Torres Vedras is a municipality in the Portuguese district of Lisbon 50 kilometres north of the capital Lisbon in the Oeste subregion of the Centro region. The population as of 2011 was 79,465, in an area of 407.15 square kilometres. In 1148, Afonso I took the town of Torres Vedras from the Moors, in the region of Estremadura, an area encircled by gentle hills and valleys. Situated in the former district of Lisbon, Torres Vedras is a strong agricultural region linked with its vineyards and intense commercial and industrial life, resulting in a dynamic pole in the western subregion of Portugal. King Afonso III conceded a foral in 1250, confirmed by King Manuel I in 1510; this latter decree conferred on the town many of the municipal privileges that it held for 729 years. While travelling through this district, King Afonso III and Queen Beatrice, ordered the construction of a municipal hall, alongside the ancient castle. For his part, King Denis, his successor, was captivated by local Gracia Frois, fathering an illegitimate son, who would go on to be Count of Barcelos.
The municipality was donated to the Queens of the realm, in particular, under the Aviz dynasty, the Infanta Eleonor, who would marry Frederick III of Germany, was born in Torres Vedras. Torres Vedras continued to be a place of importance: in 1413, King John I met with his council after legitimizing his expedition to Ceuta. At the same time and confrontations were fermented in Torres Vedras by local alcaides, such as in 1384 when the Master of Aviz encircled the town in order to force the Castilian alcalde Juan Duque to surrender, it was for the same reason, that King John IV was forced to take city in 1640, when the Portuguese alcaide João Soares de Alarcão, aligned himself with the Philippine monarchs. In comparison, the loyalty and sympathies of the Portuguese of the region were tested with the French invasions of the Peninsular Wars. Anticipating the final defeat of the French, General Delaborde's forces were defeated on 21 August 1808, at the battles of Roliça and Vimeiro, by the Anglo-Portuguese Army that had landed at Porto Novo.
Junot, who had installed himself in the town, signed a truce and left the town, retreating towards Lisbon, but not before sacking the churches and convents along the way. Arthur Wellesley the Duke of Wellington and Marquess of Torres Vedras, would begin the construction of the Lines of Torres Vedras that would extend to the sea; this fortified system, which included 152 forts and 628 redoubts, was marked by the Fort of São Vicente, in Torres Vedras. The fort only saw battle after the French were removed from Portugal, when Cabralist forces under the Duke of Saldanha, evicted Setembrist forces of the Count of Bonfim. Over 10,000 troops were involved in the bloody Battle of Torres Vedras, which resulted in the surrender of the Count's forces on 23 December 1846; the deaths of 400 men and 500 wounded, that included Lieutenant-Colonel Luís Mouzinho de Albuquerque, a liberal officer who disembarked in Mindelo and was buried in the Church of São Pedro. Following much of its history in battle, Torres Vedras lapsed into years of progress and development, supported by the expansion of the rail-lines in 1886, the installation of the electrical grid in 1912, the canalization of waters to the town by 1926.
These changes helped support a growth, construction of new barrios and roadways, resulting in the town's reclassification as a city in 1979. Fronting the Atlantic Ocean, Torre Vedres is bordered by the municipalities of Lourinhã, Sobral de Monte Agraço and Mafra. A dispersed population, Torres Vedras includes 21 urban agglomerations, of which most have less than 200 inhabitants. Altogether the municipality has a population of 79,465; the municipality covers an area of 407.15 square kilometres. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 13 civil parishes: The resident population of the city of Torres Vedras represents about 25% of the population of the municipality. In 2011, Torres Vedras received the QualityCoast Gold Award for its efforts to become a sustainable tourist destination, was selected for inclusion in the global atlas for sustainable tourism DestiNet; the Leonel Trindade Municipal Museum is an archaeological and historical museum in the town, located in a former convent on the southern edge of the city centre.
In addition to an extensive archaeological section dating back to late- Palaeolithic times, the museum contains works of art from local churches as well as an exhibition relating to the Lines of Torres Vedras. Much of the archaeological collection comes from the Chalcolithic, fortified settlement known as the Castro of Zambujal and from the Tholos do Barro, a Chalcolithic tomb, both of which are in the municipality. Joaquim Agostinho, professional bicycle racer, Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente, Patriarch of Lisbon Cristina Ferreira and television host André Santos, Portuguese professional football player Nelson Pereira
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
Vila Verde dos Francos
Vila Verde dos Francos is a parish of the municipality of Alenquer, in western Portugal. The population in 2011 was 1,162, in an area of 28.13 km²
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Districts of Portugal
The Districts of Portugal, are the most important first-level administrative subdivisions of mainland Portugal. Mainland Portugal is divided into 18 districts; the Portuguese autonomous regions of Açores and Madeira are no longer divided into districts. As an administrative division, each district served as the area of jurisdiction of a civil governor, who acted as the local delegate of the Central Government of Portugal; the Portuguese Constitution of 1976 specifies that Portugal has only, as first level divisions, the autonomous regions and the administrative regions. According to the Constitution, the districts shall be disestablished in the territories where an autonomous or administrative region has been created. So, the districts were abolished in Azores and Madeira when these autonomous regions were created, in 1976. In 1998, a proposal was submitted to referendum to create eight administrative regions in mainland Portugal, therefore, to extinguish the districts; this proposal was rejected in the ballot and so the districts continued to exist in mainland Portugal.
It is worth noting that, despite their abolition in the autonomous regions, the areas of the three former districts of Azores are still used as areas of jurisdiction of some Government and non-government entities, like the district finance directorates or the district football championships. However, the importance of the districts has been decreasing. In recent years, some administrative and political competencies have been delivered to the CCDR's and to the municipalities, to the detriment of the districts. In 2003, the Portuguese municipalities were allowed to organize themselves into intermunicipal communities and metropolitan areas, which allowed for a lessening in the importance of the districts. Besides, the abolition of the districts is a subject that came back for discussion in Portuguese society. In 2009, during the campaign for the legislative election of 2009, the leader of the Socialist Party, José Sócrates, promised a new referendum to the administrative regions and therefore, the abolition of districts, if he won the election.
Other personalities support the creation of administrative regions and therefore the abolition of districts. Nowadays, despite being in the process of being phased out due to the decentralisation policies of the government, the districts still remain the most relevant subdivision in the country, serving as a basis for a series of administrative divisions such as electoral constituencies and civil protection regional commands, sports district associations and championships. In September 8, 2011, a decree from the Portuguese Government de facto extinguished all the offices of civil governor, transferring most of their functions to other bodies; as the existence of the civil governors is still included in the Portuguese Constitution, its de jure extinction can only be done after a constitutional amendment. In mainland Portugal, for administrative purposes, the districts are still used as the areas of jurisdiction of the local branches and field offices of several Government ministries and agencies.
Some of the bodies that have each district as their jurisdiction area are: District and metropolitan commands of the Public Security Police. Furthermore: The area of each of the 18 electoral constituencies of mainland Portugal coincides with the area of each district. For non-Government purposes, the districts are used as the area of jurisdiction of many entities, including: The regional organizations of the major political parties, The regional organizations of most of the Portuguese sports federations and its district championships. Angra do Heroísmo District - 1835 to 1976 Horta District - 1835 to 1976 Ponta Delgada District - 1835 to 1976 Funchal District -1835 to 1976 Lamego District - in 1835 and 1919 Following the model of European Portugal, the major Portuguese overseas territories were divided in districts. In these territories, each district was headed by a district governor, subordinated to the governor-general. In Angola and Mozambique, the former district areas coincide with the modern province areas.
In the former Portuguese India, the Damão and Diu districts are still divisions of the present union territory of Daman and Diu, while the present state of Goa is now divided into two districts. Bengo Benguela District Bié Cabinda Cuando-Cubango District Cuanza Norte District Cuanza Sul Distri
Portuguese Socialist Party
The Portuguese Socialist Party was a political party in Portugal. The party was founded in 1875. During its initial phase the party was influenced by Proudhonism, rejected revolutionary Marxism; the party suffered. In 1919 the leftwing of the party broke away. In general the Socialist Party lacked mass support, the trade union movement was led by anarchists and was not affiliated with the socialist International Federation of Trade Unions; the party claimed a membership of 2,500 as of 1925. It published the biweekly Heraldo, it had an educational and workers' sport organization, with a membership of 3,000. The headquarters of the party were located at 34, Lisbon; the party won two seats in the parliamentary elections of 1911, 1912, 1915 and 1925. The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between March 1925 and 1933. After the military coup of May 1926, the Socialist Party was the only tolerated political party; the party adopted a passive tactic towards the military dictatorship.
The party distanced itself from the republic uprising in February 1927. The national conference of 1930 decided that the party should cooperate with the government. One of the main leaders of the party at the time, Ramado Curto, was commissioned by the government to formulate a labour code. From 1930 he worked with the reformist trade unions in the corporativist National Economic Committee. After the establishment of Estado Novo by António de Oliveira Salazar in March 1933 the party was banned; the party responded by dissolving itself