St Kilda Football Club
The St Kilda Football Club, nicknamed the Saints, is an Australian rules football club based in Melbourne, Australia. The club plays in the sport's premier league; the club's name originates from its original home base in the bayside Melbourne suburb of St Kilda in which the club was established in 1873. The club has strong links to the south-eastern suburb of Moorabbin, where it was based between 1965 and 2010. St Kilda were a foundation team of the Victorian Football Association in 1877 and in 1897, became a foundation team in the Victorian Football League, the basis of an evolved National Football league that took on a number of clubs from other states of Australia; the primary focus of this was to enhance the game and throw off the parochial and localised nature of suburban club Football that the VFL represented. The decision was made to begin the new decade with a fresh non Suburban competition and it was duly named the Australian Football League prior to the start of the 1990 season. Collingwood were the inaugural winners of a National competition Premiership, an enormous achievement for a club with a strong history in Melbourne suburban football.
St Kilda have won a single premiership to a famous one-point win in the 1966 VFL Grand Final. St Kilda most won the minor premiership in the 2009 AFL season and were grand finalists in 2009 and 2010. St Kilda developed a reputation as perennial underachievers, much of this attributed to their record of finishing last more than any other club in the league, as well as having the second lowest all-time win percentage of any team still playing in the league; the St Kilda Football Club was formed on 2 April 1873, containing many elements of the previous South Yarra Football Club which had disbanded a year earlier. Soon after a decision was made to amalgamate St Kilda FC with nearby Prahran Football Club. St Kilda retained their colours and ground, as well as picking up a number of Prahran players. St Kilda competed as a senior club in the VFA from 1877 to 1879, 1881–1882 and 1886–1896 before moving into the breakaway competition – The Victorian Football League – from 1897 onwards. St Kilda were one of the eight clubs that took part in the inaugural VFL season in 1897.
They made their debut in an away game against Collingwood on 8 May 1897, which they lost 2.4. to 5.11.. The club's home ground in the new league was the Junction Oval in the suburb of St Kilda in Melbourne and the club's first home game was against Fitzroy; the score was St Kilda 3.8. to 10.6.. St Kilda's early years in the VFL were not successful and, in 1899, they had the lowest score recorded in a VFL/AFL match, one point against Geelong. In 1902, Charlie Baker became the first St Kilda player to be the league's leading goalkicker in a home and away season with 30 goals. Six successive wins at the start of the 1907 season saw St Kilda make the finals for the first time, qualifying third with nine wins and eight losses. St Kilda were beaten by Carlton in their first VFL final by 56 points, they qualified in third position again in 1908 and were once again eliminated by Carlton in the semi-finals, this time by 58 points. The 1913 season saw major improvement in which the team qualified fourth, but were beaten in the 1913 grand final by Fitzroy.
At the time a challenge system was in place, which allowed the team that qualified in first position as minor premiers to challenge any team that won through to be the top ranked team in the finals series if it was not the minor premiers. St Kilda won its semi-final against South Melbourne and defeated Fitzroy two weeks 10.10. to 6.9. in what was a match between the two teams that won the semi-finals. Fitzroy as minor premiers were allowed to challenge St Kilda – the number one ranked team in the finals series at that point – and the two teams played again the following week in the grand final which Fitzroy won 7.14. to 5.13.. Due to World War I the St Kilda Football Club was in recess in 1916 and 1917 but resumed in 1918 and fared well, making the finals in fourth position but were eliminated by Collingwood in a semi final by nine points, 58 to 49. Colin Watson became the first St Kilda player to win the league's highest individual award, the Brownlow Medal; the following years saw St Kilda establish itself as a more competitive club.
They made the finals in 1929 and were eliminated once again by Carlton, 12.9 to 11.7 in the semi-finals. In 1936, Bill Mohr became the second St Kilda player to be the league's leading goalkicker in a home and away season. Bill Mohr kicked 101 goals in 1936 and was the first St Kilda player to kick 100 goals or more in a season; the mid-1930s saw the club vying for finals berths making it in 1939 by qualifying fourth after a record run of eight consecutive victories and an overall record of 13 wins and five losses. The team had its first finals win since 1913, against Richmond, but were eliminated in the 1939 finals series by Collingwood in the preliminary final. St Kilda won three of the first four games early in the 1940 season and were on top of the ladder after Round 4 before finishing second last. Although there were some prominent players like Harold Bray, Keith Drinan, Peter Bennett and Neil Roberts, St Kilda were competitive in the 1940s; the 1950 season saw St Kilda win the first five games before fading to finish with eight wins and a draw in ninth place.
In 1955, after one of the club's worst seasons, Alan Killigrew was appointed coach. His first action was one of the largest clean-outs of players in the history of any VFL club, it is believed that only 17 players from 1955 played for St Kilda again in 1956, with 11 new
A player-coach is a member of a sports team who holds both playing and coaching duties. A player-coach may be an assistant coach, they may make changes to the squad and play on the team. Few current major professional sports teams have head coaches who are players, though it is common for senior players to take a role in managing more junior athletes; when professional sports had much less money to pay players and coaches or managers, it was much more common to find them. Where player-coaches exist today, they are more common at the lower levels where money is less available, but not exclusively; the player-coach was, for many decades, a long-time fixture in professional basketball. Many notable coaches in the NBA served including Bill Russell and Lenny Wilkens; this was true up through the 1970s, when the league was not as financially successful as it is today, player-coaches were used to save money. The practice fell out of favor in the 1980s. Today, the collective bargaining agreement between the NBA and the players' union prohibits the use of player-coaches, in order to avoid circumventing the league's salary cap, as coaches' salaries are not counted under the cap.
Therefore, if a player is to serve as a coach, he would have to receive commission from his contract as a player. The player is not technically an official coach of his team but instead a coach in name. One example of a player in recent years, groomed for eventual official coaching duties using this practice was Avery Johnson. In the early days of professional American football, player-coaches were a necessity, as coaching from the sidelines at the time was not allowed under the rules of most leagues; the National Football League allowed sideline coaches in the late 1920s, they became the norm. During the 1920s, legendary player-coaches in the NFL include Curly Lambeau and George Halas who held similar roles for the Chicago Bears, a team for which he was part-owner and business manager. Jimmy Conzelman was player-coach for four teams during the 1920s. In the mid-1950s Tom Landry played defensive back while serving as defensive coordinator for the New York Giants. In the early 1970s, when Landry was coach of the Dallas Cowboys, he made running back Dan Reeves a player-coach.
More modern players have acted as player-coaches in an unofficial capacity, such as journeyman quarterback Steve DeBerg, who served as an unofficial mentor for younger, more skilled arms while serving as their backup. Player-coaches in cricket are unheard of, although professional coaches are a recent innovation and a similar role was filled by the team captain. Internationally, Shane Deitz was appointed non-playing coach of Vanuatu in 2014 and, after meeting the necessary residency qualifications, made his international playing debut in 2018, at the age of 42. Former Australian international Ryan Campbell was appointed as a non-playing batting coach of Hong Kong in 2013, after meeting the residency qualifications made his playing debut for Hong Kong in 2016, at the age of 44. In association football, this situation arises when a manager leaves a team and the chairman has to make a quick decision to appoint someone new as a caretaker manager; the chairman will either ask a coach to take temporary charge or turn to one of the club's most senior players.
If this particular player gains good results for the team during his time in charge, he may be appointed full-time manager, which leaves him a player–manager. However, there are instances when a free agent is appointed by a new team as a manager and offers his playing abilities. Successful football player–managers include Kenny Dalglish, Graeme Souness, Glenn Hoddle, Bryan Robson, Peter Reid, Ruud Gullit and Gianluca Vialli. Dalglish won the double of the league title and FA Cup in his first season as player-manager, went on to win two more league titles and an FA Cup before giving up playing five years after becoming manager, while Souness won three Scottish league titles and several cup competitions when he was player-manager of Rangers, he succeeded Dalglish as Liverpool manager just before Rangers won another Scottish league title, but at the age of 38 he did not register himself as a player for Liverpool. In 1997, Ruud Gullit won the FA Cup with Chelsea in his first season as player-manager making history by being the first foreign and non-white manager to win a major trophy in English football.
He was sacked nine months and Chelsea appointed another player-manager in his place. Within weeks of taking over, Vialli guided Chelsea to victory in the League Cup, two months after that, they won the European Cup Winners' Cup. A number of bigger clubs have appointed player-managers on a temporary basis but not given them permanent contracts. Notable cases include Ossie Ardiles in 1987 and Dave Watson a decade although Ardiles returned to Tottenham as manager in 1993 after managing three other clubs. During the first decade of the 21st century, the concept fell into total disuse and was only practiced by smaller clubs. In March 2013, a BBC Sport article suggested
Australian Football Hall of Fame
The Australian Football Hall of Fame was established in 1996, the Centenary year of the Australian Football League, to help recognise the contributions made to the sport of Australian rules football by players, media personalities and administrators. It was established with 136 inductees; as of 2014, this figure has grown to 257, including 27 "Legends". While those involved in the game from its inception in 1858 are theoretically eligible few outside the major leagues – the Australian Football League, the Victorian Football League, the West Australian Football League and the South Australian National Football League – have been recognised to date. A committee considers candidates on the basis of their ability, integrity and character. While the number of games played, coached or umpired, or years of service in the case of administrators and media representatives, is a consideration, it alone does not determine eligibility. Players must be retired from the game for at least three years before they become eligible for induction, while coaches, umpires and media representatives are eligible upon retirement.
The committee considers candidates from all the states and territories of Australia and from all Australian Football competitions within Australia. The following excerpt from the official Hall of Fame website highlights the main criteria used by the committee in selecting inductees to the Hall of Fame: The Committee shall consider a candidate's outstanding service and overall contribution to the game of Australian Football in determining a candidate's eligibility for induction into the Hall of Fame. Without limiting clause 5.1, the Committee may consider a candidate's individual record, integrity and character. The number of football games played, coached or umpired or the years of service provided shall only be a consideration and shall not be determinative in assessing a candidate's eligibility. A player, umpire, administrator or media representative involved at any level of Australian Football may be eligible for induction into the Hall of Fame. Candidates shall be adjudged on the basis of their overall contribution to Australian Football, as opposed to one specific aspect.
In 2010, several amendments were made to the selection criteria: The key criteria changes include: The maximum number of inductees in any single year reduced from eight to six, to increase the emphasis and honour for those inducted. The requirement to induct a minimum of three retired players reduced to a minimum of two, to ensure older players deserving of induction are represented in proportion; the requirement to have one inductee from the grouping of categories umpire/administrator/media every year changed to a minimum of one from this category every two years. The Hall of Fame selection committee to be independent from the AFL Commission; the wording in the charter has been changed so that the selection committee recommends to the commission for “endorsement” rather than for “approval”. Selectors would be appointed for an initial term of three years, with two further opportunities to be appointed for subsequent three year terms. At least 25 per cent of the selection committee to reside outside of Victoria.
The Legends category is reserved for those who are deemed to have had a significant impact on the game of Australian rules football. All "Legends" enshrined to date represent former players of the VFL/AFL, with the exception of Barrie Robran who played the whole of his career in the SANFL. Being named as a "Legend" of the Australian Football Hall of Fame is the highest honour which can be bestowed onto an Australian footballer. In 2010, several amendments to the Legends category were made to ensure the exclusivity and prestige of the Hall of Fame. Among them were: The Legends category remains for recognition of the most significant playing and coaching records The number of Legends that can be part of the Hall of Fame remains at a maximum of 10 per cent of the total inductees Criteria for elevating an inductee to Legend status requires that only ‘playing and coaching’ records be taken into account and not a candidate’s overall contribution to the game outside of playing and coaching People inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame on their coaching records.
John Acraman Charles Kingston Richard Twopeny Every year there is a special Hall of Fame dinner to announce and welcome the new inductees to the Hall of Fame. The Hall of Fame inductions started in Melbourne in 1996 to celebrate the VFL-AFL centenary season. Ceremonies have only been held outside of Victoria twice, once at Canberra in 2013 and once at Adelaide in 2017; the Hall of Fame has been criticised by football writers and historians for being biased towards figures from Victoria. The initial selection committee was made up of 11 Victorians, one South Australian and one Western Australian, with the current selection committee being made up of six Victorians, two Western Australians and one South Australian. Of the 136 inaugural inductees into the Hall of Fame, 116 played substantial parts of their careers in Victoria, with eleven of the thirteen "Legends" from Victoria. Criticism has been slated at the under-representation of pioneers and other early stars of the game. Adam Cardosi wrote in 2014: If we take the HOF at face value, footy legends only started to appear in number from the 1930s, reached a high point in the 1960s and 1970s....
Thus, according to the HOF’s reckoning, the first sixty five years of the game is worth one legend, while the next sixty five years is worth 24 legends. In 2018 the same criticism was levelled by ABC sport reporter James Coventry who cr
Carlton Football Club
The Carlton Football Club, nicknamed the Blues, is a professional Australian rules football club based in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1864 in Carlton, an inner suburb of Melbourne, the club competes in the Australian Football League, was one of the competition's eight founding member clubs in 1897; the club's headquarters and training facilities are located in Carlton at Princes Park, its traditional home ground, it plays its home matches at either Docklands Stadium or the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Carlton has been one of the AFL's most successful clubs, having won sixteen senior VFL/AFL premierships, equal with Essendon as the most of any club; the club has fielded a team in the AFL Women's league since its establishment in 2017. Carlton has had a long and successful history, winning the most premierships of any club in the VFL era. Together with fierce rivals Collingwood and Essendon, Carlton was considered to be one of the league's "Big Four" clubs, enjoys a healthy rivalry with all three others.
Since winning its last premiership in 1995, Carlton is experiencing its longest premiership drought, has finished bottom of the ladder the most of any club since the competition became known as the AFL. The Carlton Football Club was formed in July 1864. In the early days, Carlton became strong and having grown a large supporter base, it became a fierce rival to the Melbourne Football Club in early competition, including the South Yarra Challenge Cup, which it won in 1871. Carlton won four premierships during the pre-VFA era in the 1870s. In 1877, Carlton became one of the foundation clubs of the Victorian Football Association, was a comfortable winner of the premiership in the competition's inaugural season. Carlton was one of the first clubs to have a player worthy of the superstar tag: champion player George Coulthard, who played for Carlton between 1876 and 1882, was noted by The Australasian as'The grandest player of the day', he died of tuberculosis in 1883, aged 27. The club won one more VFA premiership, in 1887, but after that during the 1890s, the club went from one of the strongest clubs in the Association to one of the weaker, both on-field and off-field.
In spite of this, the club was invited to join the breakaway Victorian Football League competition in 1897. The club continued to struggle in early seasons of the new competition, finished seventh out of eight teams in each of its first five seasons. Carlton's fortunes improved in 1902; the Board elected the respected former Fitzroy footballer and Australian test cricketer Jack Worrall the secretary of the Carlton Cricket Club, to the same position at the football club. As secretary, Worrall took over the managing of the players, in what is now recognised as the first official coaching role in the VFL. Under Worrall's guidance in the latter part of the 1902 season, Carlton's on-field performances improved, in 1903 he led Carlton to the finals for the first time. Carlton built a strong reputation and financial position, was able to convince many great players to shift to the club from other clubs, or out of retirement. Worrall led the club to its first three VFL premierships, won consecutively, in 1906, 1907 and 1908.
Carlton became the first club in the VFL to win three premierships in a row, its win-loss record of 19–1 in the 1908 season was a record which stood for more than ninety years. N 1Following these premierships, Carlton went through a tumultuous period off-field; some players had become frustrated by low payments and hard training standards, responded by refusing to train or play matches. The club removed Worrall from the coaching role, after significant changes at board level after the 1909 season, Worrall left the club altogether. Many players who had supported Worrall left the club at the end of the season. In 1910, several players were suspected of having taken bribes to fix matches, with two players both found guilty and suspended for 99 matches. Despite this backdrop, Carlton continued its strong on-field form, reaching the 1909 and 1910 Grand Finals, but losing both. Carlton fell out of the finals in 1913, but returned in 1914 under coach Norm Clark, with many inexperienced players, to win back-to-back premierships in 1914 and 1915 VFL seasons.
Most football around the country was suspended during the height of World War I, but Carlton continued to compete in a VFL which featured, at its fewest, only four clubs. Altogether, between Jack Worrall's first Grand Final in 1904 and the peak of World War I in 1916, Carlton won five premierships and contested nine Grand Finals for one of the most successful times in the club's history; the only success which eluded the club was the Championship of Australia. Through the 1920s and the Great Depression of the 1930s, Carlton maintained a strong on-field presence; the club was a frequent finalist. However, premiership success did not follow, the club contested only three Grand Finals for just one premiership during this period, endured the second longest premiership drought in the club's history; the drought was broken with the club's sixth VFL premiership in 1938, when former Subiaco and South Melbourne champion Brighton Diggins was recruited
Collingwood Football Club
The Collingwood Football Club, nicknamed the Magpies or colloquially the Pies, is a professional Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League. Formed in 1892 in the then-working class Melbourne suburb of Collingwood, the club played in the Victorian Football Association before joining seven other teams in 1896 to found the breakaway Victorian Football League. Based at Victoria Park, Collingwood now plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground with its training and administrative headquarters located at Olympic Park Oval and the Holden Centre. Collingwood has played in a record 44 VFL/AFL Grand Finals, winning 15, drawing two and losing 27. Collingwood won a record-breaking four premierships in a row between 1927 and 1930. Collingwood is regarded as one of Australia's most popular sports clubs, attracting the highest attendance figures and television ratings of any professional team in the nation. In 2013, it became the first AFL club to reach 80,000 members.
Collingwood's iconic home guernsey consists of black and white stripes, matching the colours of an Australian magpie. Throughout its history, the club has developed rivalries with cross-town Melbourne based clubs Carlton and Essendon. More the club developed a rivalry with the Brisbane Lions, based in Queensland. Collingwood fields a reserves team in the Victorian Football League and a women's side in the AFL Women's competition, it owns and operates a netball team in the National Netball League. The Collingwood Football Club was established on 12 February 1892. Collingwood played its first game in the Victorian Football Association against Carlton on 7 May 1892; the club won the VFA Premiership in 1896. In 1897, along with fellow VFA clubs Fitzroy, Melbourne, St Kilda, Essendon, South Melbourne and Geelong split from the VFA and formed the Victorian Football League. Collingwood won its first premiership in 1902. Collingwood was the most successful club of the 1920s and 1930s, appearing in 13 out of a possible 20 Grand Finals during the period.
Collingwood were premiers six times during this time, including four consecutive premierships between 1927 and 1930, a VFL/AFL record, two consecutive premierships in 1935 and 1936. The club's coach during this period was Jock McHale, who served as coach from 1912 to 1949. Collingwood had three Brownlow Medallists during the period, with Syd Coventry winning in 1927, Albert Collier in 1929 and Harry Collier in 1930 In the 1950s, rival club Melbourne enjoyed an era of unprecedented success, winning five premierships in six years. Collingwood lost two Grand Finals to Melbourne in this decade, but bounced back to win premierships in 1953 and 1958. Collingwood's 1958 premiership is much cherished by the club as it prevented Melbourne from equalling Collingwood's record four premierships in a row; the 1958 premiership was however to be Collingwood's last for 32 years, as the club was to suffer a string of Grand Final defeats in coming decades. A string of eight Grand Final losses by narrow margins, between 1960 and 1981 gave rise to a perception that the club was prone to "choking", a phenomenon wittily dubbed "Colliwobbles".
Whether this perception is accurate remains a subject of debate. Lou Richards ceremoniously buried the Colliwobbles at Victoria Park after the club's 1990 premiership; the 1990 premiership team, coached by Leigh Matthews and captained by Tony Shaw, had a one-sided grand final win against Essendon, the Magpies recording a 48-point victory and ending a 32-year premiership drought which included eight grand final losses and one draw. After this, the club lapsed into a state of decline; the club received a second wooden spoon in 1999. Within a few years, with a change of coach, playing list and club president, Collingwood reached and lost consecutive grand finals in 2002 and 2003, both to the Brisbane Lions. Following those Grand Final losses, Collingwood struggled for the next two years, finishing 13th in 2004 and second-last in 2005. Collingwood made a return to the finals in 2006, finishing fifth, but were defeated by the Western Bulldogs by 41 points in its elimination final. A loss to Essendon late in the season was to cost them the double chance.
The 2007 season saw them finish sixth on the ladder at season's conclusion, in the finals they knocked out the grand finalists of the past two years, Sydney, in the elimination final and West Coast in overtime at Subiaco Oval in the semi-final. Having earned a preliminary final against Geelong, Collingwood lost to the eventual premiers, by five points. Nathan Buckley would announce his retirement at season's end after playing just five games in 2007 due to injury. Collingwood finished eighth in 2008 and were assigned an away final against Adelaide at AAMI Stadium. After at one point trailing in the match, Collingwood went on to end Adelaide's season and earn a semi-final meeting against St Kilda. Having defeated the Saints in both their regular season meetings, Collingwood lost convincingly, ending their 2008 season; the 2009 season saw Collingwood finish inside the top-four for the first time since 2003, but in the qualifying final were beaten by minor premiers St Kilda convincingly. Having won a second chance, Collingwood struggled against Adelaide for the second year in a row before John Anthony kicked the match-winning goal with a minute left to send them into ano
Salzburg "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Federal State of Salzburg. Its historic centre is renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, with 27 churches, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was film The Sound of Music. Traces of human settlements have been found in the area; the first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were by the Celts around the 5th century BC. Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", he travelled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle"; the name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence, it was expanded during the following centuries. Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire; as the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.
It was besieged for three months in 1525. Tensions were quelled, the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, Paris Lodron, it was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces. On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia; the rest settled in other Protestant states in the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism. In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon.
In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry. In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram. After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich, Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz. In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire; the city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands; this was replaced by the First Austrian Republic after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
The Anschluss took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps; the synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan, it was an Arbeitserziehungslager. It operated as a Zwischenlager, holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe. Allied bombing killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings those a
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under