Jon Stewart is an American comedian, producer, actor, media critic, and former television host. He was the host of The Daily Show, a news program on Comedy Central. Stewart started as a comedian, but branched into television as host of Short Attention Span Theater for Comedy Central. He went on to host his own show on MTV, The Jon Stewart Show and he has had several film roles as an actor, but has done few cinematic projects since becoming the host of The Daily Show in 1999. He was a writer and co-executive producer of the show, after Stewart joined, The Daily Show steadily gained popularity and critical acclaim, and his work won 22 Primetime Emmy Awards. Stewart has gained acclaim as an acerbic, satirical critic of personality-driven media shows, in particular those of the U. S. media networks such as CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC. Critics say Stewart benefits from a standard, he critiques other news shows from the safe. Stewart agrees, saying that neither his nor his channel purports to be anything other than satire.
In spite of its self-professed entertainment mandate, The Daily Show has been nominated for news, Stewart hosted the 78th and 80th Academy Awards. He is the co-author of America, A Citizens Guide to Democracy Inaction, which was one of the books in the U. S. in 2004. Stewarts final show aired on August 6,2015, Stewarts family is Jewish, and emigrated to the U. S. from Poland and Belarus, one of his grandfathers was born in Manzhouli. Stewart is the second of four sons, with older brother Lawrence and younger brothers Dan, Stewarts parents divorced when Stewart was eleven years old, and Stewart was apparently largely estranged from his father. Because of his relationship with his father, which in 2015 he described as still complicated, he dropped his surname and began using his middle name. Stewart stated, There was a thought of using my mothers maiden name, yet people always view through the prism of ethnic identity. He had his surname changed to Stewart in 2001. Stewart and his brother Lawrence, who was previously the Chief Operating Officer of NYSE Euronext, grew up in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, according to Stewart, he was subjected to anti-Semitic bullying as a child.
He describes himself in school as very into Eugene Debs. Stewart grew up in the era of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal and his first job was working at a Woolworths at which his brother Lawrence worked, and jokingly describes being fired by Lawrence as one of the scarring events of his youth
Caterpillars /ˈkætərˌpɪlər/ are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera. As with most common names, the application of the word is arbitrary, caterpillars of most species are herbivorous, but not all, some are insectivorous, even cannibalistic. Some feed on other products, for example clothes moths feed on wool. Caterpillars as a rule are voracious feeders and many of them are among the most serious of agricultural pests. In fact many moth species are best known in their caterpillar stages because of the damage cause to fruits and other agricultural produce, whereas the moths are obscure. Conversely, various species of caterpillar are valued as sources of silk, as human or animal food, the origins of the word caterpillar date from the early 16th century. They derive from Middle English catirpel, probably an alteration of Old North French catepelose, cat + pelose, caterpillars have soft bodies that can grow rapidly between moults. Only the head capsule is hardened, the mandibles are tough and sharp for chewing leaves.
Behind the mandibles of the caterpillar are the spinnerets, for manipulating silk, antennae are present on either side of the labrum, but small and relatively inconspicuous. Some larvae of the Hymenoptera order can appear like the caterpillars of the Lepidoptera, such larvae are mainly seen in the sawfly family. Caterpillars can be confused with the larvae of sawflies, lepidopteran larvae can be differentiated by, the numbers of pairs of pro-legs, sawfly larvae have 6 while caterpillars have up to 5 pairs. The number of stemmata, the larvae have only two, while a caterpillar has six. The presence of crochets on the prolegs, these are absent in the Symphyta, sawfly larvae have an invariably smooth head capsule with no cleavage lines, while lepidopterous caterpillars bear an inverted Y or V. Many animals feed on caterpillars as they are rich in protein, as a result, caterpillars have evolved various means of defense. The appearance of a caterpillar can often repel a predator, its markings and certain body parts can make it seem poisonous, or bigger in size and thus threatening, some types of caterpillars are indeed poisonous.
Caterpillars have evolved defenses against physical conditions such as cold, hot or dry environmental conditions, some Arctic species like Gynaephora groenlandica have special basking and aggregation behaviours apart from physiological adaptations to remain in a dormant state. Many caterpillars are cryptically colored and resemble the plants on which they feed and they may even have parts that mimic plant parts such as thorns. Their size varies from as little as 1 mm to about 75 millimetres, some look like objects in the environment such as bird droppings
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
The Global Biodiversity Information Facility is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet using web services. The data are provided by institutions from around the world. Data available through the GBIF portal are primarily distribution data on plants, animals and microbes for the world, the mission of the Global Biodiversity information Facility is to facilitate free and open access to biodiversity data worldwide to underpin sustainable development. ABCD Schema Atlas of Living Australia Darwin Core Global biodiversity Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum GBIF website Short description of GBIF
The Braconidae is a large family of parasitoid wasps. There are approximately 17,000 recognized species and many more undescribed. One analysis estimated a total between about 30,000 and 50,000, and another provided an estimate between 42,000 and 43,000 species. These fall to two groups, informally called the cyclostomes and noncyclostomes. In cyclostome braconids, the labrum and the part of the clypeus are concave with respect to the upper clypeus. These groups may be clades that diverged early in the evolution of braconids, the morphological variation among braconids is notable. They are often black-brown, though some species exhibit striking coloration and patterns and they have one or no recurrent veins, unlike other members of the other famlily in Ichneumonoidea, which usually have two. Wing venation patterns are divergent to apparent randomness, the antennae have 16 segments or more, the hind trochanters have two segments. Females often have long ovipositors, an organ that largely varies interspecifically and this variation is closely related to the host species upon which the wasp deposits its egg.
Species that parasitize microlepidopterans, for instance, have longer ovipositors, some wasps have long ovipositors because of caterpillar defense mechanisms such as spines or hairs, or to reach deeply-burrowed coleoptera larvae in rotting tree trunks. Most species kill their hosts, though some cause the hosts to become sterile and these polydnaviruses are often used by the wasps instead of a venom cocktail. The DNA of the wasp actually contains portions that are the templates for the components of the viral particles, a 2009 study has traced the origins of these templates to a 100-million-year-old viral infection whose alterations to its host DNA provided the necessary basis for these virus-like templates. These viruses suppress the immune system and allow the parasitoid to grow inside the host undetected, the exact function and evolutionary history of these viruses are unknown. Sequences of polydnavirus genes show the possibility that venom-like proteins are expressed inside the host caterpillar, through the evolutionary history of being used by the wasps, these viruses apparently have become so modified, they appear unlike any other known viruses today.
Because of this modified system of host immunosuppression, a high level of parasitoid-host specificity is not surprising. Parasitism on adult insects is observed, members of two subfamilies are known to form galls on plants. Larvae can be found on diverse hosts, including aphids, bark beetles, many species are parasitoid wasps that attack host eggs or larvae, hence they are often used as biological pest control agents, especially against aphids. The family seems to date from early Cretaceous and it underwent extensive diversification from mid or late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic, correlating with the radiation of flowering plants and associated herbivores, the main hosts of braconids
Insects are a class of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species, the number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans. The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs, insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts. The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure and habitat, Insects that undergo 3-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages. The higher level relationship of the Hexapoda is unclear, fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm.
The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants, adult insects typically move about by walking, flying or sometimes swimming. As it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with adaptations that include gills. Some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water, Insects are mostly solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies. Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs, Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances, other species communicate with sounds, crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males.
Lampyridae in the beetle order communicate with light, humans regard certain insects as pests, and attempt to control them using insecticides and a host of other techniques. Some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, leaves or fruits, a few parasitic species are pathogenic. Some insects perform complex ecological roles, blow-flies, for example, help consume carrion, Many other insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms and bees have been used extensively by humans for the production of silk and honey, in some cultures, people eat the larvae or adults of certain insects. Insect first appears documented in English in 1601 in Hollands translation of Pliny, translations of Aristotles term form the usual word for insect in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc. The evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear, in the Pancrustacea theory, together with Entognatha and Cephalocarida, make up a natural clade labeled Miracrustacea
Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta, known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer and actress. She performed initially in theater, appearing in school plays. From there, Akon noticed her vocal abilities and helped her to sign a joint deal with Interscope Records and her debut album The Fame was a critical and commercial success that produced international chart-topping singles such as Just Dance and Poker Face. A follow-up EP, The Fame Monster, was met with a reception and Bad Romance, Telephone. Her second full-length album Born This Way was released in 2011, topping the charts in more than 20 countries, including the United States, the album produced the number-one single Born This Way. Her third album Artpop, released in 2013, topped the US charts, in 2014, Gaga released a collaborative jazz album with Tony Bennett titled Cheek to Cheek, which became her third consecutive number one in the United States. For her work in the television series American Horror Story, with her fifth studio album Joanne, she became the first woman to have four US number one albums in the 2010s.
In February 2017, Gaga headlined the Super Bowl LI halftime show which had an audience of over 150 million across various platforms worldwide. With global album and single sales of 27 million and 146 million respectively, as of January 2016 and her achievements include twelve Guinness World Records, three Brit Awards, and six Grammy Awards. She is the first artist to win the Songwriters Hall of Fames Contemporary Icon Award, in 2013, Gaga finished second on Times readers poll of the most influential people of the past ten years, while in 2015, she was named Billboards Woman of the Year. Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta was born on March 28,1986 and she is the elder daughter of Cynthia Louise Cindy and Internet entrepreneur Joseph Joe Germanotta. Gaga has three Italian grandparents and one American grandparent, as well as French Canadian ancestry, Gagas sister Natali is a fashion student. From age 11, she attended the Convent of the Sacred Heart and she described her academic life in high school as very dedicated, very studious, very disciplined but a bit insecure. I used to get made fun of for being too provocative or too eccentric.
I didnt fit in, and I felt like a freak, in 2014, Gaga said she was raped at the age of 19. She stated, I went through some things that Im able to laugh now, because Ive gone through a lot of mental and physical therapy. Gaga said that she suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder because of the rape, and that support from doctors and friends really saved my life. Gaga began playing the piano at the age of four, wrote her first piano ballad at 13 and she performed lead roles in high school productions, including Adelaide in Guys and Dolls and Philia in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. The word taxonomy was introduced in 1813 by Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, the term alpha taxonomy is primarily used today to refer to the discipline of finding and naming taxa, particularly species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology and cytology.
He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, Ernst Mayr in 1968 defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species. This activity is what the term denotes, it is referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species. While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.
The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from 1883 onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate
Lymantria dispar dispar
Lymantria dispar dispar, commonly known as the gypsy moth, European gypsy moth, or North American gypsy moth, is a moth in the family Erebidae that is of Eurasian origin. It has a range which covers Europe and North America, carl Linnaeus first described the species Lymantria dispar in 1758. The subject of classification has changed throughout the years, resulting in confusion surrounding the species taxonomy and this caused many references to describe this one species in different ways. The family has jumped between Lymantriidae and Erebidae, Lymantria dispar dispar has been designated a subspecies of Lymantria dispar. It is classified as a pest, and its larvae consume the leaves of over 500 species of trees, the gypsy moth is one of the most destructive pests of hardwood trees in the eastern United States. Linnaeus first described the species Lymantria dispar in 1758, the subject of classification has changed throughout the years, resulting in confusion surrounding the species taxonomy. This caused many references to describe this one species in different ways, the family has jumped between Lymantriidae and Erebidae.
The species Lymantria dispar has been split into subspecies such as Lymantria dispar asiatica, differences between the subspecies are poorly understood even at the government level. The order Lepidoptera contains moths and butterflies characterized by having a complete metamorphosis, larvae transform to pupae, lymantriid larvae are commonly called tussock moths because of the tufts of hair on the larvae. Lymantriidae was separated from Lariidae and was classified as its own family by Hampson in 1893, the family Lymantriidae had previously been referred to as Orgyiidae and Dasychiridae, but consensus formed in favor of Lymantriidae. Lymantriidae has had numerous changes which was solidified by Ferguson in 1978. Lymantriidae was reclassified into the family Noctuidae in 2006, Noctuidae is defined as a group in which hindwing vein M2, originates in the lower third of the discal cell, but it is as strong as vein M3. This results in the cubital vein appearing to have four branches, the classification of Noctuidae came from Mitchel et al.
Lafontaine and Fibiger agreed that Lymantriidae belonged within Noctuidae, but disagree with the classification as a subfamily, fewer taxonomic changes are required with the reclassification of Lymantriidae being a subfamily in the monophyletic group of Noctuidae. Sources published prior to the reclassification in 2006 and shortly thereafter may refer to Lymantriidae and Fibiger s classification as a subfamily of Noctuidae has received acceptance, but is not yet universal. In 2012, Lymantriidae was moved from Noctuidae to Erebidae, further complicating the taxonomy, the newly created family has been reflected in some sources. The name Lymantria dispar is composed of two Latin-derived words, the word dispar is derived from the Latin for unequal and it depicts the differing characteristics between the sexes. Confusion over the species and subspecies is widespread, the U. S. Traditionally, Lymantria dispar have been referred to as gypsy moths even when referring to Japanese and Asiatic gypsy moths
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA3.0. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of people who are interested in getting involved with the project. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies, the board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project was launched in August 2004 and is hosted at species. wikimedia. org and it was officially merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14,2004. On October 10,2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles, on May 20,2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8,2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users, on October 23,2011, the project reached 300,000 articles.
On June 16,2014, the project reached 400,000 articles, on January 7,2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. Wikispecies has disabled local upload and asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons, Wikispecies does not allow the use of content that does not conform to a free license
Stephen Tyrone Colbert is an American comedian, television host, and author. Colbert has hosted The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, a television talk show on CBS. Colbert originally studied to be an actor, but became interested in improvisational theatre while attending Northwestern University. He wrote and performed on the short-lived Dana Carvey Show before collaborating with Sedaris and he gained considerable attention for his role on the latter as closeted gay history teacher Chuck Noblet. His work as a correspondent on Comedy Centrals news-parody series The Daily Show gained him wide recognition, in 2005, he left The Daily Show to host a spin-off series, The Colbert Report. The series became one of Comedy Centrals highest-rated series, earning Colbert an invitation to perform as featured entertainer at the White House Correspondents Association Dinner in 2006, Colbert has won nine Primetime Emmy Awards, two Grammy Awards, and two Peabody Awards. Colbert was named one of Times 100 Most Influential People in 2006 and 2012 and his book, I Am America, was #1 on The New York Times Best Seller list in 2007.
Colbert was born in Washington, D. C. the youngest of 11 children in a Catholic family and he grew up on James Island, South Carolina. Colbert and his siblings, in descending order by age, are James, Mary, Margo, Jay, Paul, stephens mother, Lorna Elizabeth Colbert, was a homemaker. In interviews, Colbert has described his parents as people who strongly valued intellectualism and taught their children that it was possible to question the church. The emphasis his family placed on intelligence and his observation of negative stereotypes of Southerners led Colbert to train himself to suppress his Southern accent while he was quite young. While Colbert sometimes comedically claims his surname is French, he is of 15/16ths Irish ancestry, many of his ancestors emigrated from Ireland to North America in the 19th century before and during the Great Famine. He offered his children the option to pronounce the name whichever way they preferred, Stephen started using /koʊlˈbɛər/ in life when he transferred to Northwestern University, taking advantage of the opportunity to reinvent himself in a new place where no one knew him.
Ed responded /ˈkoʊlbərt/, to which Stephen jokingly replied, See you in Hell and they were en route to enroll the two boys at Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut. Lorna Colbert relocated the family downtown to the urban environment of East Bay Street in Charleston. Colbert found the transition difficult and did not easily make new friends in his new neighborhood, Colbert described himself during this time as detached, lacking a sense of importance regarding the things with which other children concerned themselves. He developed a love of science fiction and fantasy novels, especially the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Colbert attended Charlestons Episcopal Porter-Gaud School, where he participated in several school plays and contributed to the school newspaper but was not highly motivated academically. During his adolescence, he briefly fronted A Shot in the Dark, when he was younger, he had hoped to study marine biology, but surgery intended to repair a severely perforated eardrum caused him inner ear damage
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, reptiles and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs, annelids, flatworms, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology.
The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish and humans. Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification. In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Pisces, Amphibia and Mammalia. Since the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, in 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms and Protozoa. The protozoa were moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia. Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.
They are distinguished from plants and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals