Province of Guadalajara
Guadalajara is a province of central/north-central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. As of 2013 it had a population of 257,723 people, the population of the province has grown in the last 10 years. The province has been inhabited since the Paleolithic as evidenced by stone tools found on the banks of the Henares and Linares rivers. There are remains of bronze age settlements along the river banks in the area. In addition to raising livestock and breeding horses, they created many fortified towns, between 143 and 133 B. C. the Romans initiated their battles to conquer Spain which continued until 94 B. C. They brought agriculture and commerce to the region, facilitating communications with roads, the most important Roman city was Segontia although they built a town wall around Luzaga where there were large public buildings. The Visigoths, with their capital at Toledo, were dominant in the area around the 6th and 7th centuries A. D. bringing Christianity, in 578, King Leovigild founded Recópolis on the River Tagus with a basilica and a palace.
The Moors arrived in the area in c,711, establishing Islamic rule for some four centuries until the early 13th century. Their most important contribution was founding of the capital, the territory now covered by the Province of Guadalajara was part of the Moors Marca Media. Generally sparsely populated, the most important towns were Atienza, Jadraque, following the dismemberment of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Toledo gained independence in 1018, reaching its zenith under Yahya-al-Mamun who reigned from 1043 to 1075. Following his death, pressure from King Alfonso VI of León, by the early 12th century, Molina, La Serrania, Sigüenza and the Tagus Valley were retrieved leading to the establishment of the Bishopric of Sigüenza. Under Alfonso VII and Alfonso VIII, the region was repopulated with people other parts of Castile. The modern age began with the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon whose marriage in Valladolid in 1469 united the crowns of Castile and Aragón.
They centralized the authority which had developed in the church, the military, in the 16th century, this practice was reinforced by Charles I and Philip II. In Guadalajara, this was particularly the case with areas that had belonged to the orders of Calatrava. The Mendozas who succeeded in acquiring substantial territories built a palace in Pastrana and extended their influence over Sayatón. Under the Mendozas, the city of Guadalajara prospered in the 15th and 16th centuries, attracting writers and philosophers, bringing it the name la Atenas alcarreña. Encouraged by the Renaissance, Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Santillana, not only built palaces and monasteries but developed a library of Greek
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
The martyrs St Orencio and St Paciencia are traditionally held to have been his parents. He encountered the future Pope St Sixtus II, who was of Greek origin and one of the most famous and highly esteemed teachers, both left Spain for Rome. When Sixtus became the Pope in 257, he ordained St Lawrence as a deacon and he is therefore called archdeacon of Rome, a position of great trust that included the care of the treasury and riches of the Church and the distribution of alms to the indigent. At the beginning of August 258, the Emperor Valerian issued an edict that all bishops, Pope St Sixtus II was captured on 6 August 258, at the cemetery of St Callixtus while celebrating the liturgy and executed forthwith. After the death of Sixtus, the prefect of Rome demanded that St Lawrence turn over the riches of the Church, St Ambrose is the earliest source for the narrative that St Lawrence asked for three days to gather the wealth. He worked swiftly to distribute as much Church property to the indigent as possible, one account records him declaring to the prefect, The Church is truly rich, far richer than your emperor.
This act of defiance led directly to his martyrdom and can be compared to the parallel Roman tale of the jewels of Cornelia, on 10 August, St Lawrence, the last of the seven deacons, and therefore, the ranking Church official, suffered a martyrs death. The Almanac of Philocalus for AD354 states that he was buried in the Catacomb of Cyriaca on the Via Tiburtina by Hippolytus and Justin the Confessor, one of the early sources for his martyrdom was the description of Aurelius Prudentius Clemens in his Peristephanon, Hymn 2. A famous legend has persisted from ancient times, as deacon in Rome, St Lawrence was responsible for the material goods of the Church and the distribution of alms to the poor. St Ambrose of Milan relates that when the treasures of the Church were demanded of St Lawrence by the Prefect of Rome, he brought forward the poor, to whom he had distributed the treasure as alms. Behold in these poor persons the treasures which I promised to show you, to which I will add pearls and precious stones, those widows and consecrated virgins, which are the Churchs crown.
The Prefect was so angry that he had a great gridiron prepared with hot coals beneath it, after the martyr had suffered pain for a long time, the legend concludes, he cheerfully declared, Im well done. From this derives his patronage of cooks and comedians, Emperor Constantine I is traditionally held to have erected a small oratory in honour of St Lawrence, which was a station on the itineraries of the graves of the Roman martyrs by the seventh century. Pope Damasus I rebuilt or repaired the church, now the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, the gridiron of the martyrdom was placed by Pope Paschal II in the Minor Basilica of San Lorenzo in Lucina. Lawrence in Palatio ad Sancta Sanctorum, Pontifical Sanctuary of the Holy Stairs, the life and miracles of St Lawrence were collected in The Acts of St Lawrence but those writings have been lost. The earliest existing documentation of miracles associated with him is in the writings of St Gregory of Tours, sanctulus was rebuilding a church of St Lawrence, which had been attacked and burnt, and hired many workmen to accomplish the job.
At one point during the construction, he himself with nothing to feed them. He prayed to St Lawrence for help, and looking in his basket he found a fresh and it seemed to him too small to feed the workmen, but in faith he began to serve it to the men
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, located on the Calle de Alcalá in the heart of Madrid, currently functions as a museum and gallery. The academy was established by decree in 1744. About twenty years later, the enlightened monarch Charles III purchased a palace in Madrid as the new home. The building had been designed by José Benito de Churriguera for the Goyeneche family, the king commissioned Diego de Villanueva to convert the building for academic use, employing a neoclassical style in place of Churrigueras baroque design. The academy is the headquarters of the Madrid Academy of Art, francisco Goya was once one of the academys directors, and its alumni include Felip Pedrell, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Antonio López García, Juan Luna, Oscar de la Renta, and Fernando Botero. Enlightenment in Spain Media related to Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando at Wikimedia Commons Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Android and iOS Official mobile app
Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Assisi, born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco, was an Italian Roman Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the mens Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. Pope Gregory IX canonized Francis on 16 July 1228, along with Saint Catherine of Siena, he was designated Patron saint of Italy. In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades, by this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order, once his community was authorized by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs. Francis is known for his love of the Eucharist, in 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas live nativity scene. He died during the hours of 3 October 1226, while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142.
Pietro was in France on business when Francis was born in Assisi, upon his return to Assisi, Pietro took to calling his son Francesco, possibly in honor of his commercial success and enthusiasm for all things French. Since the child was renamed in infancy, the change can hardly have had anything to do with his aptitude for learning French, as some have thought. While going off to war in 1202, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, in 1205, Francis left for Apulia to enlist in the army of Walter III, Count of Brienne. Francis lived the high-spirited life typical of a young man. In 1201, he joined an expedition against Perugia and was taken as a prisoner at Collestrada. It is possible that his conversion was a gradual process rooted in this experience. Upon his return to Assisi in 1203, Francis returned to his carefree life, in 1204, a serious illness led him to a spiritual crisis. A strange vision made him return to Assisi, deepening his ecclesiastical awakening, on a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St.
Peters Basilica, an experience that moved him to live in poverty. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon gathered followers and his Order was authorized by Pope Innocent III in 1210. He founded the Order of Poor Clares, which became a religious order for women. As a youth, Francesco became a devotee of troubadours and was fascinated with all things Transalpine, in this account, he was selling cloth and velvet in the marketplace on behalf of his father when a beggar came to him and asked for alms
Valerius of Saragossa
Saint Valerius of Saragossa is the patron saint of Saragossa. He was bishop of this city from 290 until his death and he assisted at the Council of Elvira. His feast day is January 29, valerian was bishop of Caesaraugustana from 290 until 315. There are few records of Valerius but tradition holds that he had an impediment. Both Valerius and Vincent suffered imprisonment under Diocletian, Valerius was exiled for a time to a place called Enet, near Barbastro, but is known to have been present at the Council Elvira. His relics were discovered around 1050, an idealised portrait of this Bishop is found in the magnificent Pantaleão, Zaragoza. A chapel dedicated to him can be found at La Seo Cathedral and it includes a baroque entryway of gilded wood from the seventeenth century with scenes of the saints Valerius and Lawrence. Saint of the Day, January 22, Valerius of Saragossa at SaintPatrickDC. org
Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was embodied most strongly in the arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of heroic individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art, there was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism, the decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the point of the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist.
The importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich that the feeling is his law. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were laws that the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone. As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creators own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist who was able to produce his own work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism. This idea is called romantic originality. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief, this is particularly in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the voice of the artist. So, in literature, much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves.
In both French and German the closeness of the adjective to roman, meaning the new literary form of the novel, had some effect on the sense of the word in those languages. It is only from the 1820s that Romanticism certainly knew itself by its name, the period typically called Romantic varies greatly between different countries and different artistic media or areas of thought. Margaret Drabble described it in literature as taking place roughly between 1770 and 1848, and few dates much earlier than 1770 will be found. In English literature, M. H. Abrams placed it between 1789, or 1798, this latter a very typical view, and about 1830, however, in most fields the Romantic Period is said to be over by about 1850, or earlier
Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash. Researchers believe that the town was founded in the seventh or sixth century BC by the Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, by the time of its destruction,160 years later, its population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex water system, an amphitheatre, and a port. The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash, the site was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and broader rediscovery almost 150 years by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748. The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for centuries because of the lack of air and these artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana.
During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies and this allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or she died. Pompeii has been a tourist destination for over 250 years, today it has UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year. Pompeii in Latin is a second declension plural, the ruins of Pompeii are located near the modern suburban town of Pompei. It stands on a formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River. Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast, Pompeii is about 8 km away from Mount Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares and was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts and it was a major city in the region of Campania. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of bone, pottery shards.
Carbon dating has placed the oldest of these layers from the 8th–6th centuries BC, the other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BC. It is theorized that the layers of the sediment were created by large landslides. The town was founded around the 7th-6th century BC by the Osci or Oscans and it had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo, Pompeii was captured by the Etruscans, and in recent excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions. Pompeii was captured for the first time by the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, in the 5th century BC, the Samnites conquered it, the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town
Basilica of San Francisco el Grande, Madrid
The Royal Basilica of San Francisco el Grande is a Roman Catholic church in central Madrid, located in the Barrio of La Latina. The main façade faces the Plaza of San Francisco, at the intersection of Bailén, the Gran Vía de san Francisco, and it forms part of the convent of Jesús y María of the Franciscan order. The convent was founded in the 13th century at the site of a chapel, the basilica was designed in a Neoclassic style in the second half of the 18th century, based on a design by Francisco Cabezas, developed by Antonio Pló, and completed by Francesco Sabatini. The church contains paintings by Zurbarán and Francisco Goya, the temple once functioned as the National pantheon and enshrined the remains of famous artists and politicians. The dome is 33 metres in diameter and 58 metres in height, its shape is similar to the Pantheons dome
Numantia was an ancient Celtiberian settlement, whose remains are located 7 km north of the city of Soria, on a hill known as Cerro de la Muela in the municipality of Garray. Numantia is famous for its role in the Celtiberian Wars, in the year 153 BC Numantia experienced its first serious conflict with Rome. After 20 years of hostilities, in the year 133 BC the Roman Senate gave Scipio Aemilianus Africanus the task of destroying Numantia and he laid siege to the city, erecting a nine kilometre fence supported by towers, impaling rods and so on. After 13 months of siege, the Numantians decided to burn the city and die free rather than live, the nearest settlement to the ruins of Numantia is the village of Garray in the province of Soria. Garray has grown up next to a bridge across the Duero and it is only a few miles from the small city of Soria, capital of the eponymous province. Numantia was an Iron Age hill fort, which controlled a crossing of the river Duero, pliny the Elder counts it as a city of the Pellendones, but other authors, like Strabo and Ptolemy place it among the Arevaci people.
The Arevaci were a Celtiberian tribe, formed by the mingling of Iberians and migrating Celts in the 6th century BC, the first serious conflict with Rome occurred in 153 BC when Quintus Fulvius Nobilior was consul. Numantia took in some fugitives from the city of Segeda, who belonged to another Celtiberian tribe called the Belli, the leader of the Belli, Carus of Segeda, managed to defeat a Roman army. The Romans besieged Numantia, and deployed a number of war elephants. Before their defeat in 133 BC, the Numantians gained a number of victories, for example, in 137 BC,20,000 Romans surrendered to the Celtiberians of Numantia. The young Roman officer Tiberius Gracchus, as quaestor, saved the Roman army from destruction by signing a treaty with the Numantines. The final siege of Numantia began in the year 134 BC, Scipio Aemilianus, who was a Roman consul at that time, was in command of an army of 30,000 soldiers. His troops constructed a number of surrounding the city as they prepared for a long siege.
Resistance was hopeless but the Numantians refused to surrender and famine spread through the city. After eight months most of the decided to commit suicide rather than become slaves. Only a few hundred of the inhabitants and famished, surrendered to the victorious Roman legions, the expression may be used to indicate any desperate, suicidal last ditch stand resistance to invading forces. After the destruction, there are remains of occupation in the 1st century BC, with a street plan. Its decay starts in the 3rd century, but with Roman remains still from the 4th century, remains from the 6th century hint of a Visigoth occupation