. People from Birmingham are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates from the city's old name, which in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham"; the Brummie accent and dialect are distinctive. Birmingham's early history is that of a marginal area; the main centres of population and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham area dating back to around 8000 BC, with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling; the many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area. During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions, who built the large Metchley Fort in the area of modern-day Edgbaston in AD 48, made it the focus of a network of Roman roads. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
The city's name comes from the Old English Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name. Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Birmingham was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings, with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. This established Birmingham as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding with population growth nationally leading to the clearance and settlement of marginal land.
Within a century of the charter Birmingham had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen. By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire, a position it would retain for the next 200 years; the principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham – including the Guild of the Ho
University of Portsmouth
The University of Portsmouth is a public university in the city of Portsmouth, England. The history of the university dates back to 1908, when the Park building opened as a Municipal college and public library, it was known as Portsmouth Polytechnic until 1992, when it was granted university status through the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. It is ranked among the Top 100 universities under 50 in the world; the university offers a range of disciplines, from Pharmacy, International relations and politics, to Mechanical Engineering, Criminology, Criminal Justice, among others. The Guardian University Guide 2018 ranked its Sports Science number one in England, while Criminology, Social Work, Graphic Design and Fashion and Textiles courses are all in the top 10 across all universities in the UK. Furthermore, 89% of its research conducted in Physics, 90% of its research in Allied Health Professions have been rated as world-leading or internationally excellent in the most recent Research Excellence Framework.
The University is a member of the University Alliance and The Channel Islands Universities Consortium. Alumni include Grayson Perry, Simon Armitage and Ben Fogle. Portsmouth was named the UK's most affordable city for students in the Natwest Student Living Index 2016. On Friday 4 May 2018, the University of Portsmouth was revealed as the main shirt sponsor of Portsmouth F. C. for the 2018–19, 2019–20 and 2020–21 seasons. The history of the university dates to 1908, when the Park building opened as a Municipal college and public library; the focus was on engineering. The roots of the University can be traced back further to the Portsmouth and Gosport School of Science and the Arts. Shortly after in the year of 1911 a Student Union was established. From 1945 to 1960 the college diversified its syllabus adding arts and humanities subjects after World War II, in response to a decline in the need for engineering skills; this did not hinder its expansion or reputation, as from 1960 to 1980 it opened the Frewen library, gained Polytechnic status and became one of the largest polytechnics by the late 1980s.
On 7 July 1992 the inauguration of the University of Portsmouth was celebrated at a ceremony at Portsmouth Guildhall. As a new university, it could validate its own degrees, under the provision of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992; the university is split between the University Quarter, centred around the Portsmouth Guildhall area, the Langstone Campus. Langstone is the smaller of the two campuses, located in Milton on the eastern edge of Portsea Island; the campus overlooks Langstone Harbour and it is home to the university's sports grounds. It houses a restaurant for the students and provides accommodation for 565 students in three halls of residence: Queen Elizabeth Queen Mother, Trust Hall and Langstone Flats. Langstone Campus used to be home of the University's School of Languages and Area Studies, which has since moved into Park Building in the University Quarter; the University Quarter is a collection of university buildings located around the centre of the city. This area contains most of the university's teaching facilities and nearly all of the Student Halls of residence (except the Langstone student village and two halls located on Southsea Terrace.
The University Library was extended in 2006 at a cost of £11 million. It was opened by the crime writer P. D. James; the University has recently invested in the Faculty of Science, in particular by renovating the aluminium-clad main building, St Michael's, adjacent to James Watson Hall, named after the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. A new faculty called "Creative and Cultural Industries" was opened in September 2006, it provides a unique environment in which all aspects of creative thinking will flourish and develop by combining creative schools from across the university. On 7 June 2013, the University of Portsmouth announced its partnership with the Military Technological College of Oman; this involves the University of Portsmouth providing academic guidance and academic accreditation for the education of 4,200 students with technical roles in armed services and a few civilian employers in the Sultanate of Oman. This has been criticised by the student Amnesty International Society and by Campaign Against the Arms Trade who consider Oman an authoritarian regime to use military capabilities on their own citizens or in regional conflicts.
Portsmouth is formally headed by the Chancellor Karen Blackett. The Chancellor is a ceremonial role; this includes Pro Vice-Chancellors, the Director of Finance and the Deans of faculties, together with the Chief Operating Officer, the Director of Human Resources and the University Secretary and Clerk. The University of Portsmouth is composed of five faculties divided into 29 departments: The University of Portsmouth is worth £1.1 billion to the British economy and brings £476 million to the city, an independent assessment in 2017 has shown. Portsmouth offers more than 200 undergraduate degrees and 150 postgraduate degrees, as well as 65 research degree programs; the university validated BSc degrees in Acupuncture and MSc courses in Traditional Chinese medicine that were carried out by the London College of Traditional Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, a private education provider that collapsed in early 2011. Over 60% of research submitted by the University to REF2014 was rated as world-
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate