Vallenato Legend Festival
The Vallenato Legend Festival is one of the most important musical festivals in Colombia. The Festival features a vallenato music contests for best interpreter of accordion, caja vallenata and guacharaca, as well as piqueria and best song. It's celebrated every year in April in the city of Department of Cesar, its origin dates back to 1968 when the celebrated vallenato composer Rafael Escalona, the governor of the state of Cesar and former president of the republic of Colombia, Alfonso López Michelsen, the writer and former Minister of Culture Consuelo Araújo, came up with the idea of organizing a festival that celebrated vallenato, a musical genre that’s autochthonous to Colombia’s northern atlantic coast and celebrate a religious festivity of "The Virgin of the Rosario". Since 1986, the organization of this festival rests in the hands of the Fundación Festival de la Leyenda Vallenata a non-profit private entity in charge of the promotion and defense of vallenato music as one of the immaterial cultural legacies of Colombia.
The Legend: The legend says that during the Spanish colonial period, two amerindian tribes from the Tairona culture. One of her fellow Indian tribesmen working for the Spaniards and told his tribe's cacique about this offensive insult; the angry Indians organized an attack, killing many people. When trying to destroy the temple, the "Virgin of the Rosario" appeared and with her cape blocked their arrows preventing them from destroying it; the natives, escaped to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, knowing that the Spaniards would follow them and would be in need of drinking water, they poisoned the "Sicarare lake". This resulted in the death of all the Spaniards involved; the Virgin began touching their bodies with her wand and reviving them. The surprised Indians surrendered; the most important event during the celebration of this festival is the vallenato musical contest. The winners are chosen by a vallenato experienced jury that evaluate the contestants’ prowess in the four main rhythms which are paseo, son and merengue.
There are several categories in which the contestants may participate including: "professional accordion player", "amateur accordion player", "young accordion player", "best new vallenato song", piquerías. Besides the annual winners, there is a special award given to renowned vallenato composers and performers, a statuette known as La Pilonera Mayor, given in recognition of the recipient’s dedication to vallenato music. La Pilonera Mayor is the highest honor given to a vallenato musician in Colombia and only six composers have received it until now; this award is given in honoris memoriam of disappeared Consuelo Araújo. Judges for competitions are selected by the Board of Directors of the Vallenato Legend Festival Foundation and must be affiliated members; the Rey de Reyes festival editions occur every 10 years, since 1987 and only previous winners can participate. The first winner was Colacho Mendoza, followed by Gonzalo "Cocha" Molina, the third King of Kings Hugo Carlos Granados won on May 1, 2007.
La Pilonera Mayor Award: Emiliano Zuleta Baquero, Rafael Escalona, Leandro Díaz, Calixto Ochoa, Adolfo Pacheco and Tobías Enrique Pumarejo. Piloneras Parade: This traditional dance was recovered from extinction in 1994 thanks to the Vallenato Legend Festival Foundation effort, was added to the festival's programming as the opening show; this dance is traditional of the magdalena river reveres. Traditionally Dancers paraded on the streets using a giant wooden mortar and pestle, the men and women danced around the'corn smashing' in a courteous and flirting way, dancing in front of friend's houses to receive liquor in exchange, but the festival kept the dance and turned it into a competition among groups of Piloneros and whoever exposes the best show becomes the winner. There are three categories. Other events: Record labels present their best artists and orchestras throughout the Festival before, during recess of events and after competition. Many Nightclubs and Event Centers offer alternative parties with vallenato musical groups and other orchestras.
Certain families affiliated to this Festival throw open "parrandas" or parties to special guests and friends. The Festival sponsors cultural activities related to the festival. Valledupar and surrounding towns have cockfight arenas, that have tournaments during the Festival dates; this sport considered brutal for some represent a major attraction for locals and some tourists, but are not sponsored by the Vallenato Legend Festival. This sport is a strong traditional hobby for some locals mixed with vallenato "parrandas" and lots of gambling. List of music festivals in Colombia List of folk festivals Official website Media related to Vallenato Legend Festival at Wikimedia Commons
Valledupar is a city and municipality in northeastern Colombia. It is the capital of Cesar Department, its name, Valle de Upar, was established in honor of the Amerindian cacique. The city lies between the mountains of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá to the borders of the Guatapurí and Cesar rivers. Valledupar is an important agricultural, cattle raising, coal mining and agro-industrial center for the region between the Departments of Cesar and southern municipalities of La Guajira Department known as the Padilla Province. Valledupar is notable as the cradle of vallenato music, representative of the Colombian culture; the city hosts the Vallenato Legend Festival. During the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, the city suffered during the Colombian Armed Conflict, with numerous kidnappings, thousands of people forced out and failure to control crime. Valledupar has one of Colombia's most modern maximum security prisons; the municipality of Valledupar is located southeast of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 10 degrees, 29 minutes, of north latitude and 73 degrees 15 minutes longitude to the west of the Greenwich Meridian.
Valledupar's average temperature is 28 °C. Because of its high altitude but proximity to the equator, this municipality possesses a variety of environments, from warm heat to perpetual snow; the most important heights are the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta's peaks. Many rivers descend from its snowy lagoons; the Municipality of Valledupar is bordered on the north with the municipalities of Riohacha and San Juan del Cesar in the department of La Guajira. To the south are the municipalities of El Paso and Los Robles La Paz in the department of Cesar; the municipality has an area of about 4,977.96 km², from which 72,660 km² pertain to the Arhuacos Indian Reserve, 399.52 km² to the Kogui and Wiwa Indian Reserve, 425.60 km² to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park. The municipality is home to numerous endemic species living in the ecosystem of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania del Perijá mountains, one of the most biodiverse places in the World; the most discovered species of bees was found in rural areas of Valledupar and named Stelis vallenata in tribute to the local Vallenato music.
The city's symbolic bird is the Turpial. Other notable birds that inhabit the region are the parrots that flock the fruit trees year round. During the colonial period, Spaniards introduced invasive European fauna into the region, such as dogs, rats, cattle, mules, goats y gallineta africana, among others. Spaniards introduced numerous species of flora from all over the World into the region, most notably mango trees, which have become the most popular tree in the city and municipality. However, the symbolic trees of the city are two types of Yellow Tabebuia, colloquially called "Cañaguate" and Puy; these trees cover the region with their notorious yellow blossom flowers during the dry season. The entities in charge of protecting and controlling the fauna and flora in the region are the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the local descentralized agency Corpocesar, under the Governor of the Cesar Department and Environmental Police of the Colombian National Police. Other non-profit organizations collaborate with these entities.
Climate in the municipality of Valledupar is determined by altitude. Half of the region is mountainous and the rest is plains in between the mountain ranges of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serrania del Perijá. Throughout the year, the region has two dry seasons and two rainy seasons affected by El Niño and La Niña phenomena; the peaks of the mountainous region gets snow during the rainy season and much cooler days and depending on the weather, the entire regions gets hit by hailstorms and thunderstorms. The regions is affected by the annual Caribbean hurricane season; the levels of rivers and bodies of water increase in the rainy season, vegetation grows green and bushy. During the dry season, vegetations dries and turns yellow, while bodies of water decrease in volume. In 2013, Valledupar was classified in average as the hottest place in Colombia, according to the Colombian Meteorological Institute, IDEAM; the Spanish named the Valle de Upar after a legendary local Amerindian cacique, leader of the indigenous Chimila.
The region was first explored by Pedro de Badillo. It was conquered in 1532 by the German Ambrosius Ehinger, governor of Venezuela, who invaded the area belonging to the government of Santa Marta; the city was founded in 1550 by Captain Hernando de Santana, who named it. The Catholic Church referred to the city as Ciudad de los Santos Reyes de Valle de Upar because it was founded on the 6th day of January, the day the three kings visited the infant Jesus; the name was modified to Valle Dupar and to Valledupar. Since the colonization period, the region has been a center for imports from the Caribbean area and distribution to the inland. Spaniards traveled through the area and established extensive farming rearing imported European cattle and agriculture. Much of the population of the Chimila Nation died from epidemics of new infectious diseases carried by the Europeans.
Montería is a municipality and city located in northern Colombia and is the capital of the Department of Córdoba. The city is located 50 km away by the Sinú River; the city and region are known for their distinct cultural heritages, which include a blend of indigenous Zenú Indians, African descendants, colonial Spanish descendants, more Arab immigrants. The city is home to a national symbol; the city has an inland seaport connected to the Caribbean Sea by the Sinú River. The area was first settled by Zenú Indians, who lived in the banks of the Sinú River, San Jorge River and Nechí River, where the Department of Córdoba is located today. In 2003, dentist and historian Jaime Castro released Historia Extensa de Montería, a book on the history of the city. According to Castro's book, Montería was founded on May 1, 1777 by Spanish officer Antonio de la Torre y Miranda, being governor of the Province of Cartagena officer Juan de Torrezar Díaz Pimienta; the city, named Montería by its inhabitants and located on the east side of the Sinú river, was renamed "San Jerónimo de Buenavista" and moved to the west side of the Sinú.
San Jerónimo de Buenavista was the name chosen by Antonio de la Torre y Miranda, in order to honor Saint Jeronimo, but people referred to it as Montería. In 1803, the city was burned by a group of natives, so the residents decided to move back to the Sinú's east bank, where it remains today. In recent years, Monteria has seen a growth in population on the west side. In 1923, it became a municipality of Bolívar Department, in 1952, it was designated as capital of the new Department of Córdoba. Montería was located within the boundaries of the Colombian Department of Bolívar until 1952 when it separated from Bolívar and became the capital of the new Department of Córdoba. With a population of 400,000, the city is considered to be one of the ten most important cities in Colombia and is locally known as La Perla del Sinú; the city, which lies in the Sinú valley, is divided by the Sinu river and surrounded and sparsely populated by tropical flora and fauna. The town's weather is warm and moderately humid, with average yearly temperatures of 27 °C.
The area is subject to flooding. El Espectador El Heraldo de Barranquilla Diario El Meridiano de Córdoba El Tiempo El Universal The town's economy is based on cattle farming, a prosperous commercial district consisting of modern malls and restaurant chains, it is considered to be the Cattle Farming Capital of Colombia and celebrates this title with a yearly festival. Plus, the city is one of the most important destination with venues of the country by having Great Stadiums and Convention centers, have received important celebrities such as Maelo Ruiz, Jorge Celedón, Shakira and Years, Carlos Vives, among others. Monteria lies on a major highway connecting Medellín to Sincelejo and extending to Cartagena and Barranquilla, it has an effective public transportation system and arterial connections to the rest of the country. As is common in most Colombian municipalities, public transportation is integrated into the city. A system of taxis and several lines of large and small buses serve the community on surface streets.
The streets of Monteria are full of motorcycle taxis or "rapimotos" that provide economical transportation. A passenger-only ferry system known as "Planchones", consists of roofed wooden rafts, it traverses the Sinu river along a system of manual cable tows. It was made as a way to cross the river before a proper bridge could be built and has served as an alternative to cross the river since, it is one of the most remarkable features of the city. The city is served by a fishing port, but the waters of the Sinu river do not run deep enough and are not wide enough to serve as a commercial channel. High quality sand is brought up from the bottom of the river in buckets placed by divers, for use in the making of cinder blocks for local and regional construction projects. Monteria is home to an international airport, Los Garzones Airport, which provides service to capital cities of neighboring provinces, through the country's main air carrier Avianca, easyfly and LATAM airlines; the main cities served from the airport are Panama City and Bogotá The region is populated by a diverse mix of people, including the indigenous people of the region, the descendants of the Sinu Indians, a tribe of natives with their own language that once produced ornate pottery and goldworks.
Sites of interest in Monteria include: The city's 1st Avenue runs along the Sinú river. Simon Bolivar Park is home to wild monkeys and sloths. Coveñas Beach is a beach; the Colonial-era Cathedral of Saint Jeronimo is surrounded by a park. Alamedas del Sinu is a shopping center in the area; the bridge spanning the Sinu river is a local landmark. Centro Comercial Buenavista Montería Centro Recreacional Tacasuán Club Campestre Club de golf Jaguares de Cordoba - Professional Soccer team that plays in Jaraguay Stadium in Montería Both public and private educational institutions run the gamut from unlicensed private preschools to accredited universities. University of Cordoba Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Universidad del Sinú Fundación Universitaria Luis Amigó Cooperative University of Colombia Corporación Universitaria del Caribe Venice, Italy Fort Lauderdale, United States A new hospital
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Carlos Alberto Vives Restrepo is a Colombian singer and actor. On September 13, 2018, Telemundo announced Carlos Vives as the fourth coach of La Voz. Vives joins Luis Fonsi, Alejandra Guzman and Wisin as coaches on the Spanish-language version of NBC singing-competition The Voice. Carlos Vives was born on 7 August 1961 in Santa Marta, Colombia, where he spent his first 12 years of life. At that age, he and his family moved to Bogotá in search of a better life, he holds a publicist degree from the university. In Bogotá, he acquired a taste for rock, getting involved in the local music scene, started playing in bars and cafés around the city. In 1982, Vives began acting in a number of shows and telenovelas including "Pequeños Gigantes" and "Tuyo es Mi Corazón", he found fame in 1986 by playing the title role of Gallito Ramírez, which told the story of a Colombian Caribbean coast boxer who falls in love with an uptight girl, portrayed by his first wife, Margarita Rosa de Francisco. That same year, Por Fuera y Por Dentro.
The album made of ballads, failed to gain any success. In 1987, he released his second ballad album, No Podrás Escapar de Mí. Though the title track reached No. 30 on the Billboard Hot Latin Tracks, the album did not sell well. His next album, Al Centro de la Ciudad, would become his last album to feature synthesizer-romantic ballads; some of the songs got some attention being featured in telenovelas, but the album, just as its predecessors, failed to gain success. In 1989, he was offered an acting job in Puerto Rico, upon moving, he took a break in his music career, he is remembered for his leading roles in the soaps La Aventurera. He married his second wife. Vives would spend his time between Colombia and the city of Mayagüez, Herlinda's hometown, during his marriage to her. Upon his return to Colombia in 1991, he was offered a TV role, he was cast in the leading role of a fantasy series based in the life of vallenato composer Rafael Escalona called, not Escalona. He sang the composer's songs in the series, that's when he retooled his career towards vallenato, gaining national success with the release of the Telenovela's two soundtrack albums, Escalona: Un Canto a la Vida and Escalona: Vol. 2.
In 1993, backed by the band "La Provincia", Vives released the album Clásicos de la Provincia in which he started fusing Vallenato with rock and other Caribbean Colombian ethnic rhythms. This fusion scandalized Vallenato purists; this style of vallenato was a huge success not only in Colombia but all over Latin countries, the albums' lead single, La Gota Fría, became a hit all over Latin America. Clásicos de la Provincia, won the Billboard Latin Music Awards Best Album and would become a timeless classic in Colombian and Latin American music, introducing Vallenato to both Colombia and the rest of the world; the follow-up album, La Tierra del Olvido would mark a further step in Vives' desire to fusion rock and pop music with traditional Colombian genres. The album gave Vives classic hits such as the title track, the up-tempo opening track Pa' Mayte, his subsequent releases, Tengo Fé, El Amor de Mi Tierra, Déjame Entrar and El Rock de Mi Pueblo, were all commercially successful and were well received by the critics.
In 2002 Carlos Vives' album "Déjame Entrar" won him his first Grammy award for Best Traditional Tropical Latin Album. In 2009 he released the album Clásicos de la Provincia II, sold in Colombian supermarket chain "Almacenes Éxito." The album saw Vives' return to covering famous Vallenato songs in his own style. It sold massively and the single Las Mujeres received wide radio airplay in all Colombia, his hits include "Matilde Lina", "La Hamaca Grande", "La gota fría", "Alicia Adorada", "Pa' Mayte", "La Tierra del Olvido", "Tu Amor Eterno", "Fruta Fresca", "Déjame Entrar", "Luna Nueva", "Carito", "Papadio", "Como Tú" and "Décimas Del Parecido". In 2012 Carlos Vives began a new era in music. With more than 40 songs written in that year, the new album was released in April 2013 and featured 11 tracks; the first single, "Volví a Nacer", was released in September 2012 and went straight to No. 1 on Billboard. The second single, "Como Le Gusta a Tu Cuerpo" featuring Michel Teló was released in late January 2013.
Carlos graced the small screen for all Colombia to see when he joined fellow artists Ricardo Montaner, Fanny Lu, Andrés Cepeda as one of the coaches for the first season of the vocal competition series phenomenon The Voice Colombia, which premiered October 2012 via Colombian TV network Caracol TV. On May 27, 2016, "La Bicicleta" with fellow Colombian singer Shakira was released as a single; the video for the song was filmed in Colombia in each of their home cities. The song debuted at the number one spot on Billboard's US Latin Airplay chart and number four on the US Hot Latin Songs chart. Vives was married to the famous Colombian actress Margarita Rosa de Francisco in a relationship, followed by the national media. Herlinda Gómez was his second wife with whom he had two children: Carlos Enrique Vives and Lucía Vives. He's now married to former Miss Colombia Claudia Elena Vásquez and they have two children: Elena Vives, Pedro Vives, he spends his time between Miami and Colombia Santa Marta and Bogotá.
1986 Por Fuera y Por Dentro 1987 No Podrás Escapar de Mí 1989
Rafael Calixto Escalona Martinez was a Colombian composer and troubadour. He was known for being one of the most prominent vallenato music composers and troubadours of the genre and for being the co-founder of the Vallenato Legend Festival, along with Consuelo Araújo and Alfonso López Michelsen, he was a long-time friend of Gabriel García Márquez, who included him in his stories and once told him that his own masterpiece novel, 100 years of solitude, was just a 350-page Vallenato. Escalona's songs compile the history and stories of the Magdalena Department of the past 20th century. Escalona was an atypical music composer: he does not play any instruments or sing so his songs can in some ways be difficult to analyze, his songs constitute a legacy of a past generation of Colombians in his memory, a pictorial collage, full of grace, that narrates stories and gossips from his region. He left a legacy of his loves and pains and poetry. In 1991 Caracol TV produced, he was born on May 26, 1926 to Colonel Clemente Escalona Labarces, veteran of Thousand Days War and Margarita Martinez Celedon in Patillal.
Because Patillal was a village in a rural area surrounded by farms, it was small and there wasn't that much to do after school, other than play with other kids and make up games. He had a happy childhood, dreamed of becoming a painter or cartoonist drawing funny depictions of classmates and teachers, but his all time friend and classmate, Jaime Molina was better at drawing than him, something that drove him instead, to read poetry and songs. He grew up listening to peasants and troubadours of the region that passed by the village bringing news from Valledupar and other regions, since there was no post office or other source of news that arrived at this isolated place, he moved to Valledupar to attend high school at The Loperena National High School where he composed his first song at the age of fifteen in 1943 called "El profe Castañeda". He wrote the song in honor and sadness of his favourite teacher being transferred to a school in Riohacha, his natural reaction was to dedicate a song to "el viejo Pedro" as he called him, since he grew up listening to local troubadours.
His classmates, who were saddened over the teacher's departure, embraced his song. From on, he saw himself doing something that he was good at, started writing songs whenever a situation merged. In 1945, feeling bored and short of motivation for school, Escalona was transferred to a school in Barranquilla for a short period and to the Celedon Lyceum High School in Santa Marta, where he composed "El Hambre del Liceo", complaining about the poor food quality that the school offered. Tired of school he went back to Valledupar. In Valledupar he devoted his time to learning about agriculture, he started planting rice. He tried to break into the illegal coffee trade by bringing contraband from Aruba with a friend named "Pipe" Socarras, he became a heavy drinker of whiskey and rum. He started courting many women at once. On April 14, 1951 he got married to Marina Arzuaga Mejía known as "La Maye", who would give him six of his presently suspected thirty six children.. By the 1950s he had become a renowned composer and befriended with local political leaders in "parrandas".
He always departed with people from Patillal including husband of Consuelo Araújo. By the 1960s, when former President of Colombia Alfonso López Michelsen became governor of the newly created Department of Cesar, Lopez was invited to live in Hernando Molina's house. In this "vallenato parrandas" or parties, Consuelo Araújo and Lopez decided to create a Vallenato Festival. López invited them in many occasions to Bogotá, where he organized vallenato parrandas and introduced them to Colombia's political leaders. In 1968 the first Vallenato Legend Festival took place, he died on the afternoon May 2009 in Bogotá, Colombia due to heart failure. He had been interned for two weeks in the Santa Fe Clinic in Bogotá and had been on a medical ventilator and unconscious earlier that day. Before he died Escalona received a visit from the Colombian Ex-President Álvaro Uribe. "El Hambre del Liceo" "La casa en el aire" "Elegía a Jaime Molina" "La vieja sara" "El Almirante Padilla" "La patillalera" "La custodia de Badillo" "El villanuevero" "El general Dangond" "La historia" "Honda herida" "La brasilera" "El arco iris" "El perro de Pavajeau" "EL jerre jerre" "La Privincia" "El testamento" "El Bachiller" "Maria Tere" Guillermo Buitrago Julio César Bovea Rafael Escalona - Daily Telegraph obituary
The Children of Vallenato
The Children of Vallenato is a vallenato musical group of children. The group was created by the Vallenato Legend Festival Foundation, to promote future artist for this musical genre; the group has performed throughout the world, in many countries, including a personal presentation for former US president Bill Clinton at the White House