Army General (Soviet rank)
Army general was a rank of the Soviet Union, first established in June 1940 as a high rank for Red Army generals, inferior only to the marshal of the Soviet Union. In the following 51 years the Soviet Union created 133 generals of the army, 32 of whom were promoted to the rank of marshal of the Soviet Union, it is a direct counterpart of the Russian Federation's "Army general" rank. The rank was given to senior officers of the Ministry of Defence and General Staff, to meritorious military district commanders. From the 1970s, it was frequently given to the heads of the KGB and the Ministry of the Interior. Soviet army generals include Aleksei Antonov, Issa Pliyev and Yuri Andropov; the Soviet rank of army general is comparable to NATO OF-9 level and equivalent to the UK and US ranks of general. The corresponding naval rank is admiral of the fleet, used in both the Soviet and Russian navies, although conferred much more rarely. Army general was used for the infantry and marines, but in the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops and signal troops the ranks of marshal of the branch and chief marshal of the branch were used.
Versions of rank insignia Army general in the USSR The contemporary Russian Army retains the rank of army general and it is still used. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the ranks of marshal of the branch and chief marshal of the branch were abolished, the most senior officers of these branches now hold the rank of army general. Although chief marshals and marshals and admirals of the fleet were in service equivalent to the army general, in rank they superseded them until 1974 when the rank army general was formally equated with the chief marshals of a troop arm and marshals of a troop arm, it was at this time that their shoulder straps were changed from a four star to a single, larger star and the army logo. After 1974 they were permitted to wear the marshal's star necklace. Before 1943, army generals wore five stars on their collar patches. Since 1943, they have worn four stars on their shoulder straps. From 1974 they wore a single large star with a ground forces emblem. In 1997 their Russian successors returned to the four-star insignia.
In 2013 the single large star returned as the insignia for the rank of army general in the Russian Federation. Russian military ranks Army general Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955, 1955–1991 Ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation's armed forces 1994–2010
Central Group of Forces
The Central Group of Forces was a formation of the Soviet Armed Forces used to incorporate Soviet troops in Central Europe on two occasions: in Austria and Hungary from 1945-55 and troops stationed in Czechoslovakia after the Prague Spring of 1968. After the end of the Second World War, the Soviet High Command reorganized its troops on the territories it liberated from the Nazi occupation and now occupied. Stavka Directive Nr 11097 on 10 June 1945 created several new formations, known as Groups of Forces, equivalent to military districts but located outside the Soviet Union; the Central Group of Forces was created around that time from the 1st Ukrainian Front to control troops in Austria and Hungary, did so from 1945 until 1955, when Soviet troops were withdrawn from Austria after the Austrian State Treaty was agreed. Its first commander was Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Konev. On its creation it consisted of the 4th, 5th, 7th and 9th Guards Armies, the 1st Guards Cavalry Corps, the 7th and 10th Breakthrough Artillery Corps, 3rd and 4th Guards Tank Armies, the 2nd Air Army, the 18th Tank and 7th Guards Mechanized Corps.
Headquarters was at Baden bei Wien. During the summer of 1945, 7th and 9th Guards Armies were withdrawn back to the Soviet Union. By the end of the summer, the corps directly subordinated to the group had been withdrawn. Army General Vladimir Kurasov commanded the Group from 12 June 1946 to 20 April 1949. In August 1946, the 4th Guards Army was withdrawn to the Odessa Military District. On 20 March 1947, the 5th Guards Army was disbanded. In May 1947, the 3rd and 4th Guards Mechanized Armies, now reduced to mobilization divisions, were transferred to the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany. In February 1949, the 2nd Air Army was renumbered as the 59th. On 20 April 1949, Kurasov was replaced by Lieutenant General Vladimir Svirivdov. On 14 May 1953, Colonel General Sergey Biryuzov replaced Sviridov in command. Colonel General Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov took command on 31 May 1954. In June 1955 the group included the following units; the dispositions of the group did not change between and its disbandment in September.
Headquarters. The group was disbanded in September 1955 due to the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Austria; the 2nd and 17th Guards Mechanized Division became part of a newly formed Special Corps on Hungarian territory. The 13th Guards Mechanized Division and 95th Guards Rifle Division were moved to the Carpathian Military District; the remaining units, including the headquarters of the 59th Air Army, were disbanded. The Central Group of Forces was reinstituted as a legacy of the 1968 Prague Spring events; until that time, no Soviet troops were permanently garrisoned within Czechoslovakian territory. The Central Group of forces had a total strength of about 85,000 and included 28th Army Corps headquarters, moved forward from Chernovtsy in the Carpathian Military District. Forces included two tank divisions, three mechanized infantry divisions, three missile brigades, an artillery brigade, an airborne assault brigade. Four of the five Soviet ground divisions in Czechoslovakia were stationed in the Czech lands, while one was headquartered in Slovakia.
Group headquarters was located in Milovice. At Milovice was the 131st Mixed Aviation Division, which arrived from Ivano-Frankovsk in the Ukrainian SSR in August 1968. Following the end of the Cold War, the force was withdrawn as follows: 28th Army Corps headquarters to Kemerovo, Siberian Military District 15th Guards Tank Division to Chebakul, Volga-Ural Military District 18th Guards Motor Rifle Division to Kaliningrad, Baltic Military District 30th Guards Motor Rifle Division to the 5th Guards Tank Army/5th Guards Army Corps, Byelorussian Military District, reduced to a storage base 31st Tank Division to the Moscow Military District and amalgamated with 47th Tank Division as 3rd Motor Rifle Division 48th Motor Rifle Division - it remained in Czechoslovakia until 1990 when it was the first Division to depart. 1996 Jane's Intelligence Review information indicated the division had been moved to Smolensk in the Moscow Military District where it was disbanded. Russian forum information indicates that it was withdrawn to Chuguyev in Ukraine using the same garrison as the disbanded 75th Guards Tank Division.
It appears that there wasn’t enough space for the entire Division, so the 210th MRR was attached to the 18th Guards Motor Rifle Division. The remainder of the division departed for Ukraine, with the last arriving by May 1991. By it had been decided that in order to avoid the restrictions on the CFE Treaty, certain elements of the Soviet Army would be transferred to other non-MOD armed forces. Whole units were transferred to the KGB. W
Orsha is a city in Belarus in the Vitebsk Region, on the fork of the Dnieper and Arshytsa rivers. Orsha was first mentioned in 1067 as Rsha; the town was named after the river, also named Rsha from a Baltic root *rus'slowly flowing.'In 1320, Orsha became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1398-1407, the Orsha castle was built. On September 8, 1514 the famous Battle of Orsha occurred, between allied Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Kingdom of Poland and Muscovite army; the Muscovites suffered significant defeat. In 1555, Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł founded a Calvinist order in Orsha, one of the first in the Belarusian lands. From the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries Orsha was a notable religious centre, with dozens of Orthodox and Catholic churches and orders; the town was home to a large Jewish population. Orsha was granted Magdeburg Rights in 1620. In 1630, S. Sobal opened the first printing house at the Kuciejna monastery, which became a well-known centre of Cyrillic-alphabet publishing.
The town was damaged during the Russo-Polish War, a disaster for the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. During the First Polish partition the city was taken over by the Russian Empire in 1772, became part of the Mogilyov Gubernia. Under Russian rule, it was stripped of its Magdeburg Rights in 1776 and went into cultural and economic decline; the population dropped to just about 2,000 inhabitants. The city symbol in 1781 was changed to one which included the symbol of the Russian empire and five arrows. In 1812, the city was badly burned during Napoleon's invasion. At the time of Orsha had been taken under control of French troops, there was a French writer Marie-Henri Beyle in a rank of intendant. According to the census of 1897, on a total population of 13,161, about 7,000 are Jews. During the First World War, the city was occupied by German forces in February–October 1918. From February 2, 1919, Orsha became a part of Homyel region of Soviet Russia. After the formation of the Soviet Union, it was transferred to the Byelorussian SSR in 1924.
The population before World War II was about 37,000. The city was occupied by Germany on July 16, 1941; the occupiers founded several concentration camps in the city, where an estimated 19,000 people were killed. Orsha was one of the centers of the Belarusian general strike in April 1991. Hundreds of thousands of coal miners had been on strike across the Soviet Union since March 1. On April 3, the day after the central government had imposed consumer price increases, workers at several Minsk factories walked out raising the miners' demand for wages indexed to inflation; the entire labor force of that city followed on the 4th, joined soon thereafter by strikes across the Belarusian SSR. Mass demonstrations voted for additional demands and elected delegates from each enterprise to citywide strike committees, which in turn sent representatives to a central Belarusian Strike Committee. On April 23, the SKB resumed the general strike after the deadline for its demands to be met had passed; the next morning, Gorbachev and leaders of eight of the other Soviet republics published a joint declaration in the papers agreeing to democratic elections for the Soviet parliament and the presidency, a new union treaty that would "radically increase the role of the union republics," and measures to soften the impact of the price increase, but the introduction of a "special work regime" in many industries.
In response, the Orsha strike committee issued a proposal for all local workers to block the railway junction, strategically located on the line linking Moscow and Leningrad to Eastern and Western Europe. This was endorsed by votes to "lie down on the rails" at a citywide meeting at the railway station. On the 25th, the Belarusian authorities concentrated the republic's KGB and riot police forces on Orsha, but were resisted by the strikers who sent fuel trains primed to explode down the tracks. Gorbachev mobilized the nearby military forces in Pskov with instructions to restore order over the railway. Meanwhile, workers in other cities throughout Belarus held rallies threatening to retaliate if a drop of blood was shed in Orsha. Fearing a clash, seizing on the government's offer to negotiate with its representatives and grant it radio and air time, the SKB suspended the general strike that evening; the bandy club Start has produced players for the Belarus national bandy team. 16th-17th century: est.
5,000 1776: less than 2,000 1939: 37,000 1970: 100,000 2004: 125,000 Orsha became an important transportation center after the construction of a Dnieper River port. The coming of railway lines in the second half of the nineteenth century contributed to the city growth: 1871: Moscow–Minsk–Brest 1902: Zhlobin–Mogilev–Vitebsk 1923: Orsha-Krychaw 1927: Orsha-LepelToday, Orsha is a major railway node where the Minsk–Moscow crosses the northern Vitebsk line, which branches south to Mogilev and Krychaw. All trains from Moscow and Saint-Petersburg bound for Western Europe pass through Orsha; the city is a junction of the important motorways: The M1 Moscow-Brest and the M8/M20 Saint Petersburg - Odessa. OSGOEINT reported on the 571st Aircraft Repair Plant (ARP
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Airborne forces are military units set up to be moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle by parachute. Thus, they can be placed behind enemy lines, have the capability to deploy anywhere with little warning; the formations are limited only by the number and size of their aircraft, so given enough capacity a huge force can appear "out of nowhere" in minutes, an action referred to as vertical envelopment. On the other hand, airborne forces lack the supplies and equipment for prolonged combat operations, are therefore more suited for airhead operations than for long-term occupation. Advances in helicopter technology since World War II have brought increased flexibility to the scope of airborne operations, air assaults have replaced large-scale parachute operations, replaced combat glider operations. Benjamin Franklin envisioned the danger of airborne attack in 1784, only a few months after the first manned flight in a hot air balloon: "Five Thousand Balloons capable of raising two Men each, would not cost more than Five Ships of the Line: And where is the Prince who can afford so to cover his Country with Troops for its Defense, as that Ten Thousand Men descending from the Clouds, might not in many Places do an infinite deal of Mischief, before a Force could be brought together to repel them?"
Although Winston Churchill had proposed the creation of an airborne force to assault behind the German lines in 1917 during the First World War, the first modern operation dates to late 1918. Major Lewis H. Brereton and his superior Brigadier General Billy Mitchell suggested dropping elements of the U. S. 1st Division behind German lines near Metz. The operation was planned for February 1919 but the war ended before such an attack could be planned. Mitchell conceived that US troops could be trained to utilize parachutes and drop from converted bombers to land behind Metz in sychronisation with a planned infantry offensive. Following the war, the United States Army Air Service experimented with the concept of having troops carried on the wings of aircraft pulled off by the opening of their parachutes; the first true paratroop drop was by Italy in November 1927. Within a few years several battalions had been raised and were formed into two Folgore and Nembo divisions. Although these would fight with distinction in World War II, the divisions were never used in a parachute drop.
Men drawn from the Italian parachute forces were dropped in a special forces operation in North Africa in 1943 in an attempt to destroy parked aircraft of the United States Army Air Forces. In Peru, on March 27, 1927, Enrique Tavernie Entelador while in an AVRO aircraft piloted by Captain Clifford, from a height of 2,000 meters made a leap in Las Palmas, becoming the first Peruvian paratrooper. Subsequently, on May 10, 1928, Second Lieutenant César Álvarez War Palmas Las voluntarily jumped from a height of 3,000 meters, becoming the first military parachutist. On May 16, 1928, Major Fernando Melgar Conde and Sergeant 1st. Jose Pineda Castro, jumped from the famous Las Palmas at altitudes of 2,000 and 4,300 meters, respectively. On 24 May of that year, Ensign Peter Griva, the seaplane service from Ancon, jumped from a height of 2,000 meters; as part of events to celebrate the Day of the Air Force, Air Force Base in Chiclayo, after being summoned by Colonel Cesar Alvarez Guerra CAP and have completed rigorous training, on 23 September 1940, jumped massively from Caproni Ca.111 Panchos, the following: Captain David Rock, Ensign José Luis Quiñones and NCOs Alferano, Oscar Alamo, Antonio Brandariz, Ricardo Colmenares and Carlos Raffo Madalengoitia.
At about the same time, the Soviet Union was experimenting with the idea, planning to drop entire units complete with vehicles and light tanks. To help train enough experienced jumpers, parachute clubs were organized with the aim of transferring into the armed forces if needed. Planning progressed to the point that Corps-size drops were demonstrated to foreign observers, including the British Military Attaché Archibald Wavell, in the Kiev military district maneuvers of 1935. One of the observing parties, was interested. In 1936, Major F. W. Immans was ordered to set up a parachute school at Stendal, was allocated a number of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft to train on; the military had purchased large numbers of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft which were modified for use as paratroop transports in addition to their other duties. The first training class was known as Ausbildungskommando Immans, they commenced the first course on May 3, 1936. Other nations, including Argentina, Japan and Poland organized airborne units around this time.
France became the first nation to organize women in an airborne unit. Recruiting 200 nurses who during peacetime would parachute into natural disasters but reservists who would be a uniformed medical unit during wartime. Several groups within the German armed forces attempted to raise their own paratroop formations, resulting in confusion; as a result, Luftwaffe General Kurt Student was put in overall command of developing a paratrooper force to be known as the Fallschirmjäger. During the invasions of Norway and Denmark in Operation Weserübung, the Luftwaffe dropped paratroopers on several locations. In Denmark, a small unit dropped on the Masnedøfort on the small island of Masnedø to seize the Storstrøm Bridge linking the islands of Falster and Zealand. A paratroop detachment dropped at the airfield of Aalborg, crucial for the Luftwaffe for operations over Norway. In Norway, a company of paratroopers dropped at Oslo's undefended airstrip. Over the course of the morn
Military academies in Russia
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties. This article lists institutions of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation rather than those of the Soviet Armed Forces. Russian institutions called "academy" are post-graduate professional military schools for experienced, commissioned officers who have the equivalent of a bachelor's degree. Upon graduation, officers receive the equivalent of a master's degree and, if trained in military leadership are appointed as battalion commanders or higher from Lt. Colonel and up. Graduates with non-command training are appointed to various staff positions equivalent to Major or Lt. Colonel. Commissioned officers can study on the Kandidat Nauk level, equivalent to a Ph. D. degree. This research-oriented degree is required for faculty positions in military schools and defense research institutes. Selected experienced researchers in military academies hold limited-term positions as senior scholars leading to the prestigious post-doctoral Doktor Nauk degree, the equivalent of a habilitation at Central European universities where it is a prerequisite for full professor positions in institutions of higher learning.
There are a number of "officer commissioning schools" for various services known as Higher Military Schools or Institutes. As of 2010, a major reorganization of Russian military officer education, spanning the range from General Staff Academy to officer commissioning school, was underway. Previous names include: Marshal Voroshilov Military Academy of the WPRA General Staff, it has been the senior Russian professional school for officers in their late 30s. The "best and the brightest" senior commissioned officers of all forces are selected to attend this most prestigious of all Soviet military academies. Students are admitted to the Academy in the ranks of lieutenant colonel and Major General. Most are newly promoted generals; the precedence and grouping of these academies are drawn from Michael Holm's site. In 1918 the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow was established as the academy of the General Staff, which became the RKKA Military Academy in 1921, it is named after Mikhail Frunze USSR Minister of Defense in mid-1920s.
It is the equivalent of the US army's Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas or the British army's Staff College, Camberley. Officers in their late twenties up to thirty-two years at the rank of Captain or Major enter if they pass the competitive entry examinations. In the 1930s, higher academic courses were added to the Frunze curriculum as an advanced training program for previous graduates. On, this program became the basis for the "Voroshilov General Staff Academy" and the Frunze Academy refocused upon combined arms ground warfare training at the tactical level; as of 1979, "..within the Academy are'chairs of operational-tactical disciplines, Marxism-Leninism, history of the CPSU and Party-political work, history of war and military art, foreign languages, other subjects and scientific research sections' the Frunze library had about two million volumes of books. In September 1998 the Frunze Academy and the "Malinovsky Academy" were amalgamated into the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, on the site of the former Frunze Academy, which since 2010 is known as Military Educational and Scientific Center.
The Military Educational and Scientific Center has been the site of a number of Russian-Western joint military activities, including an IISS conference in February 2001, U. S.-Russian exercises. After graduation from Military Educational and Scientific Center, every graduate officer receives a diploma and a silver diamond-shaped badge which has to be worn on the right side of his uniform or civilian clothes above all other military or civilian decorations or ribbon bars; as of 2004, the commander was Colonel General Vladimir I. Popov; the Lenin Military-Political Academy specialized in training political officers for the Soviet Armed Forces, until 1942, political commissars for the Armed Forces. After a number of reorganizations, it was in 1994 merged with the "Military Institute of Foreign Languages" and the "Armed Forces Humanities Academy" into the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation which offers cadets various courses and postgraduate studies. Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy was established in 1932 in Moscow as the "J.
V. Stalin Academy of the WPRA Mechanization and Motorization Program", it was named after Marshal Rodion Malinovsky in 1967. Its mission was to train Soviet and Warsaw Pact commanders, staff officers, engineers for armored and mechanized units; the best-qualified graduates were selected for the" centralized operations division" of the General Staff. Students entered as captains and majors, some as lieutenant colonels, about on an intermediate level with the Army's Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth and the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Commanding and staff officers underwent a three-year program while engineers were taught for 4 years. In 1998 the Academy merged with the Frunze Academy to become the "Combined Arms Academy". Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy in Saint Petersburg dates back to 1698. In 1849 it was named Mikhailovskaya after Grand Duke