Alemannic, or Alemannish, is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. The name derives from the ancient Germanic alliance of tribes known as the Alemanni. Alemannic dialects are spoken by ten million people in several countries: Switzerland: all German-speaking parts of the country except Samnaun Germany: center and south of Baden-Württemberg and certain districts of Bavaria Austria: Vorarlberg, Reutte District of Tyrol Liechtenstein: entire country France: Alsace region and in some villages of the Phalsbourg county Italy: Gressoney-La-Trinité, Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Alagna Valsesia and Rimella, in some other villages extinct United States: Allen and Adams County, Indiana by the Amish there and in their daughter settlements in Indiana and other U. S. states. Venezuela: Colonia Tovar Alemannic comprises a dialect continuum, from the Highest Alemannic spoken in the mountainous south to Swabian in the flat north, with more of the characteristics of standard German the farther north one goes.
In Germany and other European countries, the abstand and ausbau language framework is used to decide what is a language and what a dialect. According to this framework Alemannic forms of German form a dialect continuum and are dialects; some linguists and organisations that differentiate between languages and dialects on the grounds of mutual intelligibility, such as SIL International and UNESCO, describe Alemannic as one of several independent languages. ISO 639-3 distinguishes four languages: gsw, swg and gct. Standard German is used in writing, orally in formal contexts, throughout the Alemannic-speaking regions. Alemannic comprises the following variants: Swabian. Unlike most other Alemannic dialects, it does not retain the Middle High German monophthongs û, î but shifts them to. For this reason, "Swabian" is sometimes used in opposition to "Alemannic". Low Alemannic dialects. Retain German initial /k/ as rather than fricativising to as in High Alemannic. Subvariants: Upper-Rhine Alemannic in Southwestern Baden and its variant Alsatian Alemán Coloniero Basel German Lake Constance Alemannic, a transitional dialect, close to High Alemannic, with some Swabian features in the vowel system.
High Alemannic. Complete the High German consonant shift by fricativising initial /k/ to. Subvariants: Bernese German Zürich German Vorarlbergisch Liechtensteinisch Highest Alemannic does not have the hiatus diphthongisation of other dialects of German. For example: instead of, instead of. Subvariants: Walliser German Walser GermanThe Alemannic dialects of Switzerland are called Swiss German or Schwiizerdütsch; the oldest known texts in Alemannic are brief Elder Futhark inscriptions dating to the sixth century. In the Old High German period, the first coherent texts are recorded in the St. Gall Abbey, among them the eighth century Paternoster, Fater unser, thu bist in himile uuihi namu dinan qhueme rihhi diin uuerde uuillo diin, so in himile, sosa in erdu prooth unseer emezzihic kip uns hiutu oblaz uns sculdi unsero so uuir oblazem uns skuldikem enti ni unsih firleit in khorunka uzzer losi unsih fona ubileDue to the importance of the Carolingian abbeys of St. Gall and Reichenau Island, a considerable part of the Old High German corpus has Alemannic traits.
Alemannic Middle High German is less prominent, in spite of the Codex Manesse compiled by Johannes Hadlaub of Zürich. The rise of the Old Swiss Confederacy from the fourteenth century led to the creation of Alemannic Swiss chronicles. Huldrych Zwingli's bible translation of the 1520s was in an Alemannic variant of Early Modern High German. From the seventeenth century, written Alemannic was displaced by Standard German, which emerged from sixteenth century Early Modern High German, in particular in the wake of Martin Luther's bible translation of the 1520s; the 1665 revision of the Froschauer Bible removed the Alemannic elements, approaching the language used by Luther. For this reason, no binding orthographical standard for writing modern Alemannic emerged, orthographies in use compromise between a precise phonological notation, proximity to the familiar Standard German orthography. Johann Peter Hebel published his Allemannische Gedichte in 1803. Swiss authors consciously employ Helvetisms within Standard German, notably Jeremias Gotthelf in his novels set in the Emmental, Friedrich Glauser in his crime stories, more Tim Krohn in his Quatemberkinder.
The diminutive is used in all Alemannic dialects. Northern and eastern dialects use the suffix -le; as in standard German, these suffixes cause umlaut. Depending on dialect,'little house' may be Heisle, Hüüsle, Hüüsli or Hiisli (Standard
Ittiam Systems is a venture capital funded technology company founded by ex-Managing Director of Texas Instruments' India Srini Rajam in 2001. It is headquartered in Bangalore and has marketing offices in the United States, UK, Japan, Mainland China and Taiwan. Ittiam Systems is India's first technology firm to be based on licensing of intellectual property. Revenue is generated through licensing of its DSP intellectual property and reference designs. One of its early United States customers was e. Digital Corporation, a San Diego-based company that developed the digEplayer portable audio/video in-flight entertainment device under contract by Tacoma, Washington-based APS, now named digEcor. Ittiam Systems demonstrated its HEVC and VP9 implementations accelerated using ARM Mali-T600 GPU Compute technology at CES 2014 and MWC 2014
Stanisław Gądecki is the current archbishop of Poznan, Poland. He is a Polish Roman Catholic Bishop, doctor of Theological Sciences, Auxiliary Bishop of Gniezno from 1992 to 2002, Archbishop of Poznań since 2002, he was Deputy President of the Polish Episcopal Conference, serves as President of the Polish Episcopal Conference from 2014 and Deputy President of the Council of the Bishops' Conferences of Europe from 2016. He was born on October 1949, in Strzelno. In 1967, he graduated from their high school. From 1967 to 1973 he studied philosophy and theology in Primatial Seminary and was ordained on June 9, 1973, in the Cathedral of Gniezno. In 1973 -- 1981 he studied at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome. From 1976 to 1977 he was in Franciscan Biblical Studies college in Jerusalem. From 1981 to 1982 he studied at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, where in 1982 he obtained a doctorate in Biblical Theology, he was a pastor in the Church of John the Baptist, the deputy rector of the theological seminar in Gniezno and from 1992 to 2002 titular bishop of Rubicon.
On March 28, 2002, Pope John Paul II appointed him Archbishop of Poznań. In October 2015, Gądecki vociferously condemned "feelings of false compassion" in relation to people that are gay, rejected any rethink on homosexuality during a meeting of the Synod of Bishops in Rome