Andrey Tasev Lyapchev was a Bulgarian Prime Minister in three consecutive governments. Lyapchev was born in the Macedonian city of Resen, at the time a part of the Ottoman Empire, played a leading role in Bulgarian politics. Lyapchev's family is thought to have originated from a certain Dore, a Megleno-Romanian potter who fled the Islamization of his native Notia and settled in Resen in the 18th century. Andrey Lyapchev started his education in Resen but after the April Uprising of 1876 the local school was shut down by Ottoman authorities, following the fate of many other Bulgarian schools in Macedonia, he spent the next three years helping his brother. Georgi was left to take care of the family after the death of their father. In 1879 Lyapchev signed in the Bitola gymnasium and two years he moved to the newly established Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki. One of his teacher’s there was his fellow-townsman Trayko Kitanchev, who had a significant influence on the young student. After Kitanchev’s dismissal in 1884 Lyapchev left the school and moved to Plovdiv together with his teacher.
At the time Plovdiv was the main city of the Autonomous Province of Eastern Rumelia. Together with other Macedonian students of the Plovdiv gymnasium, like Pere Toshev and Nikola Genadiev, Lyapchev got closer with Zahari Stoyanov and the Bulgarian Secret Central Revolutionary Committee, preparing the future unification between Eastern Rumelia and the Principality of Bulgaria, he was sent to the Panagyurishte committee on 2 September 1885, but authorities arrested him on the way. He was let free. With the beginning of the Serbo-Bulgarian War on 2 September 1885, the whole group signed in the First Volunteers Corps. However, by order of Knyaz Aleksander I students were left at the rear of the advancing army. Lyapchev and the rest managed to reach the captured town of Pirot. There they were de-mobilised in December, returning to Plovdiv afterwards. In the summer of 1886 Russia organised a coup d’état which resulted in the disposal of Knyaz Aleksandar I and in a drastic interference of Russian generals in the internal affairs of Bulgaria.
These events made Lyapchev more sympathetic to the cause of the extreme nationalists led by Zahari Stoyanov, Dimitar Petkov and Dimitar Rizov. The latter was a prominent figure among Macedonian emigrants at the time. Lyapchev went on to lead a group of nationalists that beat up conservative politician Todor Burmov, a deed that Lyapchev himself dismissed. In the following months relations between Lyapchev, on one side, the Stambolovist government and Zahari Stoyanov on the other, grew colder, Lyapchev got closer with Dimitar Rizov. Tensions between authorities and the Macedonian emigration intensified further after Kosta Panitsa was jailed and sentenced to death over allegations of organising a coup d’état. In the summer of 1888 Rizov published articles critical to the Prime Minister Stefan Stambolov and was sentenced to two years in jail. A warrant was issued with Lyapchev's name on it, he before long rose to ministerial rank. In this role he signed the 1908 treaty that established Bulgarian independence as well as the 1918 Armistice of Salonica.
After the First World War he became the first civilian to hold the post of Minister of War. He fell out of favour under Aleksandar Stamboliyski and was imprisoned between 1922 and the military coup of 1923. Lyapchev became Prime minister on 4 January 1926 at the head of a coalition between the Democratic Alliance and the National Liberal Party. Lyapchev pursued a more moderate line than his predecessor Aleksandar Tsankov, declaring an amnesty for Communist prisoners, he secured two loans from the League of Nations to help bolster the economy, although economic problems were exacerbated by an earthquake in Plovdiv. He was, criticized for his toleration of the activities of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization which strained relations with Yugoslavia and Greece. Despite his more moderate stance Bulgaria struggled to cope with the Great Depression and so he lost the 1931 election, he died in Sofia two years later
Teodor Ivanov Teodorov was a leading Bulgarian politician and legal expert who served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria after the First World War. Teodorov first came to prominence through his support for reform of the Bulgarian legal system and took part in a Commission set up in 1911 that produced the Administrative Justice Law that established a Supreme Court, he was called in to head a coalition government after the resignation of Aleksandar Malinov on 28 November 1918 and struggled to keep order in the defeated country. An opponent of Aleksandar Stamboliyski, he was forced to admit the Agrarian Peoples Union leader into the Cabinet and was succeeded as Prime Minister by him. Teodorov was to play no further role in Bulgarian politics
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not the end of a war, since it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace, it is derived from the Latin arma, meaning "arms" and -stitium, meaning "a stopping". The United Nations Security Council imposes, or tries to impose, cease-fire resolutions on parties in modern conflicts. Armistices are always negotiated between the parties themselves and are thus seen as more binding than non-mandatory UN cease-fire resolutions in modern international law. An armistice is a modus vivendi and is not the same as a peace treaty, which may take months or years to agree on; the 1953 Korean War Armistice Agreement is a major example of an armistice which has not been followed by a peace treaty. Armistice is different from a truce or ceasefire, which refer to a temporary cessation of hostilities for an agreed limited time or within a limited area. A truce may be needed in order to negotiate an armistice.
Under international law an armistice is a legal agreement which ends fighting between the "belligerent parties" of a war or conflict. At the Hague Convention of 1899, where three treaties were agreed and three declarations made, the Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land stated that "If duration is not fixed," the parties can resume fighting as they choose, but with proper notifications; this is in comparison to a "fixed duration" armistice, where the parties can renew fighting only at the end of the particular fixed duration. When the belligerent parties say, "this armistice ends the fighting" without any end date for the armistice duration of the armistice is fixed in the sense that no resumption of the fighting is allowed at any time. For example, the Korean Armistice Agreement calls for a "ceasefire and armistice" and has the "objective of establishing an armistice which will ensure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the Armistice of 11 November 1918 signed between the Allies of World War I and the German Empire at Compiègne, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918. Most countries changed the name of the holiday after World War II, to honor veterans of that and subsequent conflicts. Most member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted the name Remembrance Day, while the United States chose Veterans Day. Armistice of Copenhagen of 1537 ended the Danish war known as the Count's Feud Armistice of Stuhmsdorf of 1635 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden Peace of Westphalia of 1648 that ended the Thirty Years' War and Eighty Years' War World War I Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, December 1917 Armistice of Salonika between Bulgaria and the Allies, September 1918 Armistice of Mudros between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies, October 1918 Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti ended the fighting of the war on the Italian front in early November 1918 Armistice with Germany, ended the fighting of the war on the western front, November 11, 1918 Armistice of Mudanya between Turkey, Italy and the UK and Greece, 1922 World War II Armistice with France, 1940 Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre between British forces in the Middle East and Vichy France forces in Syria, 1941 Armistice with Italy, formal agreement of warring parties, the Allies and Italy, to stop fighting, signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano.
Moscow Armistice, signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan and Syria Korean War Armistice Agreement, July 1953 Geneva Agreements signed by France and the Viet Minh on 20 July 1954 ending the First Indochina War Armistice in Algeria, 1962, which attempted to end the Algerian War "Allied Armistice Terms, 11 November 1918". The War to End All Wars. FirstWorldWar.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04; the Expanded Cease-Fires Data Set Code Book
History of Bulgaria (1878–1946)
After the Russo-Turkish War, an autonomous Bulgarian state was created within the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. Although remaining under Ottoman sovereignty, it functioned independently, taking Alexander of Battenberg as its first prince. In 1885 it took control of the still-Ottoman Eastern Rumelia under a personal union. Following the abdication of Alexander, Ferdinand I was elected prince in 1887. Full independence was declared in 1908; the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars, Bulgaria formed an alliance with Greece and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empire, together liberating a great deal of Ottoman territory. Bulgaria was however unhappy with the resulting division of territory, soon went to war against former allies Serbia and Greece, in which it lost territory it had gained in the first war; the First World War saw Bulgaria allied with Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire. Its defeat led to the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Social problems and political instability persisted throughout the interwar years.
In the Second World War, Bulgaria again allied with Germany. Although it attempted to pull out of the war as Soviet Union advanced towards it, it was invaded, a communist government was put into power; the proposed Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for a self-governing Bulgarian state, which comprised the geographical regions of Moesia and Macedonia. Fearing the establishment of a large Russian client state on the Balkans, the other Great Powers Britain and Austro-Hungary, were not willing to agree to the treaty; the British were concerned over the safety of their routes to India. The Dual Monarchy, the Austria-Hungarian Empire was afraid that establishment of a large independent Slavic state in the Balkans would encourage other Slavs living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire to seek an independent break away state. Accordingly, both Britain and Austria-Hungary sought for the treaty to be revised; as a result, the Treaty of Berlin, under the supervision of Otto von Bismarck of Germany and Benjamin Disraeli of Britain, revised the earlier treaty, scaled back the proposed Bulgarian state.
An autonomous Principality of Bulgaria was created, between the Danube and the Stara Planina range, with its seat at the old Bulgarian capital of Veliko Turnovo, including Sofia. This state was to be under nominal Ottoman sovereignty but was to be ruled by a prince elected by a congress of Bulgarian notables meeting in Turnovo as the Bulgarian Principality's Constituent Assembly on February 10, 1879 and approved by the Powers, they insisted that the Prince could not be a Russian, but in a compromise Prince Alexander of Battenberg, a nephew of Tsar Alexander II, was chosen. An autonomous Ottoman province under the name of Eastern Rumelia was created south of the Stara Planina range, whereas Macedonia was returned under the sovereignty of the Sultan; the Bulgarians adopted an advanced democratic constitution, power soon passed to the Liberal Party led by Stefan Stambolov. Prince Alexander had conservative leanings, at first opposed Stambolov's policies, but by 1885 he had become sufficiently sympathetic to his new country to change his mind, supported the Liberals.
He supported the Unification of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, brought about by a coup in Plovdiv in September 1885. The Powers did not intervene because of the power struggles between them. Shortly after, Serbia declared war on Bulgaria in the hope of grabbing territory while the Bulgarians were distracted; the Bulgarians used the momentum to launch a counterattack. The Serbian army was pushed into Serbian territory, but Bulgaria was forced to halt its advance after the Austro-Hungarian Empire threatened to intervene on the Serbian side; the unification was accepted by the Powers in the form of personal union. These events made Alexander popular in Bulgaria, but Russia was dissatisfied with his liberal tendencies. In August 1886 they fomented a coup, in the course of which Alexander was forced to abdicate and was exiled to Russia. Stambolov, however and the participants in the coup were forced to flee the country. Stambolov tried to reinstate Alexander, but strong Russian opposition forced the prince to abdicate again.
In July 1887 the Bulgarians elected Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as their new Prince. Ferdinand was the "Austrian candidate" and the Russians refused to recognize him despite his friendship with Tsar Alexander III. Ferdinand worked with Stambolov, but by 1894 their relationship worsened. Stambolov resigned and was assassinated in July 1895. Ferdinand decided to restore relations with Russia, which meant returning to a conservative policy. There was a substantial Bulgarian population still living under Ottoman rule in Macedonia. To complicate matters and Greece too made claims over parts of Macedonia, thus began the Balkan Wars, a five-sided struggle for control of these areas which lasted through World War I. In 1903 there was a Bulgarian insurrection in Ottoman Macedonia and war seemed likely. In 1908 Ferdinand used the struggles between the Great Powers to declare Bulgaria a independent kingdom, with himself as Tsar, which he did on 5 October in the St Forty Martyrs Church in Veliko Tarnovo.
The main external political problem confronting Bulgaria throughout the period up to World War I was the fate of Macedonia and Eastern Thrace. At the end of 19th century the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization was founded and began the preparation of an armed uprising in the
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Your Honour and Your Honor redirect here. For a list of English honorifics, see Style. For other uses, see Your Honour A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges; the powers, method of appointment and training of judges vary across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court; the judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might be an examining magistrate; the ultimate task of a judge is to settle a legal dispute in a final and public manner, thus affirm the rule of law. Judges exercise significant governmental power, they can order police, military or judicial officials to execute searches, imprisonments, distrainments, seizures and similar actions.
However, judges supervise that trial procedures are followed, in order to ensure consistency and impartiality and avoid arbitrariness. The powers of a judge are checked by higher courts such as supreme courts. Before the trial, a pre-trial investigation collecting the facts has been conducted by police officials, such as police officers and coroners, prosecutors or public procurators; the court has three main trained court officials: the judge, the prosecutor and the defence attorney. The role of a judge varies between legal systems. In an adversarial system, as in effect in the U. S. and England, the judge functions as an impartial referee ensuring correct procedure, while the prosecution and the defense present their case to a jury selected from common citizens. The main factfinder is the jury, the judge will finalize sentencing. In smaller cases judges can issue summary judgments without proceeding to a jury trial. In an inquisitorial system, as in effect in continental Europe, there is no jury and the main factfinder is the judge, who will do the presiding and sentencing on his own.
As such, the judge is expected to apply the law directly, as in the French expression Le juge est la bouche de la loi. Furthermore, in some system investigation may be conducted by the judge, functioning as an examining magistrate. Judges may work alone in smaller cases, but in criminal and other significant cases, they work in a panel. In some civil law systems, this panel may include lay judges. Unlike professional judges, lay judges are not trained, but unlike jurors, lay judges are volunteers and may be politically appointed. Judges are assisted by law clerks and notaries in legal cases and by bailiffs or similar with security. There are professional judges. A volunteer judge, such as an English magistrate, is not required to have legal training and is unpaid. Whereas, a professional judge is required to be educated. S. this requires a degree of Juris Doctor. Furthermore, significant professional experience is required. S. judges are appointed from experienced attorneys. Judges are appointed by the head of state.
In some U. S. jurisdictions, judges are elected in a political election. Impartiality is considered important for rule of law. Thus, in many jurisdictions judges may be appointed for life, so that they cannot be removed by the executive. However, in non-democratic systems, the appointment of judges may be politicized and they receive instructions on how to judge, may be removed if their conduct doesn't please the political leadership. Judges must be able to research and process extensive lengths of documents and other case material, understand complex cases and possess a thorough understanding of the law and legal procedure, which requires excellent skills in logical reasoning and decision-making. Excellent writing skills are a necessity, given the finality and authority of the documents written. Judges work with people all the time. Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges enjoy a high salary, in the U. S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum, federal judges earn $208,000–$267,000 per annum.
A variety of traditions have become associated with the occupation. Gavels are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge. In many parts of the world, judges sit on an elevated platform during trials. American judges wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes. In some countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs; the long wig associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was par