Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane, but including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years; the energy that the plants obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating and electricity generation, it is used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is called a non-renewable resource. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: thermogenic.
Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas; the World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas; the by-products of this processing include: ethane, butanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is informally referred to as "gas" when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline in North America, where the term gasoline is shortened in colloquial usage to gas. Natural gas was discovered accidentally in ancient China, as it resulted from the drilling for brines.
Natural gas was first used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water to extract the salt, in the Ziliujing District of Sichuan; the discovery and identification of natural gas in the Americas happened in 1626. In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company; the state of Philadelphia created the first municipally owned natural gas distribution venture in 1836. By 2009, 66 000 km³ had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3400 km³ of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in recoverable reserves lasting less as few as 80 to 100 years.
In the 19th century, natural gas was obtained as a by-product of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces. Unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was prohibitively expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields. Today, unwanted gas associated with oil extraction is returned to the reservoir with'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to repressurize the formation, which can enhance extraction rates from other wells. In regions with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer. In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids technologies.
GTL technologies can convert natural gas into liquids products such as diesel or jet fuel. A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer–Tropsch, methanol to gasoline and syngas to gasoline plus. F–T produces a synthetic crude that can be further refined into finished products, while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, jet fuel and aromatic chemicals directly from natural gas via a single-loop process. In 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's 140,000 barrels per day F–T plant went into operation in Qatar. Natural gas can be "associated", or "non-associated", is found in coal beds, it sometimes contains a significant amount of ethane, propane and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed for commercial use prior to the methane being sold as a consumer fuel or chemical plant feedstock. Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide must be removed before the natural gas can be transported. Natural gas extracted from oil wells is called casinghead gas (whether or not produced up the a
Tuenti Technologies, S. L. U is a mobile virtual network operator, it is a Spain-based tech company, that focuses in providing a cloud experience through its own application and its website to their customers. Tuenti was created in 2006 as a social networking service becoming the most popular social network among young people in Spain between 2009 and 2012, with over 15 million registered users, thus referred as the "Spanish Facebook". In Spain Tuenti offers mobile telephone services accessible anywhere in any device by making it accessible through the cloud. In Latin America, Tuenti ships its brand through Telefónica branches in those countries, exploiting the young market by offering simple and affordable plans among other services common to mobile carriers, Tuenti offers free VoIP calls and instant messaging through its own messaging app. Tuenti was founded as a Social networking service in 2006 by a group of friends in Spain. Zaryn Dentzel, Felix Ruiz Hernandez, Kenny Bentley, Adeyemi Ajao and Joaquín Ayuso de Pául were the key people who worked together to bring Tuenti to life.
Dentzel's first experience in Spain was on a students exchange program that took him to Cabeza del Buey. Bentley, the lead programmer, came to Spain after having worked in social networking in the United States. In the beginning, the project was aimed to university students, but due to its success, they opened to everyone, although it was only possible to register with an invitation. Years the register was opened to everyone, in an attempt to make it available globally, with the only extra requirement of giving a phone number. Zaryn Dentzel has chronicled the story of Tuenti in a book called El futuro lo decides tú. Although the name sounds similar to the English word twenty, it comes from "tu enti", meaning "your identity"; the service was targeted at the Spanish market, but in 2012 they made it globally available. The organization has reached more than 250 employees from more than 21 countries around the world. Google Zeitgeist's 2009 listed Tuenti as the third fastest-rising global search. Google's 2008 Zeitgeist report listed Tuenti as the year's fourth fastest-rising global search term, during 2010, Alexa Internet ranks the site as the sixth most visited in Spain.
In 2011, it was estimated that more than 15% of the web traffic in Spain was on Tuenti, which at that time in Spain meant more traffic than Google and Facebook together. On August 4, 2010 the major telecommunications group Telefónica acquired 85% of tuenti's shares for a total of 70 million euro, becoming its largest shareholder. In that same year, tuenti started the development of a light virtual mobile network operator which worked under the Movistar infrastructure. In December, the service, still in a developing state, is released to the users of the social network under the brand "Tu". On the 11th of July 2012, tuenti announced a big renovation of its social network platform, it featured a new focus on mobile devices, availability in 12 new languages, was called Tuenti Social Messenger, its attempt to become a global social network by supporting registers out of Spain was a failure. After a massive loss of active users, a big change on the company's drift occurred and its virtual mobile operator became the main focus.
On the 6th of November 2013, Telefónica owned 100% of the company after an agreement with the remaining shareholders. Tuenti launched its mobile operator brand in Mexico and Argentina in 2014. After this move, the brand was present in four countries, offering competitive data bundles and started developing a cloud-based strategy. Tuenti has transformed its business from a social network to a mobile telecommunications provider. During 2014, the company reported; the company attained a global turnover of 21 million euro, 25% more than the previous year. Although it was still not positive, this year's financial report was the best since the launching of their mobile business and the acquisition by Telefónica. In 2015, Sebastian Muriel is appointed as the new CEO of the company, he was part of the mobile operator team for a long time before. During this year and 2016, Tuenti went through a rebranding and the company reaffirmed its commitment with the mobile market by renewing their website, which got rid of all the remaining social elements and functions.
This year, Telefónica started to make important changes in the management team: Sebastian Muriel, along with the social network team became part of Telefónica's I+D team, a division of the company in charge for innovation and new products, while Pablo Ledesma became the new director. Tuenti launched Tu as a developing project in 2010 supported by Telefónica, the largest shareholder back aiming to have influence in the young market that the social network had at that time. Signing up for Tu was free of charge during the initial launching, but it had certain limitations: it was only accessible by invitation, once an invitation was received users could only sign up for a new number, number portability from another provider was not possible the service was only available on prepaid; the provisioned SIM card was posted nationwide free of charge. During the pre-launch phase offered plans changed a couple times. First plans launched consisted in weekly, 14 days long or monthly plans which were focused in calls and SMS, as well as free access to the social network after recharging and free TuentiSMS usage.
A year postpaid plan
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami. Founded in 1903, it is the second largest newspaper in South Florida, serving Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties, it circulates throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The newspaper employs over 800 people in Miami and across several bureaus, including Bogotá, Tallahassee, Vero Beach, Key West, another shared space in McClatchy's Washington bureau, its newsroom staff of about 450 includes 144 reporters, 69 editors, 69 copy editors, 29 photographers, five graphic artists, 11 columnists, sixteen critics, 48 editorial specialists, 18 news assistants. The newspaper has been awarded 22 Pulitzer Prizes since beginning publication in 1903. Well-known columnists include Pulitzer-winning political commentator Leonard Pitts, Jr. Pulitzer-winning reporter Mirta Ojito, humorist Dave Barry and novelist Carl Hiaasen.
Other columnists sportswriters Edwin Pope, Dan Le Batard and Greg Cote. Alexandra Villoch is the publisher, Aminda Marqués Gonzalez is the executive editor; the newspaper averages 88 pages 212 pages on Sundays. The Miami Herald's coverage of Latin American and Hispanic affairs is considered among the best of U. S. newspapers. The Miami Herald participates in "Politifact Florida", a website that focuses on the truth about Florida issues, along with the Tampa Bay Times, which created the Politifact concept; the Herald and the Times share resources on news stories related to Florida. The first edition was published September 1903, as The Miami Evening Record. After the recession of 1907, the newspaper had severe financial difficulties, its largest creditor was Henry Flagler. Through a loan from Henry Flagler, Frank B. Shutts, the founder of the law firm Shutts & Bowen, acquired the paper and renamed it the Miami Herald on December 1, 1910. Although it is the longest continuously published newspaper in Miami, the earliest newspaper in the region was The Tropical Sun, established in 1891.
The Miami Metropolis, which became The Miami News, was founded in 1896, was the Herald's oldest competitor until 1988, when it went out of business. During the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the Miami Herald was the largest newspaper in the world, as measured by lines of advertising. During The Great Depression in the 1930s, the Herald recovered. On October 25, 1939, John S. Knight, son of a noted Ohio newspaperman, bought the Herald from Frank B. Shutts. Knight became editor and publisher, made his brother, James L. Knight, the business manager; the Herald had 383 employees. Lee Hills arrived as city editor in September 1942, he became the Herald's publisher and the chairman of Knight-Ridder Inc. a position he held until 1981. The Miami Herald International Edition, printed by partner newspapers throughout the Caribbean and Latin America, began in 1946, it is available at resorts in the Caribbean countries such as the Dominican Republic, though printed by the largest local newspaper Listín Diario, it is not available outside such tourist areas.
It was extended to Mexico in 2002. The Herald won its first Pulitzer Prize for its reporting on Miami's organized crime, its circulation was 204,000 on Sundays. On August 19, 1960, construction began on the Herald building on Biscayne Bay. On that day, Alvah H. Chapman, started work as James Knight's assistant. Chapman was promoted to Knight-Ridder chairman and chief executive officer; the Herald moved into its new building at One Herald Plaza without missing an edition on March 23–24, 1963. The paper won a landmark press freedom decision in Miami Herald Publishing Tornillo. In the case, a political candidate, Pat Tornillo Jr. had requested that the Herald print his rebuttal to an editorial criticizing him, citing Florida's "right-to-reply" law, which mandated that newspapers print such responses. Represented by longtime counsel Dan Paul, the Herald challenged the law, the case was appealed to the Supreme Court; the Court unanimously overturned the Florida statute under the Press Freedom Clause of the First Amendment, ruling that "Governmental compulsion on a newspaper to publish that which'reason' tells it should not be published is unconstitutional."
The decision showed the limitations of a 1969 decision, Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. Federal Communications Commission, in which a similar "Fairness Doctrine" had been upheld for radio and television, establishing that broadcast and print media had different Constitutional protections. Publication of a Spanish-language supplemental insert named El Herald began in 1976, it was renamed El Nuevo Herald in 1987, in 1998 became an independent publication. In 2003, the Miami Herald and El Universal of Mexico City created an international joint venture, in 2004 they together launched The Herald Mexico, a short-lived English-language newspaper for readers in Mexico, its final issue was published in May 2007. On July 27, 2005, former Miami city commissioner Arthur Teele walked into the main lobby of the Herald's headquarters and phoned Herald columnist Jim DeFede to say that he had a package for DeFede, he asked a security officer to tell his wife Stephanie that he loved her, before pulling out a gun and committing suicide.
This happened the day the Miami New Times, a weekly newspaper, published salacious details of Teele's alleged affairs, including allegations that he had had sex and used cocaine with a transsexual prostitute. The day before committing suicide, T
Petróleos de Venezuela, S. A. is the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company. It has activities in exploration, production and exporting oil as well as exploration and production of natural gas. Since its founding on 1 January 1976 with the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry, PDVSA has dominated the oil industry of Venezuela, the world's fifth largest oil exporter. Oil reserves in Venezuela are the largest in the world and the state-owned PDVSA provides the government of Venezuela with substantial funding resources. Following the Bolivarian Revolution, PDVSA was used as a political tool of the government. Between 2004 and 2010, PDVSA contributed $61.4 billion to the government's social development projects, with around half of this went directly to various Bolivarian Missions while the remainder distributed via the National Development Fund. Profits were used to assist the presidency, with funds directed towards allies of the Venezuelan government. With PDVSA focusing on political projects instead of oil production and technical statuses deteriorated while employee expertise was removed following thousands of politically-motivated firings.
Incompetence within the company has led to serious inefficiencies and accidents as well as endemic corruption. As a result, thousands of workers have abandoned their work for PDVSA after PDVSA was put under military control. Venezuela has 77.5 billion barrels of conventional oil reserves according to PDVSA figures, the largest in the Western Hemisphere and making up half the total. This puts Venezuela as fifth in the world in proven reserves of conventional oil. By including an estimated 235 billion barrels of tar-like extra heavy crude oil in the Orinoco Belt region, Venezuela claims to hold the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the world. Venezuela has 150 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves; the crude oil PDVSA extracts from the Orinoco is refined into a fuel eponymously named ‘Orimulsion’. PDVSA has a production capacity, including the strategic associations and operating agreements, of 4 million barrels per day. Officials say production is around 3.3 million barrels per day although most secondary sources such as OPEC and the EIA put Venezuela's output at least 500,000 barrels per day lower.
The organization's payroll tripled during the presidency of Hugo Chavez. Oil production fell steeply. Soaring oil prices peaked in 2008 at $147 per barrel. In 2002, many of the employees of PDVSA went on strike against the policies of Chávez, who in response fired over 19,000 workers from the company. Intevep, the research and development arm of PDVSA lost 80% of its workers damaging PDVSA's ability to innovate and compete in the global petroleum market. PDVSA saw stagnant growth in the following era, defined by a boom in oil prices. Between 2002 and 2012, incapacitating injuries to employees rose from 1.8 per million man hours to 6.2, highlighting the companies struggle to optimize. Many ex-PDVSA employees moved to Alberta, where the oil consistency is similar to that of the Orinoco; as a result, the number of Venezuelans in Alberta has risen from 465 in 2001 to 3,860 in 2011. Many PDVSA workers migrated to Colombia and joined Ecopetrol, are credited with helping the company attain huge profits throughout the 2010s.
In 2006, Rafael Ramírez, the energy minister, gave PDVSA workers a choice: Support President Hugo Chávez, or lose their jobs. The minister said: "PDVSA is red, red from top to bottom". Chávez defended Ramírez, saying that public workers should back the "revolution", he added that "PDVSA's workers are with this revolution, those who aren't should go somewhere else. Go to Miami". PDVSA continues to hire only supporters of the president, PDVSA revenue is used to fund political projects. Under the presidency of Carlos Andrés Pérez, whose economic plan, "La Gran Venezuela", called for the nationalization of the oil industry, Venezuela nationalized its oil industry on 1 January 1976 at the site of Zumaque oilwell 1; this was the birth of Petróleos de Venezuela S. A.. All foreign oil companies that once did business in Venezuela were replaced by Venezuelan companies, such as Lagoven and Llavonen; each of the former concessionaires was substituted by a new'national' oil company, which maintained the structures and functions of its multi-national corporation predecessor.
With the 1976 nationalization, each previous multinational operator was converted into an affiliate of PDVSA. To prevent political uprising from within PDVSA, direct anti-organization clauses were written into the law creating the company. With this absorption, PDVSA became the employer of engineers with comprehensive technical training from the old multinational corporations and promptly took advantage of their newfound expertise. Within 25 years of nationalization, PDVSA would become the largest company in Latin America and the tenth most profitable in the world. In that 25-year span they went from 18 billion barrels to over 80 billion barrels worth of oil reserves, with a similar increase in production capacity. PDVSA's poor post-nationalization performance resulted in Venezuela's opening of the company to global cooperation; the opening up of the Venezuelan oil industry, or Apertura, was
OpenCorporates is a website which shares data on corporate entities as open data under the share-alike attribution Open Database License. It was created by Chris Taggart and Rob McKinnon, under the auspices of their company, Chrinon Ltd, launched on 20 December 2010, it has the aims of creating a URL with such data for every corporate entity in the world, importing government data relating to companies and matching it to specific companies. The site shows groups of companies which are part of the same conglomerate. Basic company information is available as open data in JSON format; the OpenCorporates Advisory Board exists to advise OpenCorporates on policy and principles, to ensure that OpenCorporates remains true to its central mission of the opening of company data for the public good. It was formed by three members: Kaitlin Lee and Andrew Stott; the same team operate OpenCharities, compiling data on registered charities. In 2011, the site was an award winner in the OpenDataChallenge, whose judging panel included web founder Tim Berners-Lee and Laura Creighton, who said: This is an powerful and useful app.
It combines information collected by scraping the web with Open Data from government bodies, with a new feature for crowdsourcing. It makes accessing government information about companies trivial; this tool is invaluable for those who want to find out more about what it is that corporations are doing. It is a remarkable step forward for accountability. I could play with this thing for days. In launching the competition, Neelie Kroes, Vice-President of the European Commission said of the site: This is the kind of resource the Single Market needs and it is encouraging to see that it is being built; the project was subsequently represented on the European Union's Core Vocabularies Working Group's Core Business Task Force. In early 2012, the project was appointed to the Financial Stability Board's advisory panel on a Legal Entity Identification for Financial Contracts. In July 2015, OpenCorporates was a finalist in both the Business and Publisher categories at the Open Data Institute Awards, the only entity to reach the finals in more than one category.
At the awards ceremony on 9 July OpenCorporates was announced as the winner of the Open Data Business Award, in recognition of its work with promoting data transparency in the corporate sector. Hera Hussain and Partnerships Manager at OpenCorporates, said: We’re delighted and proud to have won this award; when we launched OpenCorporates we had a vision for an open database with tens of millions of companies from all over the world. We’re now in sight of 100 million companies, used by journalists, governments banks; this is a testament not just of open data itself. The award was presented by Sir Nigel Shadbolt. List of company registers Corporate Registers Forum European business register OpenCorporates OpenCharities
Alfredo Sáenz Abad
Alfredo Sáenz Abad is a Spanish businessman, the CEO and Vice-Chairman of the Spanish bank Santander Group, the largest bank in the Eurozone and one of the largest banks in the world in terms of market capitalisation. He obtained his degree in Law from the University of Valladolid, in Economics from the Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao. Sáenz started his career as an Executive Manager of Tubacex S. A.. After that, he was Deputy General Manager for Banco de Vizcaya. A. Sáenz joined Banco Santander in 1994 as a board member. From 2002 until 2013 he was Vice Chairman and CEO, he resigned as CEO on 29 April 2013, before the Bank of Spain had to make a ruling on the court case from 1994 During 2012, Alfredo Sáenz was chosen second best CEO in European Banking. That year, during his tenure as CEO, Banco Santander was named'Best Bank in the world' by the business magazine Euromoney. Sáenz retired from Banco Santander in 2013, his lump-sum pension payout was reported to be €88 million. The sizeable payout followed his 19-year career with the bank, which saw its global expansion and the quadrupling of its assets to €1.25 trillion.
He was replaced by Javier Marín Romano. In addition to his management work, Sáenz lectured at the University of Deusto from 1965 to 1984. In 1995 he joined the International Academy Of Management. From 1997 to 2000 he was on the European Advisory Council of Air Products & Chemicals. In 1999 he was on the International Advisory Board of London Business School. In 2000 he became Chair of the European Financial Marketing Association. In February 2016, he was appointed president of the BDK Financial Group which controls the Bank of Dakar, headquartered in the capital of Senegal. On March 8 2016 Sáenz acquired 5% of the shares of the BDK Financial Group, created by Alberto Cortina. Sáenz is a Director of the Foundation Conde de Barcelona, the Foundation Empresa y Sociedad, the Foundation Cruz Roja Española, the Foundation Ayuda Contra la Drogadicción. -1998: Alfredo Sáenz was awarded the Spanish government's Gold Medal for his work.-2006: Alfredo Sáenz received the Manager Award 2006, awarded by the consulting firm AT Kearney, in the form of best manager in financial institutions.-2012: Alfredo Saenz was chosen the second best CEO of European banks.
The accolade was awarded by 1,470 analysts from 150 companies, who participated in Institutional Investor magazine's annual ranking. In 2011, the Supreme Court of Spain gave Sáenz a three-month ban from working as a banker, after a long legal action, he was convicted in 2009 of false accusations against presumed debtors to Banesto, now a Santander subsidiary, who were jailed over the affair in 1994. Santander said he would appeal the decision, that Sáenz would continue in his job. If the crime stood as convicted, he would lose his job. On account of this, the authorities converted his prison sentence to a pardon, replaced it with a lower penalty, in the form of a nominal fine. However, in February 2013, the Spanish Supreme Court ruled that the Spanish government had overstepped its authority in pardoning him; the Bank of Spain opened new proceedings in the case. Sáenz retired from Banco Santander in 2013, cutting off the possibility of his being banned from the Spanish banking industry. According to Forbes.com, in 2007 Sáenz had a salary of €3 million, with a bonus of €5.5 million and additional earnings of just under €0.9 million for a total "compensation" of €9.6 million.
In 2009, his total compensation was €10.2 million. According to ThisisMoney.co.uk, Sáenz will be Santander's top earner in 2012 with pay of £10.6 million as well as £1.2 million in shares awarded in earlier years but only to be received in 2012, a £0.9 million pension contribution. ThisisMoney remarked that this was "despite the bank suffering a huge slump in profits due to a £538 million bill for mis-selling." Bank fraud Enric Duran Libor scandal White-collar crime Forbes, Alfredo Sáenz Abad Alfredo Sáenz career Alfredo Sáenz, second best CEO of the european banking 2012 Bloomberg Businessweek Alfredo Sáenz Official Profile
The petroleum industry known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, refining and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel gasoline. Petroleum is the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, synthetic fragrances, plastics; the extreme monetary value of oil and its products has led to it being known as "black gold". The industry is divided into three major components: upstream and downstream. Petroleum is vital to many industries, is necessary for the maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration, making it a critical concern for many nations. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the world’s energy consumption, ranging from a low of 32% for Europe and Asia, to a high of 53% for the Middle East. Other geographic regions' consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America and North America; the world consumes 30 billion barrels of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers.
The United States consumed 25% of the oil produced in 2007. The production, distribution and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represents the world's largest industry in terms of dollar value. Governments such as the United States government provide a heavy public subsidy to petroleum companies, with major tax breaks at every stage of oil exploration and extraction, including the costs of oil field leases and drilling equipment. In recent years, enhanced oil recovery techniques — most notably multi-stage drilling and hydraulic fracturing — have moved to the forefront of the industry as this new technology plays a crucial and controversial role in new methods of oil extraction. Petroleum is a occurring liquid found in rock formations, it consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. It is accepted that oil is formed from the carbon rich remains of ancient plankton after exposure to heat and pressure in Earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.
Over time, the decayed residue was covered by layers of mud and silt, sinking further down into Earth’s crust and preserved there between hot and pressured layers transforming into oil reservoirs. Petroleum in an unrefined state has been utilized by humans for over 5000 years. Oil in general has been used since early human history to keep fires ablaze and in warfare, its importance to the world economy however, evolved with whale oil being used for lighting in the 19th century and wood and coal used for heating and cooking well into the 20th century. Though the Industrial Revolution generated an increasing need for energy, this was met by coal, from other sources including whale oil. However, when it was discovered that kerosene could be extracted from crude oil and used as a lighting and heating fuel, the demand for petroleum increased and by the early twentieth century had become the most valuable commodity traded on world markets. Imperial Russia doubled its output by mid-century. After oil drilling began in what is now Azerbaijan in 1846 in Baku, two large pipelines were built in the Russian Empire: the 833 km long pipeline to transport oil from the Caspian to the Black Sea port of Batum, completed in 1906, the 162 km long pipeline to carry oil from Chechnya to the Caspian.
Batum is renamed to Batumi in 1936. At the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russia's output of oil entirely from the Apsheron Peninsula, accounted for half of the world's production and dominated international markets. Nearly 200 small refineries operated in the suburbs of Baku by 1884; as a side effect of these early developments, the Apsheron Peninsula emerged as the world's "oldest legacy of oil pollution and environmental negligence". In 1846, Baku the first well drilled with percussion tools to a depth of 21 meters for oil exploration. In 1878, Ludvig Nobel and his Branobel company "revolutionized oil transport" by commissioning the first oil tanker and launching it on the Caspian Sea. Samuel Kier established America's first oil refinery in Pittsburgh on Seventh avenue near Grant Street, in 1853. One of the first modern oil refineries were built by Ignacy Łukasiewicz near Jasło, Poland in 1854–56; these were small, as demand for refined fuel was limited. The refined products were used in artificial asphalt, machine oil and lubricants, in addition to Łukasiewicz's kerosene lamp.
As kerosene lamps gained popularity, the refining industry grew in the area. The first commercial oil well in Canada became operational in 1858 at Ontario. Businessman James Miller Williams dug several wells between 1855 and 1858 before discovering a rich reserve of oil four metres below ground. Williams extracted 1.5 million litres of crude oil by 1860, refining much of it into kerosene lamp oil. Some historians challenge Canada’s claim to North America’s first oil field, arguing that Pennsylvania’s famous Drake Well was the continent’s first, but there is evidence to support Williams, not least of, that the Drake well did not come into production until August 28, 1859. The controversial point might be that Williams found oil above bedrock while Edwin Drake’s well located oil within a bedrock reservoir; the discovery at Oil Springs touched off an oil boom which brought hundreds of speculators and workers to the area. Canada's first gusher (fl