United States Marine Corps
The U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military officer in the U. S. Armed Forces, is a Marine Corps general, the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working closely with naval forces for training and logistics. The USMC operates posts on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world, two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting for independence both at sea and on shore. The role of the Corps has since grown and evolved, expanding to aerial warfare and earning popular titles such as, Americas third air force, second land army. By the mid-20th century, the U. S. Marine Corps had become a major theorist of and its ability to rapidly respond on short notice to expeditionary crises gives it a strong role in the implementation and execution of American foreign policy.
As of 2016, the USMC has around 182,000 active duty members and it is the smallest of the U. S. The USMC serves as an expeditionary force-in-readiness and this last clause, while seemingly redundant given the Presidents position as Commander-in-chief, is a codification of the expeditionary responsibilities of the Marine Corps. It derives from similar language in the Congressional acts For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps of 1834, in 1951, the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee called the clause one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps. In addition to its duties, the Marine Corps conducts Visit, Board and Seizure operations, as well as missions in direct support of the White House. The Marine Band, dubbed the Presidents Own by Thomas Jefferson, Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. The Executive Flight Detachment provides transport to Cabinet members. The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S.
Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself, for over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, in 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of War furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on December 15,1948, during the first year of the MSG program,36 detachments were deployed worldwide. Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore, the Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ships landing force, manning the ships weapons and providing shipboard security.
Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II, during World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital ships
Also, the business of real estate, the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings or housing. It is a term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, the United Kingdom, United States, Pakistan, Australia. Residential real estate may contain either a family or multifamily structure. Residences can be classified by, if, and how they are connected to neighbouring residences, different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residents might be owned by an entity and leased out. Major categories in North America and Europe Attached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment or Flat – An individual unit in a multi-unit building, the boundaries of the apartment are generally defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Often seen in apartment buildings. Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is an apartment or unit. Terraced house – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a row with shared walls.
Condominium – Building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals, common grounds and common areas within the complex are owned and shared jointly. There are townhouse or rowhouse style condominiums as well, semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes – Potentially a full-time residence which can be movable on wheels, houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually very temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material. The size of an apartment or house can be described in square feet or meters, in the United States, this includes the area of living space, excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. It can be described roughly by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a bedroom with no living room. A one-bedroom apartment has a living or dining room separate from the bedroom, Two bedroom, three bedroom, and larger units are common. Major categories in India and the Asian Subcontinent Co-operative Housing Societies Condominiums Chawls Villas Havelis The size is measured in Gaz, Marla and acre.
See List of house types for a listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market
Lorenzo Snow was an American religious leader who served as the fifth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1898 to his death. Snow was the last president of the LDS Church in the nineteenth century, Lorenzo had siblings Leonora Abigail Snow, Eliza R. Snow, Percy Amanda Snow, Melissa Snow, Lucius Augustus Snow, and Samuel Pearce Snow. Despite the labor required on the farm, the Snow family valued learning, Snow received his final year of education at Oberlin College, which was founded by two Presbyterian ministers. Snow made his living as a teacher when not engaged in church service. In 1831, Joseph Smith, the Latter Day Saint prophet, took up residence in Hiram, the Snow family was Baptist, but soon took a strong interest in the new religious movement. Snow recorded that he heard the Book of Mormon being read aloud in his home in Mantua, by 1835, Snows mother and his older sister Eliza, had joined the Latter Day Saint church. Eliza soon moved to the headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio.
She, in her biography of Snow, claims to have fostered his interest in Mormonism while he was at Oberlin, Eliza invited Snow to visit her and attend a school of Hebrew newly established by the church. During his visit there, in June 1836, Snow was baptized by John F. Boynton, while living in Kirtland in 1837, Snow was called to serve a short mission in Ohio, traveling without purse or scrip. He recorded that relying on the kindness of others for his meals and lodging was difficult for him, when he returned to Kirtland in 1838, Snow found Smiths followers in turmoil over the failure of the Kirtland Safety Society. Snow and the members of his family chose to move to Missouri in the summer of 1838. Snow became seriously ill with a fever, and was nursed for several weeks by his sister Eliza, on his recovery, Snow left for a second mission to Illinois and Kentucky in the fall of 1838. He served there through February 1839, when he learned that the Latter Day Saints had been expelled from their settlements in Missouri and he traveled home by way of his former mission area in Ohio.
He was again ill and was cared for by members of the church. He remained in Ohio and working with church members until the fall of 1839, during the school year of 1839–40, Snow taught in Shalersville, Ohio. He sent money to his family, which had by settled in Nauvoo, shortly after he arrived in Nauvoo, Snow was asked to serve a mission in England. After an unpleasant sea voyage from New York City, Snow met with some of the members of the Quorum of the Twelve who had opened the British Mission in 1839, including Brigham Young, Heber C. Snow worked briefly in the Manchester area, and had success in Birmingham, Snow was assigned to preside over church members in London
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name. Historically, they have taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones, actors and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to mask their ethnic backgrounds. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Ellery Queen, the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον, literally false name, from ψεῦδος, falsehood and ὄνομα, name. A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, which is the name of another person and this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a front name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s. See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship, sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person.
This is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name, in many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a persons new legal name. He changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam, likewise some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames that had been in their families for generations. The politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland and he adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, and dummy corporations to hide their identity, a pen name, or nom de plume, is a pseudonym adopted by an author. Some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, the Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books, anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Shirley and Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell, emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans, who wrote as George Eliot, Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter ODonnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a real name is likely to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use different pen names to avoid confusing their readers, in some cases, an author may become better known by his pen name than his real name
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution and it was founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854. The Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern States for most of the period between 1860 and 1932, there have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one party. The Republican Partys current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats more progressive platform, its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. As of 2017, the GOP is documented as being at its strongest position politically since 1928, in addition to holding the Presidency, the Republicans control the 115th United States Congress, having majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures, the main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil, the first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20,1854, in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jeffersons Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 6,1854, in Jackson and it oversaw the preserving of the union, the end of slavery, and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861–1877. The Republicans initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, with the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states, early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan free labor, free land, free men, which had been coined by Salmon P.
Chase, a Senator from Ohio. Free labor referred to the Republican opposition to labor and belief in independent artisans. Free land referred to Republican opposition to the system whereby slaveowners could buy up all the good farm land. The Party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power, representing the fast-growing western states, won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The partys success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s and those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the system, the Half-Breeds led by Chester A.
Arthur pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883
Council of Friends (Woolley)
The Council of Friends was one of the original expressions of Mormon fundamentalism, having its origins in the teachings of Lorin C. Woolley, a dairy farmer excommunicated from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1924, Woolley, to ensure that the practice of polygamy would continue into perpetuity even if abandoned by the church. To that end, Woolley extended the same authority to a seven-man Council of Friends between 1929 and 1933. Following the death of Woolley in September 1934 and of his Second Elder J. Leslie Broadbent six months later, the leadership of the Group fell to John Y. Barlow believed that the isolated Creek could provide a place of refuge for those engaging in the practice of polygamy, a felony, within a month. The UEP was incorporated on November 9,1942, the group was notorious for the practice of polygamy due to media coverage during the Short Creek raids of 1945 and 1953. Additions were made to Woolleys Council of Friends as time went on, leroy S. Johnson and Rulon Jeffs, future leaders of the FLDS Church, were ordained by John Y.
Barlow in the 1940s, while Joseph Mussers ordination of Rulon C, allred in 1952 caused a division in the community and led to the creation of the Apostolic United Brethren. Today, the AUB continues to be led by a Priesthood Council, Woolley claimed to have been ordained to the Council for precisely that purpose by President John Taylor in 1886, along with his father John W. Woolley and four others. Barlow, Joseph White Musser, Charles Zitting, LeGrande Woolley, the following are the leaders of the Council of Friends prior to the 1954 split, John W. Woolley Lorin C. Woolley J. Leslie Broadbent John Y, barlow Joseph W. Musser Charles Zitting
Warren Steed Jeffs is the former President of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and a convicted felon currently serving a sentence of life plus 20 years. His prison term is the result of being convicted in 2011 of two counts of child sexual assault. He was arrested in August 2006 in Nevada, and agreed to be taken to Utah for trial, in May and July 2007, Arizona charged him with eight additional counts in two separate cases, including incest and sexual conduct with minors. On September 25,2007 in St. George, Jeffs was convicted of two counts of rape as an accomplice, on November 20,2007, Jeffs was sentenced to imprisonment for 10 years to life and began serving his sentence at the Utah State Prison. The conviction, was overturned by the Utah Supreme Court on July 27,2010, due to incorrect jury instructions. Jeffs was extradited by Utah to Texas, where he was guilty of sexual assault. Jeffs was born to Rulon Jeffs and Marilyn Steed, the daughter of Woodruff Steed and his father, the leader of the FLDS Church at his death, was survived by 19 or 20 wives and approximately 60 children.
Former church members claim that Jeffs himself has 70 wives, two of Warren Jeffs children, a son and a daughter, have publicly claimed that they were sexually abused by him. Prior to his fathers death, Jeffs held the position of counselor to the church leader, when Rulon Jeffs died in 2002, Jeffs became his successor with his official title in the FLDS Church becoming President and Prophet and Revelator as well as President of the Priesthood. The latter concerned being head of the organization of all adult male church members that were deemed worthy to hold the priesthood, following his fathers death, Jeffs told the high-ranking FLDS officials, I wont say much, but I will say this—hands off my fathers wives. When addressing his fathers widows he said, You women will live as if Father is still alive and in the next room. Within a week, Jeffs had married all but two of his fathers wives, Rebecca Wall, fled the compound, the other refused to marry Jeffs and was prohibited from ever marrying again.
Wall, the sister of Elissa Wall who was instrumental in Warrens incarceration. Naomi Jessop was one of the first of Rulons former wives to marry Warren, subsequently becoming his favorite wife, Jessop was with Jeffs at the time of his arrest. As the sole individual in the church with the authority to perform marriages and he had the authority to discipline male church members by reassigning their wives and homes to another man. Until courts in Utah intervened, Jeffs controlled almost all of the land in Colorado City and Hildale, which was part of a church trust, the land has been estimated to be worth over $100 million. Currently, all UEP assets are in the custody of the Utah court system pending further litigation, as the result of a November 2012 court decision, much of the UEP land is to be sold to those who live on it. In January 2004, Jeffs expelled a group of 20 men from Colorado City, including the mayor, and reassigned their wives and children to other men in the community
Church of Greece
The Church of Greece, part of the wider Greek Orthodox Church, is one of the autocephalous churches which make up the communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. However, most of its dioceses are de facto administered as part of the Church of Greece for practical reasons, the primate of the Church of Greece is the Archbishop of Athens and All Greece. Mainstream Orthodox clergys salaries and pensions are paid for by the State at rates comparable to those of teachers, the Church had previously compensated the State by a tax of 35% on ordinary revenues of the Church, but Law 3220/2004 in 2004 abolished this tax. By virtue of its status as the religion, the canon law of the Church is recognized by the Greek government in matters pertaining to church administration. This is governed by the Constitution of the Church of Greece, Religious marriages and baptisms are legally equivalent to their civil counterparts and the relevant certificates are issued by officiating clergy. All Greek Orthodox students in primary and secondary schools in Greece attend religious instruction, liaisons between church and state are handled by the Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs.
Supreme authority is vested in the synod of all the bishops who have metropolitan status under the de jure presidency of the Archbishop of Athens. This synod deals with general church questions, the Standing Synod is under the same presidency, and consists of the Primate and 12 bishops, each serving for one term on a rotating basis and deals with details of administration. They are called the New Lands as they part of the modern Greek state only after the Balkan Wars. A bishop elected to one of the Sees of the New Lands has to be confirmed by the Patriarch of Constantinople before assuming his duties and these dioceses are administered by the Church of Greece in stewardship and their bishops retain their right of appeal to the Patriarch. As in other Eastern Orthodox Churches, male graduates of seminaries run by the church, may be ordained as deacons and they are allowed to marry before their ordination as deacons, but not afterwards. The vast majority of clergy in Greece are married. Alternatively, they may enter monasteries and/or take monastic vows, monastics who are ordained as priests, and possess a university degree in theology, are eligible as candidates for the episcopate.
Women may take vows and become nuns, but they are not ordained. Monasteries are either affiliated to their diocese, or directly to one of the Orthodox Patriarchates. Those who refused to adopt this change are known as Old Calendarists and they themselves have suffered several schisms, and not all Old Calendarists comprise one Church. They refer to themselves as Genuine Orthodox Christians, and the largest group associating itself with the Old Calendarists is the Synod of Archbishop Chrysostomos II Kioussis. This Synod has obtained government recognition as a valid Orthodox Church, Greece was an early center of Christianity
Country music is a genre of United States popular music that originated in the southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from the genre of United States, such as folk music. Blues modes have been used throughout its recorded history. The term country music is used today to many styles and subgenres. In 2009 country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, immigrants to the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of Europe and Africa along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon, Tennessee, has been formally recognized by the U. S. Congress as the Birthplace of Country Music, based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum, historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, and the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930.
Prior to these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a musical heritage. The first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlantas music scene playing a role in launching countrys earliest recording artists. Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, many hillbilly musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville, during the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a hot string band. His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had played at Carnegie Hall.
Gospel music remained a component of country music. It became known as honky tonk, and had its roots in Western swing and the music of Mexico. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres
Each governmental jurisdiction prescribes the form of the document for use in its preview and the procedures necessary to legally produce it. In cases where it is not completely clear that a person is dead, the failure of a physician to immediately submit the required form to the government is often both a crime and cause for loss of ones license to practice. This is because of past scandals in which dead people continued to receive benefits or voted in elections. Death certificates may be issued pursuant to an order or an executive order in the case of individuals who have been declared dead in absentia. Missing persons and victims of mass disasters may be issued death certificates in one of these manners, in some jurisdictions, a police officer or a paramedic may be allowed to sign a death certificate under specific circumstances. This is usually when the cause of death seems obvious and no foul play is suspected, in such cases, an autopsy is rarely performed. In most of the United States, death certificates are considered public domain documents, other jurisdictions take a different view, and restrict the issue of certificates.
In Europe and North America, death records were kept by the churches, along with baptism. In what would become the United States, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was the first to have the secular courts keep these records, by the end of the 19th century, European countries were pursuing centralized systems for recording deaths. In the United States, a standard model death certificate was developed around 1910 and this promoted uniformity and consistency in record keeping. In the United States, certificates issued to the public for deaths after 1990 may in some states be redacted to erase the specific cause of death to comply with HIV confidentiality rules. Registration in the UK is organised separately in the constituent jurisdictions, in England and Wales, compulsory national registration of deaths began in 1837. Further details have since been recorded including the date and place of birth, maiden surnames. Beginning in 1879, a certificate was necessary for the issuance of a death certificate.
The form of indexing and the layout of register pages generally follows that of England, National registration began in 1855, registrations are rather more detailed than in England and Wales. The burial place was recorded from 1855 to 1860, standard details have until now included the deceaseds name, marital status, details of both parents, cause of death and the informants description. Current registrations show the date of birth, the prescribed forms are part of secondary legislation and those for recent years can thus be seen online in the Statute Law Database. These jurisdictions do not form part of the United Kingdom and each has its own registration system and their older records tend to follow the layout used in England and Wales
J. Leslie Broadbent
Joseph Leslie Broadbent was a religious leader in the early stages of the Mormon fundamentalist movement. Broadbent was born to Amanda Hermandine Twede and Joseph Samuel Broadbent, in 1910, Broadbent left his studies at Brigham Young University to serve a mission in England for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In June 1915, he married Rula Louise Kelsch, and through his association with her came to know John Wickersham Woolley. Among his other wives were Fawnetta Jessop, who married him in October 1925, and Irene Locket and Anna Kmetzsch, in 1927, Broadbent published the pamphlet Celestial Marriage, which advocated the practice of plural marriage. This was one of the first Mormon fundamentalist tracts and was a factor in his subsequent excommunication by the LDS Church in July 1929, upon Woolleys death in 1934, Broadbent succeeded him as priesthood president. Among Mormon fundamentalists, the succession was largely uncontroversial, and Broadbent traveled widely in support of the fundamentalist movement, in February 1935, he and a number of other fundamentalist leaders visited Millville, for a meeting with co-religionists.
The next month, Broadbent died from pneumonia, after Broadbents death, there was a succession dispute between Charles Elden Kingston and John Yeates Barlow. The dispute was resolved in favor of Barlow, and Kingstons followers eventually established the Latter Day Church of Christ, according to his friend Louis Kelsch, on the day of his death Broadbent said that he had not experienced any personal vision of heavenly messengers. However, Broadbent commented, If they come to get me, I can tell them that I am still in the work, mormonfundamentalism. com biography of Joseph Leslie Broadbent