Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, four regional learning centers throughout Arizona. ASU is one of the largest public universities by enrollment in the U. S; as of fall 2018, the university had about 80,000 students attending classes across its metro campuses, including 66,000-plus undergraduates and more than 12,000 postgraduates. The university is organized into 17 colleges, featuring more than 170 cross-discipline centers and institutes. ASU offers 350 degree options for undergraduates students, as well as more than 400 graduate degree and certificate programs. ASU has nearly 600 ASU scholar-athletes across 26 varsity-level sports; the Arizona State Sun Devils compete in the Pac-12 Conference and have won 59 Pac-10/Pac-12 championships dating to 1979, have captured 24 NCAA championships dating to its first title in 1965. In addition to its athletic program, the university is home to over 1,100 registered student organizations.
ASU's charter, approved by the board of regents in 2014, is based on the "New American University" model created by ASU President Michael M. Crow upon his appointment as the institution's 16th president in 2002, it defines ASU as "a comprehensive public research university, measured not by whom it excludes, but rather by whom it includes and how they succeed. Since 2005, ASU has been ranked among the top research universities in the U. S. public and private, based on research output, development, research expenditures, number of awarded patents and awarded research grant proposals. The 2019 university ratings by U. S. News & World Report rank ASU No. 1 among the Most Innovative Schools in America for the fourth year in a row. U. S. News & World Report shows 84% of the student applications get accepted. A diverse faculty of more than 4,400 scholars includes 4 Nobel laureates, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners, 4 MacArthur Fellows Program "Genius Grant" members and 19 National Academy of Sciences members.
Additionally, among the faculty are 180 Fulbright Program American Scholars, 72 National Endowment for the Humanities fellows, 38 American Council of Learned Societies fellows, 36 members of the Guggenheim Fellowship, 21 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 9 National Academy of Engineering members and 3 National Academy of Medicine members. The National Academies has bestowed "highly prestigious" recognition on 227 ASU faculty members. Arizona State University was established as the Territorial Normal School at Tempe on March 12, 1885, when the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature passed an act to create a normal school to train teachers for the Arizona Territory; the campus consisted of a single, four-room schoolhouse on a 20-acre plot donated by Tempe residents George and Martha Wilson. Classes began with 33 students on February 8, 1886; the curriculum evolved over the years and the name was changed several times. In 1923, the school stopped offering high school courses and added a high school diploma to the admissions requirements.
In 1925, the school became the Tempe State Teachers College and offered four-year Bachelor of Education degrees as well as two-year teaching certificates. In 1929, the 9th Arizona State Legislature authorized Bachelor of Arts in Education degrees as well, the school was renamed the Arizona State Teachers College. Under the 30-year tenure of president Arthur John Matthews, the school was given all-college student status; the first dormitories built in the state were constructed under his supervision in 1902. Of the 18 buildings constructed while Matthews was president, six are still in use. Matthews envisioned an "evergreen campus," with many shrubs brought to the campus, implemented the planting of 110 Mexican Fan Palms on what is now known as Palm Walk, a century-old landmark of the Tempe campus. During the Great Depression, Ralph Waldo Swetman was hired to succeed President Matthews, coming to Arizona State Teachers College in 1930 from Humboldt State Teachers College where he had served as president.
He served a three-year term. During his tenure, enrollment at the college doubled. Matthews conceived of a self-supported summer session at the school at Arizona State Teachers College, a first for the school. In 1933, Grady Gammage president of Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, became president of Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe, beginning a tenure that would last for nearly 28 years, second only to Swetman's 30 years at the college's helm. Like President Arthur John Matthews before him, Gammage oversaw the construction of several buildings on the Tempe campus, he guided the development of the university's graduate programs. During his presidency, the school's name was changed to Arizona State College in 1945, to Arizona State University in 1958. At the time, two other names were considered: Tempe University and State University at Tempe. Among Gammage's greatest achievements in Tempe was the Frank Lloyd Wright-desig
El filibusterismo known by its English alternative title The Reign of Greed, is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli me tangere and, like the first book, was written in Spanish, it was first published in 1891 in Ghent. The novel centers on the Noli-El fili duology's main character Crisóstomo Ibarra, now returning for vengeance as "Simoun". El fili's dark theme departs from the previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere, signifying Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through violent means, after his previous attempt at reforming the country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with the corrupt attitude of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos; the novel, along with its predecessor, was banned in some parts of the Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish government's abuse and corruption. These novels along with Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizal's exile to Dapitan and eventual execution.
Both the novel and its predecessor, along with Rizal's last poem, are now considered Rizal's literary masterpieces. Both of Rizal's novels had a profound effect on Philippine society in terms of views about national identity, the Catholic faith and its influence on Filipino's choice, the government's issues of corruption and discrimination, on a larger scale, the issues related to the effect of colonization on people's lives and the cause for independence; these novels on indirectly became the inspiration to start the Philippine Revolution. Throughout the Philippines, the reading of both the novel and its predecessor is now mandatory for high school students throughout the archipelago, although it is now read using English and the Philippines' regional languages. In the events of the previous novel, Crisóstomo Ibarra, a reform-minded Spanish mestizo who tried to establish a modern school in his hometown of San Diego and marry his childhood sweetheart, was falsely accused of rebellion and presumed dead after a shootout following his escape from prison.
Elias, his friend, a reformer, sacrificed his life to give Crisóstomo a chance to regain his treasure and flee the country, continue their crusade for reforms from abroad. After a thirteen-year absence from the country, a more revolutionary Crisóstomo has returned, having taken the identity of Simoun, a corrupt jeweler whose objective is to drive the government to commit as much abuses as possible in order to drive people into revolution. Simoun goes from town to town to sell his jewels. At Barrio Sagpang in the town of Tiani, he stays at the house of Tales. Having suffered misfortune after misfortune in recent years, Cabesang Tales is unable to resist the temptation to steal Simoun's revolver and join the bandits. In Los Baños, Simoun joins his friend the Captain-General, taking a break from a hunting excursion. In a friendly poker game with him and his cronies, Simoun raises the stakes higher and higher and half-jokingly secures blank orders for deportation and summary execution from the Captain-General.
At the Quiapo Fair in Manila, a talking heads exhibit ostensibly organized by a certain Mr. Leeds but secretly commissioned by Simoun is drawing popular acclaim. Padre Bernardo Salvi, now chaplain of the Convent of the Poor Clares, attends one of the performances; the exhibit is set in Ptolemaic Egypt but features a tale that resembled that of Crisóstomo Ibarra, María Clara, their fate under Salvi, ends with an ominous vow of revenge. Overcome with fear and guilt, Salvi has the show banned, but not before Mr. Leeds has sailed for Hong Kong. Simoun meets with a wealthy businessman and aspiring consul-general. Quiroga is in Simoun's debt, but Simoun offers him a steep discount if Quiroga would do him a favor—to store Simoun's massive arsenal of rifles in Quiroga's warehouses, to be used for extortion activities with Manila's elite. Quiroga, who hated guns, reluctantly obliges; the night of Simoun's revolution arrives. He approaches Basilio, now Capitan Tiago's caregiver. Basilio is now an aspiring doctor on his last year at University, prospective heir to Capitan Tiago's wealth.
Simoun offers him a position within his ranks. Simoun's plan is for a cannon volley to be fired, at which point Cabesang Tales, now a bandit who calls himself Matanglawin, Simoun who managed to deceive and recruit a sizable rogue force among the government troops, will lead their forces into the city; the leaders of the Church, the University, scores of bureaucrats, the Captain-General himself, as well as the bulk of government troops guarding them are conveniently in one location, the theater where a controversial and much-hyped performance of Les Cloches de Corneville is taking place. While Simoun and Matanglawin direct their forces and several others are to force open the door of the Convent of the Poor Clares and rescue María Clara. However, Basilio reports to Simoun that María Clara died just that afternoon—killed by the travails of monastic life under Salvi, who always lusted after her. Simoun, driven by grief, is crestfallen throughout the night, he escapes identification and capture.
Sometime Simoun has prepared for another revolution. He frames a reform-oriented student group to which Basilio had them all arrested, they are freed through the intercession of relatives, except for Basilio, an orphan and has no means to pay for his freedom. During the three months he
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, the sixth Vice-President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He served as a member of the House of Representatives, headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970, he is the father of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010. A native of Lubao, Macapagal graduated from the University of the Philippines and University of Santo Tomas, both in Manila, after which he worked as a lawyer for the government, he first won election in 1949 to the House of Representatives, representing a district in his home province of Pampanga. In 1957, he became Vice-President under the rule of President Carlos P. Garcia, whom he defeated in the 1961 polls. Diosdado Macapagal was a reputed poet in the Chinese and Spanish language, though his poetic oeuvre was eclipsed by his political biography; as President, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy.
He introduced the country's first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party, he is known for shifting the country's observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day President Emilio Aguinaldo unilaterally declared the independence of the First Philippine Republic from the Spanish Empire in 1898. He stood for re-election in 1965, was defeated by Ferdinand Marcos, who subsequently ruled for 21 years. Under Marcos, Macapagal was elected president of the Constitutional Convention which would draft what became the 1973 Constitution, though the manner in which the charter was ratified and modified led him to question its legitimacy, he died of heart failure and renal complications, in 1997, at the age of 86. Diosdado Macapagal was born on September 28, 1910, in Lubao, the third of five children in a poor family.
His father was Urbano Macapagal y Romero, a poet who wrote in the local Pampangan language and his mother was Romana Pangan Macapagal, daughter of Atanacio Miguel Pangan and Lorenza Suing Antiveros. Urbano's mother, Escolastica Romero Macapagal is a schoolteacher who taught catechism. Diosdado is a distant descendant of Don Juan Macapagal, a prince of Tondo, a great-grandson of the last reigning Lakan of the Kingdom of Tondo, Lakan Dula, he is related to well-to-do Licad family through Diosdado's mother Romana, a second cousin of Maria Vitug Licad, grandmother of renowned pianist, Cecile Licad. Romana's grandmother, Genoveva Miguel Pangan and Maria's grandmother, Celestina Miguel Macaspac are siblings, their mother, Maria Concepcion Lingad Miguel is a daughter of Jose Pingul Lingad and Gregoria Malit Bartolo. Diosdado's family earned extra income by raising pigs and accommodating boarders in their home. Due to his roots in poverty, Macapagal would become affectionately known as the "Poor boy from Lubao".
Diosdado Macapagal was a reputed poet in the Spanish language although his poet work was eclipsed by his political biography. Macapagal excelled in his studies at local public schools, graduating valedictorian at Lubao Elementary School, salutatorian at Pampanga High School, he finished his pre-law course at the University of the Philippines enrolled at Philippine Law School in 1932, studying on a scholarship and supporting himself with a part-time job as an accountant. While in law school, he gained prominence as an debater. However, he was forced to quit schooling after two years due to a lack of money. Returning to Pampanga, he joined boyhood friend Rogelio de la Rosa in producing and starring in Tagalog operettas patterned after classic Spanish zarzuelas, it was during this period that he married his friend's sister, Purita de la Rosa in 1938. He had two children with de la Rosa and Arturo. Macapagal raised enough money to continue his studies at the University of Santo Tomas, he gained the assistance of philanthropist Don Honorio Ventura, the Secretary of the Interior at the time, who financed his education.
He received financial support from his mother's relatives notably from the Macaspacs who owned large tracts of land in barrio Sta. Maria, Pampanga. After receiving his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1936, he was admitted to the bar, topping the 1936 bar examination with a score of 89.95%. He returned to his alma mater to take up graduate studies and earn a Master of Laws degree in 1941, a Doctor of Civil Law degree in 1947, a PhD in Economics in 1957. After passing the bar examination, Macapagal was invited to join an American law firm as a practicing attorney, a particular honor for a Filipino at the time, he was assigned as a legal assistant to President Manuel L. Quezon in Malacañang Palace. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Macapagal continued working in Malacañan Palace as an assistant to President José P. Laurel, while secretly aiding the anti-Japanese resistance during the Allied liberation against the Japanese. After the war, Macapagal worked as an assistant attorney with one of the largest law firms in the country, Lawrence and Carrascoso.
With the establishment of the independent Republic of the Philippines in 1946, he rejoined government service when President Manuel Roxas appointed him to the Department of Foreign Affairs as the head of its legal division. In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino appointed Macapagal as chief negotiator in the successful transfer of the Turtle Islands in the Sulu Sea from the United Kingdom to t
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The President leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines; the President is directly elected by the people, is one of only two nationally elected executive officials, the other being the Vice President of the Philippines. However, four vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation. Filipinos refer to their President as Presidente; the President serves a single, six year term without possibility of re-election. On June 30, 2016, Rodrigo Duterte was sworn in as the current president. In Filipino, one of the two official languages of the Philippines, the President is referred to as Pangulo. In the other major languages of the Philippines such as the Visayan languages, Presidente is more common when Filipinos are not code-switching with the English word.
Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andrés Bonifacio could be considered the first President of a united Philippines since he was the third Supreme President of the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society, its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan started an open revolt against the Spanish colonial government in August 1896, Bonifacio transformed the society into a revolutionary government with him as its head. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was known as the Tagalog Republic. Although the word Tagalog refers to the Tagalog people, a specific ethno-linguistic group, Bonifacio used it to denote all non-Spanish peoples of the Philippines in place of Filipinos, which had colonial origins. Bonifacio's revolutionary government never controlled much territory for any significant period and was unrecognized and unknown to the non-Tagalog ethnnolinguistic groups.
Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar should be included. In March 1897, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention; the new government was meant to replace the Katipunan, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Aguinaldo therefore signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and went into exile in Hong Kong at the end of 1897. In April 1898, the Spanish–American War broke out, the Asiatic Squadron of the United States Navy sailed for the Philippines. At the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 the American Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy ending Spanish rule in the Philippines. Aquinaldo subsequently returned to the Philippines aboard a U. S. Navy renewed the revolution, he formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898 and issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898.
On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was elected President of the First Philippine Republic, a government constituted by the Malolos Congress under the Malolos Constitution; this government is called the Malolos Republic. The First Philippine Republic was short-lived and never internationally recognized; the Philippines was transferred from Spanish to American control by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed in December of that year. The Philippine–American War broke out between the United States and Aguinaldo's government, his government ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, after he pledged allegiance to the United States following his capture by U. S. forces in March. The current government of the Republic of the Philippines, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines. Miguel Malvar continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuing state of Bonifacio's Katipunan.
They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents", along with Bonifacio, are not recognized as Presidents by the government. Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of four American military Governors-General and eleven civil Governors-General. In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezon was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, established, still under United States sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on 14 May of that year. During its first five years, the President could serve for an unrenewable six-year term, it was amended in 1940 to limit a President to serving no more than two four-year terms. When President Quezon exiled himself to the United States after the Philippines fell to the Empire of Japan in World War II, he appointed Chief Justice José Abad Santos as Acting President and as Acting Commander-in Chief of the Armed Forces. Abad Santos was subsequently executed by the Imperial Japanese Army on May 2, 1942.
On October 14, 1943, José P. Laurel became President under a constitution imposed by the Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, had been instructed to remain in the City of Manila by Pre
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Philippine Star
The Philippine Star is an English language print and digital newspaper in the Philippines and the flagship brand of the PhilStar Media Group. First published on 28 July 1986 by veteran journalists Betty Go-Belmonte, Max Soliven and Art Borjal, it is one of several Philippine newspapers founded after the 1986 People Power Revolution; the newspaper is owned and published by Philstar Daily Inc. which publishes the monthly magazine People Asia and the Sunday magazines Starweek and Let's Eat. As part of the PhilStar Media Group, its sister publications include business newspaper BusinessWorld. In March 2014, the newspaper was acquired by MediaQuest Holdings, Inc. a media conglomerate subsidized by the PLDT Beneficial Trust Fund, after the company purchased a majority stake in Philstar Daily, Inc. The Philippine Star is among the Philippines' most circulated newspapers, with an average circulation of 266,000 copies daily, according to the Philippine Yearbook 2013; the Philippine Star was first published seven months after the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled strongman Ferdinand Marcos and propelled Corazon Aquino to the Philippine presidency.
Before its establishment, founders Betty Go-Belmonte, Max Soliven and Art Borjal were veteran journalists involved in the "Mosquito Press", a collective name for the different newspapers critical of the Marcos administration that were published after the Martial Law era from 1972 to 1981. At that time, Belmonte was the publisher of a small, monthly magazine called The Star, a predecessor of The Philippine Star. On 9 December 1985, a few months before the 1986 People Power Revolution, Belmonte and Borjal, together with Eugenia Apostol, Louie Beltran, Florangel Braid, founded the English-language newspaper Philippine Daily Inquirer, which soon became the Marcos administration's most vocal critic. However, after the revolution, questions about finances and a divergence of priorities caused a rift among the Inquirer's founders, which led to Belmonte and Borjal's founding of The Philippine Star. Belmonte served as the founding chairman of the Board of Directors, while Soliven acted as the founding publisher and chairman of the Editorial Board.
Antonio Roces served as the first editor-in-chief until his resignation in 1989. The first issue of the newspaper on 28 July 1986 had eight pages, no advertisements and carried the headline, "Wear yellow and die" that featured the death of 23-year-old Stephen Salcedo, a bystander killed by a mob of Marcos loyalists during a rally at Manila's Luneta Park; the masthead of the newspaper carried the motto, "Truth Shall Prevail", reflecting its editorial policy of presenting both sides of the story instead of the prevailing "scoop mentality" of that time. Aside from the main news section, the first issue includes the World, Money and Sports sections; the first issue of The Philippine Star was printed at Philstar Daily, Inc.'s printing press in Port Area and made use of a blue and yellow color scheme, which became its signature colors. For its initial price of ₱1.75, the newspaper had an initial print run of “a few thousand copies”. At first, the newspaper was only published from Mondays to Saturdays because Belmonte prohibited work on Sundays.
To capitalize on Sunday readership, Philstar Daily, Inc. began publishing Starweek in 1987, which served as the Sunday magazine of The Philippine Star. In 1988, the newspaper added a Sunday issue in response to the demand for news on that day, while continuing its publication of Starweek. Aside from The Philippine Star, Philstar Daily, Inc. started publishing a Filipino-language tabloid Ang Pilipino Ngayon, which became Pilipino Star Ngayon. With the sudden death of Belmonte due to cancer on 28 January 1994, Soliven assumed chairmanship of the Board of Directors while retaining his position at publisher, he appointed Miguel Belmonte, as executive vice president. In the same year, the newspaper made use of the slogan "The only paper you read from cover to cover", in keeping with the new editorial policy of improving every single section of the paper so each can stand on its own without the main news section. On 4 August 1995, The Philippine Star became the first Philippine broadsheet newspaper to publish a colored front page.
In 1998, the Board of Directors unanimously appointed Miguel Belmonte as president and CEO, while Soliven remained as chairman of the Board of Directors and publisher. The following year, the newspaper introduced “Hotline 2000”, which made use of SMS as a means for opinion polling, thus becoming a pioneer in televoting in the Philippine print media industry, it was the beginning of other digital endeavors. In 2000, the newspaper debuted its website, philstar.com, thus becoming one of the first newspapers in the Philippines to have a presence in the Internet. In the same year, the company began using computer-to-plate printing system. In that year too, Miguel's brother, Isaac Belmonte, was appointed editor-in-chief of the newspaper. To further expand its readership, The Philippine Star entered into a partnership with fast food restaurant Jollibee in 2003 to become the first newspaper to be distributed free of charge in a fast food restaurant. A complimentary copy of the newspaper was given to Jollibee patrons nationwide for every purchase of a Jollibee breakfast meal.
The newspaper lost its founding publisher after Soliven died in Tokyo, Japan on 24 November 2006. Isaac Belmonte replaced him as publisher and chairman of the Editorial Board in 2012
Filipinos are the people who are native to or identified with the country of the Philippines. Filipinos come from various ethnolinguistic groups that are native to the islands or migrants from various Asia Pacific regions. There are more than 175 ethnolinguistic groups, each with its own language, identity and history; the modern Filipino identity, with its Austronesian roots, was influenced by Spain and the United States. The name Filipino was derived from the term las Islas Filipinas, the name given to the archipelago in 1543 by the Spanish explorer and Dominican priest Ruy López de Villalobos, in honour of Philip II of Spain. During the Spanish colonial period the term Filipino was used to classify Spaniards born in the Philippine islands, while indigenous peoples of the islands were called Indio. Historian Ambeth Ocampo has suggested that the first documented use of the word to Filipino to refer to Indios was the Spanish-language poem A la juventud filipina, published in 1879 by José Rizal..
The lack of the letter "F" in the pre-1987 Tagalog alphabet caused the letter "P" to be substituted for "F", though the alphabets and/or writing scripts of some non-Tagalog ethnic groups included the letter "F". Upon official adoption of the modern, 28-letter Filipino alphabet in 1987, the term Filipino was preferred over Pilipino. Locally, some still use "Pilipino" to refer to the people and "Filipino" to refer to the language, but in international use "Filipino" is the usual form for both. A number of Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "Pinoy", a slang word formed by taking the last four letters of "Filipino" and adding the diminutive suffix "-y". Other collective endonyms for the Filipino people include: "Patria Adorada" as popularized by Jose Rizal through his poem "Mi último adiós", "Bayang Pilipino" or the more poetic "Sambayanáng Pilipino". In 2010, a metatarsal from "Callao Man", discovered in 2007, was dated through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old. Prior to that, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines were thought to be the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone, discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B.
Fox, an anthropologist from the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed; these include the Homo sapiens. The "Tabon Man" fossils are considered to have come from a third group of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent Upper Pleistocene dates like 45 or 50 thousand years ago. Researchers say this indicates that the human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago. Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals or Rhea's. Fluctuations in ancient shorelines between 150,000 BC and 17,000 BC connected the Malay Archipelago region with Maritime Southeast Asia and the Philippines.
This may have enabled ancient migrations into the Philippines from Maritime Southeast Asia 50,000 BC to 13,000 BC. A January 2009 study of language phylogenies by R. D. Gray at the University of California, Los Angeles published in the journal Science, suggests that the population expansion of Austronesian peoples was triggered by rising sea levels of the Sunda shelf at the end of the last ice age; this was a two-pronged expansion, which moved north through the Philippines and into Taiwan, while a second expansion prong spread east along the New Guinea coast and into Oceania and Polynesia. The Negritos are descendants of the indigenous populations of the Sunda landmass and New Guinea, pre-dating the Mongoloid peoples who entered Southeast Asia. Multiple studies show that Negritos from Southeast Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with Australo-Melanesians, they were the ancestors of such tribes of the Philippines as the Aeta, Ayta, Ati and other similar groups. Today they comprise just 0.03% of the total Philippine population.
The majority of present-day Filipinos are a product of the long process of evolution and movement of people. After the mass migrations through land bridges, migrations continued by boat during the maritime era of South East Asia; the ancient races became homogenized into the Malayo-Polynesians which colonized the majority of the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos. Since at least the 3rd century, various ethnic groups established several communities; these were formed by the assimilation of various native Philippine kingdoms. South Asian and East Asian people together with the people of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula, traded with Filipinos and introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the native tribes of the Philippines. Most of these people stayed in the Philippines where they were absorbed into local societies. Many of the barangay were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Malacca, Indian Chola and Khmer empires, although de facto had established their own independent system of rule.
Trading links with Sumatra, Java, Malay Peninsu