Alewife Brook Parkway
Alewife Brook Parkway is a short parkway in Cambridge and Somerville, Massachusetts. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it begins at Fresh Pond in Cambridge, heads north on the east bank of Alewife Brook, crossing into West Somerville and ending at the Mystic River on the Medford town line, where it becomes Mystic Valley Parkway. The entire length of Alewife Brook Parkway is designated as part of Massachusetts Route 16, while the southernmost sections are designated as part of Route 2 and U. S. Route 3, it is managed by the Department of Conservation and Recreation with the Massachusetts Department of Transportation responsible for bridge maintenance. The southern terminus of the parkway is the westernmost of the two Fresh Pond rotaries, with Concord Avenue connecting the parkway to Fresh Pond Parkway at the eastern rotary; the road is designated Massachusetts Routes 2 and 16, US Route 3. The parkway runs north, skirting just east of the Alewife T station to a large intersection, where the limited access highway carrying Route 2 to the west begins.
The parkway runs north from this intersection, paralleling just east of the course of Alewife Brook, which forms the western boundary of Cambridge with Arlington. The first major intersection is with Massachusetts Avenue, which carries Massachusetts Route 2A eastward toward Porter Square, Routes 2A and 3 westward into Arlington; the parkway continues to parallel Alewife Brook. After crossing Broadway, the parkway passes through a rotary-like interchange with Powder House Boulevard, it passes Dilboy Stadium, on the left, reaches its northern terminus at a small rotary near where Alewife Brook empties into the Mystic River. There it meets the Mystic Valley Parkway, which runs from Arlington just to the west to Medford to the northeast; the Route 16 designation continues northeast. The parkway's total length is just over two miles; the parkway, with the surrounding Alewife Brook Reservation, forms part of Boston's Metropolitan Park District, established in 1893. It was planned by landscape architect Charles Eliot as one section of a web of pleasure roads designed for their aesthetics.
Nearby Alewife Brook was straightened and channelized between 1909 and 1912, construction of the parkway was completed by 1916. Landscaping was performed by the famed Olmsted Brothers firm. Route 2 connected to Alewife Brook Parkway as a highway in the present right-of-way at some point before 1937. A drive-in theatre was built in 1950, replaced by the Fresh Pond Shopping Center in 1962; the current indoor movie theatre next to the shopping center was added in 1964. Along the southern end, Alewife Brook Parkway underwent further changes beginning in the late 1980s, including a new four lane causeway overpass spanning the Fitchburg line of the Commuter rail, new dedicated shoulder turning-lanes for exiting and entering the shopping centers, enlarged roundabouts with obstructive center trees removed, new raised grassy medians down the center of the parkway, new trees, light poles, bike lanes integrated into the sidewalks; some of the other amenities integrated in the new design include handicap ramps and stairs on the northbound side of the bridge leading to the Rindge Towers, new sidewalk access leading to the Alewife T station, Alewife Linear Park, bike trail adjacent to Jerry's Pond, a dedicated road for large trucks to service the shopping areas by passing below the overpass.
As traffic has grown over the past century, the original aesthetics of the parkway's southernmost sections have been lost. It is now the principal connector between Route 2 and the western suburbs, on the one hand, downtown Cambridge and Boston on the other, carries a large volume of commuter traffic; the Alewife MBTA station is a prominent feature on the parkway, there are shopping centers, parking lots, office and apartment buildings lining the parkway between Alewife station and the southern terminus. In February 2010, CBS-television affiliate WBZ questioned whether the remaining 118 rotaries such as the ones featured at Alewife Brook Parkway and Fresh Pond Parkway should be scrapped across Massachusetts. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Somerville, Massachusetts Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation: Alewife Master Plan
Alewife Brook Reservation
Alewife Brook Reservation is a Massachusetts state park and urban wild located in Cambridge and Somerville. The park is managed by the state Department of Conservation and Recreation and was established in 1900, it is named for Alewife Brook, historically known as Menotomy River, a tributary of the Mystic River. A large proportion of the park is wetland, including the Little River, though there is a wooded upland and meadow area; the reservation serves as a habitat for migratory birds. Common species include osprey, great blue heron and the woodcock, whose unusual mating ritual may sometimes be observed by visitors. Additionally, the park's ponds provide spring spawning grounds for anadromous herring, which migrate from the Atlantic Ocean via the Mystic River and Alewife Brook, a tributary which, in turn, drains the Little River; the southern end and single largest part of the reservation is adjacent to the Alewife Station at the northern end of the MBTA Red Line in Cambridge. The Minuteman Bikeway terminates at the reservation and the Fitchburg Cutoff Path and Alewife Greenway run through it.
The reservation includes Alewife Brook as it flows north through Cambridge and Somerville toward the Mystic River. Much of this corridor is narrow, contains only the brook, the Alewife Brook Parkway and modest buffer strips of land on either side and in between the brook and the parkway. North of Broadway the area between the brook and the parkway opens, has been developed to include playgrounds, playing fields, Dilboy Stadium. South of the Fitchburg Line is the small Blair Pond, which has public access from Mooney Street and Normandy Ave. There are multiuse paths or sidewalks on at least one side of the brook for the entire length of Alewife Brook, which are being improved as part of the Alewife Greenway project. Little Pond is surrounded by fencing and private property, so there is no public access to the shoreline; the Fitchburg Railroad main line in 1843 was the first rail link constructed through the swampy area in western Cambridge. It still serves as the MBTA Commuter Rail Fitchburg Line.
The Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad was branched off in 1846, with the curving connection still visible today, passing under Alewife Brook Parkway, along the west side of the Alewife Station parking garage, proceeding northwest along the right-of-way of the present-day Minuteman Bikeway. The Watertown Branch Railroad was opened in 1851, branching from the Fitchburg and curving south behind what is now the Fresh Pond Shopping Center on the east side of Alewife Brook Parkway. By 1852, several spurs were serving local freight customers, including ice houses on the south side of Spy Pond. In 1870, the Boston and Lowell Railroad bought the former Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad, by renamed the Lexington and Arlington Railroad, constructed a connection from the Alewife area through what is now Davis Square to Somerville Junction. Most of this connection is now the Somerville Community Path and Alewife Linear Park, but at its western end it passed through what is now Alewife Center and met up with the Lexington, after curving past the stub ends of Fairmont and Lafayette Streets.
This new connection had a southerly fork known as the Fitchburg Cutoff, passing just north of the present-day Alewife Station, crossing the now-removed Fitchburg-Lexington connection, joining the Fitchburg mainline. A map from 1903 shows these railroads criss-crossing the reservation, as well as Alewife Brook proceeding farther south to drain Fresh Pond; the swampy area is undeveloped, compared to the surrounding neighborhoods. The reservation was planned by landscape designer Charles Eliot in conjunction with the Alewife Brook Parkway, although it has been altered since its initial set-aside, it forms part of Boston's Metropolitan Park District, established in 1893. The Alewife Brook was straightened and channelized next to the parkway between 1909 and 1912, with road construction completed by 1916. Landscaping was performed by the famed Olmsted Brothers firm. Beginning in 2011, the City of Cambridge constructed a 3.4-acre storm water management wetland in the reservation, just west of Alewife Station.
The project opened in October 2013. The wetland stores and releases collected storm water runoff from nearby parts of Cambridge, including the Huron and Concord Avenue areas. A basin and native plantings will slow the flow of runoff and remove pollutants and nutrients before they enter the Little River; the area includes an amphitheater, interpretive signage and boardwalks, links the bike paths on either side. Habitats, ranging from deep marsh to riparian forest, were created. A bike path project for the reservation received $4.5M from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The "Alewife Brook Greenway" or "Minuteman Bike Path connector" links the Mystic River bike path to the Minuteman Bikeway and Alewife Station. In April 2014, state officials announced that the Somerville Community Path will be extended alongside the Green Line Extension, creating a continuous route from the Alewife Brook Reservation via the Alewife Linear Park to Boston’s Charles River Bike Path. Alewife Brook Reservation Department of Conservation and Recreation Friends of Alewife Reservation
Alewife brewess or brewster, is a historical term for a woman who brewed ale for commercial sale, see women in brewing. The word "alewife" is first recorded in England in 1393 to mean "a woman that keeps an ale-house", synonymous with the word "brewester"."Alewife" is now used in translations of ancient texts to refer to any woman who brewed and sold ale dating back to the beginning of recorded history. Although the profession was taken over by males, the original brewing profession back in ancient Mesopotamia was principally performed by women. Women brewed the majority of ale for both domestic and commercial use in England before the Black Death, some women continued brewing into the 17th century. Ale represented a key part of the medieval English diet as it was both the most affordable and clean beverage available; the precise amount of ale, ingested daily is not known, but it appears to have been up to a gallon a day per person. Because ale went sour within days after being brewed, constant production was necessary to meet demand.
Therefore ale was produced in huge quantities using a somewhat simplistic and known, although time intensive, process using predominantly malted barley or oats. The ale trade in all of England was predominantly regulated by the Assize of Bread and Ale, "which linked the price of ale to the price of grain and which ordained public checks on the quality of the brew." Operating outside of this regulation was forbidden and handled by the courts. Public records in the Medieval period before the Black Death include regulation legislation that treat brewing as a female profession, indicating that brewing ale was dominated by women; this female dominance of the trade evolved because brewing was not a specialist trade requiring any extensive education, was only marginally profitable, could be done in the home to supplement regular income. The lack of needed specialization and physical location within the home made ale brewing an accessible trade for women to add income to the household in both towns and countryside communities.
Elite wives apparently engaged in this activity in a supervisory capacity over their female servants without social stigma. Records regarding medieval brewing leave out the poorer families in which women were certainly brewing in small amounts for consumption and irregular sale because authorities focused only on regular brewing on a larger scale than many families could afford to produce. Drinking alcohol daily was a common practice between 1300 and 1700. At this time, the quality of water was so poor. Estimates find the average annual consumption of wine in France to be over 100 liters for the majority of the period 1300-1700s. Drinking was so prevalent at the time that workers could request to be paid in alcohol instead of monetary wages. While they drank alcohol, medieval Europeans did not drink so for inebriation but rather as sustenance for daily life in place of other common drinks such as water; because winemaking was a involved process, hopped beer had not yet spread from the Netherlands and Belgium and hard cider became popular among the lower classes in Medieval England.
Medieval ale spoiled making mass production difficult and resulting in localized industries made up of many small ale producers throughout medieval towns. For example, in 1577 there was 1 alehouse for every 142 inhabitants per town; the structure of the ale industry meant that women could play an integral part in brewing and serving ale. By the late 15th century, hopped beer began supplanting ale as a popular drink in Medieval England. Beer brewed with hops was only popular in the Netherlands and Belgium, but it gained popularity because it kept fresh longer, was easier to transport, was used as a military drink more frequently; because brewers in the Low Countries considered brewing a male trade, women engaged in medieval beer brewing as the industry grew. As the beer industry grew, the female-centric ale market was supplanted in part by the traditionally male-centric beer market; as a trade in medieval Europe, ale brewing offered women a lucrative and stable career. As the industry underwent multiple economic changes in the Late Middle Ages, female brewers and alewives found stable work in the trade when compared to other contemporary female trades.
Women's role in the medieval ale industry grew out of the traditional household responsibilities of wives and daughters, who had to brew ale to feed to their families. To turn a profit, early medieval women became "small-scale retailers" by selling goods they produced for private consumption. Brewing and selling ale enabled women to work for and achieve "good profits, social power, some measure of independence from men" that other trades at the time did not. Medieval women unmarried and widowed women, were exclusively barred from many methods of self-support. Many medieval industries relied on land ownership, long apprenticeships, wage work, all of which discriminated against female participation or required heavy male presence for women who did enter these industries; as a result, most women's work in the late medieval period was low skilled, low status, low profit. Comparatively and tippling were predominantly female trades that women could operate independently or in equal conjunction with their husband.
Following the Black Plague of 1347–50, the brewing trade underwent significant changes that made it a commercialized and specialized trade. Medieval society underwent many changes following the Plague. Changes that had significant effects on the ale trade include the c
Alewife is an intermodal transit station in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is an MBTA Bus hub. Alewife is the northern terminus of the Red Line. Alewife station is located in the North Cambridge neighborhood, adjacent to the interchange between Alewife Brook Parkway and the Massachusetts Route 2 freeway, with ramps providing direct access to and from the expressway portion of Route 2, its facilities include a multi-level parking garage with 2,733 spaces, three secured bicycle cages, a busway with an enclosed shelter serving several MBTA Bus routes, connections to the Minuteman Bikeway, Cambridge Linear Park, the Fitchburg Cutoff Path. Alewife opened on March 30, 1985. Only to be a temporary terminus during construction of the Arlington section of the Red Line, Alewife became the regular terminus when the further extension was canceled; the station is named after Alewife Brook, a nearby tributary of the Mystic River, which in turn is named after the alewife fish which inhabits the Mystic River system.
Alewife features six pieces of public art which were built as part of the first stage of the Arts on the Line program. Boston transportation planners expected to build an Inner Belt Expressway within the Route 128 corridor in the 1960s. MA Route 2 was designed with eight lanes to carry large volumes of radial traffic, east from Alewife Brook Parkway, through Cambridge and Somerville to the Inner Belt at the border of eastern Somerville and eastern Cambridge; when the Inner Belt was canceled, Route 2 became an overbuilt highway that terminated at what was little more than major city streets. When the westward extension of the Red Line was being designed, building a station near the end of Route 2 with a large parking garage seemed like a way to capitalize on the original Route 2 investment; until the late 1960s, there was little near the site of the Alewife station besides a abandoned industrial park, a chemical factory and a protected wetlands. Following principles that came to be known as transit-oriented development, the City of Cambridge zoned the area near the station for high rise buildings, leading to the construction of the three massive Rindge Towers in 1971.
Over the next several decades, a mini-city developed with office and research and development buildings in addition to the high rise housing. A state law required planning the Red Line Extension so it could be brought out to Route 128 to Lexington, via Arlington, along the route of the former Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad; the Red Line tracks extend past the station, under Route 2, terminate in a small underground storage yard. Alewife Station was designed with a future extension of the Red Line to points north in mind using the MBTA's Lexington Branch right-of-way; when the adjacent chemical plant closed and was replaced by an office and hotel development, the rail spur to the plant was no longer needed and its underpass was converted to an access ramp from the station to Route 2. This design was criticized by local residents, since it forced many pedestrians to cross the fast-moving parkways on foot. In April 2008, the MBTA said that they do not have funds to add two levels to the parking garage to add capacity, which would cost $30 million to $35 million and add about 1300 spaces.
The structure was designed to have two more levels, but whether the condition of the structure and building codes would allow that today is not clear. Seven MBTA Bus routes terminate at the ground-level busways at Alewife: 62 Bedford V. A. Hospital - Alewife Station via Lexington Center & Arlington Heights 67 Turkey Hill - Alewife Station via Arlington Center 76 Hanscom/Lincoln Labs - Alewife Station via Lexington Center & Civil Air Terminal 79 Arlington Heights - Alewife Station via Massachusetts Avenue 84 Arlmont Village - Alewife Station 350 North Burlington - Alewife Station via Burlington Mall 351 Oak Park/Bedford Woods - Alewife Station via Middlesex TurnpikeThe 83 Rindge Avenue - Central Square, Cambridge via Porter Square Station terminates nearby at Russell Field, it is not possible to turn left from Alewife Brook Parkway onto Rindge Avenue, preventing the bus from serving Alewife directly. The bus stop is connected to Alewife by a short spur of the Cambridge Linear Park. Alewife station is served by several private-carrier routes: The Route 128 Business Council provides daily shuttle bus services from Alewife to many companies along the Route 2 and Route 128 corridor.
Five routes are open to all riders: A, B, C, D, The REV. Two private routes to Windsor Village and Vox on Two are run. Go Bus provides intercity motorcoach bus service between Alewife and New York City; the service began in October 2010. There is one island platform serving two tracks; the tracks extend past the station to store terminating trains. On September 18, 2008, two bike parking cages opened at the Alewife station; the cages can hold up to 150 bikes each. Access to these cages required a free special Bike CharlieCard. Beginning in 2013, the MBTA allowed any CharlieCard to be registered for bike cage access; the cages are covered, enclosed with security fences, watched by security cameras. As a part of the Red Line Northwest Extension, Alewife was included as one of the stations involved in the Arts on the Line program. Arts on the Line was devised to bring art into the MBTA's subway stations in the late 1970s and early 1980s, it was the first program of its kind in the United States and became the model for similar drives for art across the countr
Alewife Linear Park
The Alewife Linear Park is a mixed-use path, about 1.3 miles long, running through Cambridge and Somerville, United States, connecting the Minuteman Bikeway and the Fitchburg Cutoff Path near Alewife with the Somerville Community Path at Davis Square. The path is used for bicycling, walking and inline skating, it runs through a long, narrow park, built above the MBTA Red Line subway when it was extended from Davis Square to Alewife. It was established by the MBTA in 1985, is maintained by the cities of Cambridge and Somerville; the segment in Cambridge is known as the "Cambridge Linear Park". The Somerville segment is signed as the "Somerville Community Path: Alewife Linear Park Segment". Along with the Somerville Community Path segment from Davis Square to Lowell Street, the combined distance is about 2.1 miles. From Somerville nearly to Alewife, the park follows a right-of-way first established in 1870 and used by a succession of railroad companies; this route was used for passenger service on the Lexington Branch between 1870 and 1927, for freight operations on the Fitchburg Cutoff for several decades longer.
The Massachusetts Highway Department designed an improved crossing of Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, completed in 2011. Other path improvements were contemplated or underway, "anticipated to be complete by the end of 2012."In April 2014, state officials announced that the Somerville Community Path will be extended alongside the Green Line Extension, creating a continuous route from the Minuteman Bikeway and Alewife Linear Park to Boston's Charles River Bike Path. Watertown Branch Railroad - Linear park initiative Friends of the Community Paths
The alewife is an anadromous species of herring found in North America. It is one of the "typical" North American shads, attributed to the subgenus Pomolobus of the genus Alosa; as an adult it is a marine species found in the northern West Atlantic Ocean, moving into estuaries before swimming upstream to breed in freshwater habitats, but some populations live in fresh water. It is best known for its invasion of the Great Lakes by using the Welland Canal to bypass Niagara Falls. Here, its population surged, peaking between the 1950s and 1980s to the detriment of many native species of fish. In an effort to control them biologically, Pacific salmon were introduced, only successfully; as a marine fish, the alewife is a US National Marine Fisheries Service "Species of Concern". Alewives have an average length of about 25 cm; the front of the body is deep and larger than other fish found in the same waters, its common name is said to come from comparison with a corpulent female tavernkeeper. In southwestern Nova Scotia, it is called a kiack.
In Atlantic Canada it is known as the gaspereau, from the Acadian French word gasparot, first mentioned by Nicolas Denys. William Francis Ganong, New Brunswick biologist and historian, wrote: Gasparot. Name of a common salt-water fish of Acadia, first used, so far as I can find, by Denys in 1672. Nowhere can I find any clue to its origin, it seems not to be Indian. Acadians named two rivers after the fish, the Gaspereau River in Nova Scotia and the Gaspereaux River in New Brunswick. In eastern Massachusetts, Alewife Brook flows through Arlington and Somerville to the Mystic River; the brook gives its name to the Alewife Brook Reservation. The Red Line of Boston's T ends at the Alewife station, so the name of this fish adorns the front of every northbound Red Line train. In the Southeast US, when sold and used as bait, the fish is referred to as "LY". Both anadromous and landlocked forms occur; the landlocked form is called a sawbelly or mooneye. Adult alewives are caught during their spring spawning migration upstream by being scooped out of shallow, constricted areas using large dip nets.
They are the preferred bait for the spring lobster fishery in Maine, are eaten by humans smoked. Alewives are best known for their invasion of the Great Lakes by using the Welland Canal to bypass Niagara Falls. Alewives colonized the Great Lakes and became abundant in Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, they reached their peak abundance by the 1980s. Alewives grew in number unchecked because of the lack of a top predator in the lakes. For a time, which exhibit seasonal die-offs, washed up in windrows on the shorelines of the Great Lakes. Various species of Pacific salmon were introduced as predators. Though marginally successful, this led to the development of a salmon/alewife fishery popular with many sport anglers. In spite of such biological control methods, alewives remain implicated in the decline of many native Great Lakes species, it is a common predator of numerous native and non-native zooplankton taxa. Alewife populations have seen big declines throughout much of their range. Several threats have most contributed to their decline, including loss of habitat due to decreased access to spawning areas from the construction of dams and other impediments to migration, habitat degradation and increased predation due to recovering striped bass populations.
In response to the declining population trend for alewives, the states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and North Carolina have instituted moratoria on taking and possession. The alewife is a US National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern, about which the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, has some concerns regarding status and threats, but for which insufficient information is available to indicate a need to list the species under the US Endangered Species Act. Fisheries and Oceans Canada: Alewife Virginia Marine Resources Commission Species Profile- Alewife, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Alewife. Fish Win: Maine About-Face Lets Alewives Return to Canada Border River "Alewife". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Alewife". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921