Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, breaststroke and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers; the order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques. There are regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are multiple health benefits associated with the sport. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago.
Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London; the recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England.
His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations; the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century.
The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. An athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition; the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath.
This helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool. There are forty recognized individual swimming events in the pool; the international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation, better known as FINA. In open water swimming, where the events are swum in a body of open water, there are 5 km, 10 km and 25 km events for men and women. However, only the 10 km event is included in the Olympic schedule, again for both women. Open-water competitions are separate to other swimming competitions with the exception of the World Championships and the Olympics. In competitive swimming, four major styles have been established; these have been stable over the last 30–40 years with minor improvements. They are: Butterfly Backstroke
Swimming at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Men's marathon 10 kilometre
The men's marathon swim over a distance of 10 kilometres at the 2012 Olympic Games in London took place on 10 August in the Serpentine at Hyde Park. Outclassing a vast field of rivals, Tunisia's Oussama Mellouli built a historic milestone as the first swimmer to capture Olympic titles in both pool and open water. Around the 7 km mark, Mellouli opened up a three-body-length lead over a small pack of swimmers, maintained a fast pace to claim his second gold and third career medal in 1:49:55.1. Chasing for two more Olympic medals in a grueling race, Germany's Thomas Lurz finished behind the leader by 3.4 seconds with a silver in 1:49:58.5, while Canada's Richard Weinberger, who pulled off a powerful lead on the first lap, grabbed the bronze in 1:50:00.3. Greece's Spyridon Gianniotis, the reigning world champion, mounted a spirited challenge against Mellouli and Weinberger in pursuit, but dropped back in the last 200 metres to fourth in 1:50:05.3. Enjoying a massive support from the home crowd at Hyde Park, Great Britain's Daniel Fogg struggled to maintain his form after the fourth lap, but pushed himself further from behind with a spectacular swim to claim a fifth spot in 1:50:37.3.
Fogg was followed in sixth and seventh by Russian duo Sergey Bolshakov and Vladimir Dyatchin, while Lurz's teammate Andreas Waschburger, who led both the third and fourth lap ahead of Mellouli and Weinberger, faded down the stretch to pick up the eighth spot in 1:50:44.4. Bulgaria's four-time Olympian Petar Stoychev finished ninth in 1:50:46.2 to hold off a fast-charging American open water swimmer Alex Meyer by two full-body lengths apart from the distance. As the remaining swimmers completed the race in a magnificent fashion, Guam's 16-year-old teen Benjamin Schulte, dubbed as Benny the Bream by the crowd, fought off audaciously throughout the open-water course to round out the field with a twenty-fifth place time in 2:03:35.1. The men's 10 km open water marathon at the 2012 Olympics featured a field of 25 swimmers: 10: the top-10 finishers in the 10 km race at the 2011 FINA World Championships. 9: the top-9 finishers at the 2012 Olympic Marathon Swim Qualifier. 5: one representative from each FINA continent.
1: from the host nation if not qualified by other means. If Great Britain had a qualifier in the race, this spot was allocated back into the general pool from the 2012 qualifying race. NBC Olympics Coverage Map of the Course
Open water swimming
Open water swimming is a swimming discipline which takes place in outdoor bodies of water such as open oceans and rivers. The beginning of the modern age of open water swimming is sometimes taken to be May 3, 1810, when Lord Byron swam several miles to cross the Hellespont from Europe to Asia. In the first edition of the modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896, the swimming competition was held in open water. In 2000, the Olympic Games first included a triathlon with a 1500 m swim leg, in 2008, a 10 km open water swim; the FINA World Aquatics Championships has featured open water swimming events since 1992. The FINA World Open Water Swimming Championships was held from 2000 to 2010. Since 2007, the FINA 10 km Marathon Swimming World Cup is held in several events around the world; the activity has grown in popularity in recent years with the publication of bestselling books on "wild swimming" by authors such as Kate Rew and Daniel Start, Waterlog by Roger Deakin. Events such as the Midmar Mile in South Africa, Great Swim in the UK, have helped create and grow interest in participation of the sport.
Though most open water races do not require a specific stroke, most competitors employ the front crawl known as freestyle. The efficiency of this stroke was demonstrated by Gertrude Ederle, who, as the first woman to swim the English Channel, employed it to beat the existing world record by more than 2 hours; when covering large distances, swimmers may head off course due to current, waves and poor visibility. Buoys are stationed periodically across a large expanse to provide guidance. However, buoys are invisible due to interference from choppy water and reduced visibility through goggles. Swimmers are encouraged to'triangulate' by looking for two aligned visible objects on land that are directly behind the destination, to make sure they continue to appear aligned during the race. Drafting, prohibited by some race regulations, is the technique of following another swimmer so that water resistance is reduced; when swimming alongside or behind a swimmer in the lead swimmer's wake, resistance is reduced and the amount of effort to swim at the same speed is correspondingly reduced.
In calmer conditions, or when facing surface chop, swimmers can significantly benefit from swimming behind or alongside a swimmer of comparable or faster speed. Not all race organizers permit drafting, swimmers can run the risk of disqualification if they are caught; when entering the water, swimmers can use techniques to take advantage of the shallow water. One such technique is walking along the bottom. Another technique is "dolphining", which involves diving down to the bottom and launching oneself upwards and forwards; this technique can help to avoid incoming waves. When exiting the water, swimmers can body surf to take advantage of waves; the equipment allowed in a race depends on the sanctioning body and/or the race organizers. For example, races relays; some swimmers tend to keep it simple, using a basic swimsuit and swim cap. Many records are based on that attire, known as'channel attire' because it is stipulated in the rules for English Channel crossings and the rules for other long swims.
For triathlons, competitive rule 4.4 of USA Triathlon, states that "each age group participant shall be permitted to wear a wetsuit without penalty in any event sanctioned by USA Triathlon up to and including a water temperature of 78 degrees Fahrenheit." The ITU rule is that wetsuits are allowed for elite triathlons at below 23 °C if 3,000 metres or more, below 21 °C if shorter. Wetsuits are mandatory in triathlons below 16 °C. Various types of wetsuits of varying thicknesses are used in open water swimming; some employ high-tech materials and workmanship, others are of basic materials found in surfing and diving wetsuits. Some designs cover the torso and legs, while other designs leave the arms and shoulders exposed; when a person floats motionless in the water, their legs tend to sink. When a person swims freestyle, the legs rise toward surface because water passing underneath the body pushes the legs up, similar to how the wind can lift a kite into the air. In addition, a proper kicking technique will bring the legs all the way to the surface, creating a more streamlined profile for the arms to pull through the water.
Both of these mechanisms of becoming horizontal require a small amount of energy from the swimmer. When a person wearing a thick wetsuit floats motionless in the water, their legs tend to float on the surface. Theoretically, this obviates the small energy expenditure mentioned above, although an additional small amount of energy is required to continually flex the wetsuit during swimming motions. High-end triathlon wetsuits have extra flexibility that provides easier range of motion than a surfing or diving wetsuit; some triathlon wetsuits have varied thickness by way of panels that provide custom flotation that aids the wearer in keeping an efficient position in the water. Ice swimming Long distance swimming Marathon swimming Winter swimming Circuito Gran Fondo Italia, St Lucia Channel Swim - 21 Miles / 33 KM swim from St Lucia to Martinique Barbados Open Water Festival Bosphorus Intercontinental Swim, Byron Bay Ocean Swim Classic Henley Swim Series (United Kingdom, Henley-on-Tha
Ryan Steven Lochte is an American competitive swimmer and 12-time Olympic medalist. He is the 2nd-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history, behind only Michael Phelps, his seven individual Olympic medals rank near the top in men's swimming. As part of the American teams, he holds the world record in the 4×200-meter freestyle and 4x100-meter freestyle relay. Individually, he holds the world record in the 200-meter individual medley and 400-meter individual medley. Lochte's success has earned him SwimSwam's Swammy Award for US Male Swimmer of the Year in 2013, the World Swimmer of the Year Award and the American Swimmer of the Year Award twice, he has been named the FINA Swimmer of the Year three times. He has won a total of 90 medals in major international competition, 54 gold, 22 silver, 14 bronze spanning the Olympics, the Worlds, Pan American and Pan Pacific Championships, including six Olympic gold medals and 39 world championship titles. Lochte specializes in the backstroke and individual medley, but is a freestyle and butterfly swimmer.
He is noted for the distance he attains while kicking underwater. Lochte is known for his dominance in the short course format. Lochte swam the 100m individual medley in 50.71 seconds on December 15, 2012 at the FINA World Championships in Istanbul, Turkey. At this same event, he is credited with swimming the fastest 200m medley, leading him to finish in 1 minute 49.63 seconds. In 2016, Lochte generated international controversy when he falsely claimed that he and three other American swimmers had been pulled over and robbed by armed robbers with police badges while in Rio de Janeiro, for the 2016 Summer Olympics. On July 23, 2018, the US Anti-Doping Agency imposed a 14 months suspension from competition on Lochte because he had in 24 May that year received a'prohibited intravenous infusion.'On May 24, 2018, the same day he had received the infusion, Lochte had posted a picture - since deleted - of himself on Instagram, "showing him receiving an intravenous injection of what he says were “vitamins”...
USADA doesn’t allow intravenous infusions of permitted substances at volumes greater than 100 ml in a 12-hour period without a special “Therapeutic Use Exemption”,' Vox reported. Lochte was born in New York, the son of Ileana "Ike" and Steven R. Lochte, his mother is Cuban and was born and raised in Havana, while his father is of Dutch and German descent. He has two older sisters and Megan, two younger brothers and Brandon. During his early childhood, his family lived in Bristol, New York where he attended Bloomfield Central Schools; the family moved to Florida. Lochte was taught to swim at the age of five by both of his parents, he was kicked out of his father's swimming classes for misbehaving, which included pulling other children's legs, blowing bubbles, hiding at the other end of the pool. Lochte only began taking swimming when he was in junior high school, his father said, "I would send him to go shower. He spent more time in the showers than he did in the pool." At 14 years old, his loss at the Junior Olympics changed his attitude.
He commented: "I said,'I'm sick of losing'. After that I trained hard and I never lost there again." Lochte graduated in 2007, majoring in sport management. As a member of the Florida Gators swimming and diving team, he swam for coach Gregg Troy in National Collegiate Athletic Association and Southeastern Conference competition from 2004 to 2007. At Florida, Lochte was the NCAA Swimmer of the Year twice, a seven-time NCAA champion, a seven-time SEC champion, a 24-time All-American. At the 2006 NCAA Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, during his senior year, Lochte won national titles in all three of his individual events, setting U. S. Open and American records in 200-yard backstroke, he broke Tom Dolan's nearly decade-old NCAA record in the 400-yard individual medley. Lochte qualified for his first Olympics after finishing second to Michael Phelps in the 200-meter individual medley at the 2004 U. S. Olympic Team Trials, he qualified for the 4×200-meter freestyle relay team after finishing 4th in the 200-meter freestyle final.
At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Lochte swam with Phelps, Klete Keller, Peter Vanderkaay to upset the Australian team and capture the gold medal in the 4×200-meter freestyle relay. It was the first loss for the Australian team in six years, he narrowly edged out George Bovell and László Cseh in the 200-meter individual medley to win the silver medal behind Phelps. That year at the 2004 FINA Short Course World Championships in Indianapolis, Lochte won the silver medal in the 200-meter individual medley and the bronze in the 200-meter freestyle, he won the gold medal in the 4×200-meter freestyle relay with Chad Carvin, Dan Ketchum, Justin Mortimer. At the 2005 World Aquatics Championships in Montreal, Lochte won the bronze medals in both the 200-meter backstroke and 200-meter individual medley. In the 4×200-meter freestyle relay, Lochte teamed with Phelps and Keller to win gold ahead of Canada and Australia. At the 2006 FINA Short Course World Championships in Shanghai, held just two weeks after the 2006 NCAA Championships, Lochte won three individual titles, one silver, one bronze.
He won the 200-meter individual medley and the 200-meter backstroke, setting new world records in both events. He set another world record in the 100-meter backstroke in the opening leg of the 4×100-meter
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Nathan Ghar-jun Adrian is an American competitive swimmer and five-time Olympic gold medalist who held the American record in the long course 50-meter freestyle event. In his Olympic debut at the 2008 Summer Olympics, Adrian swam in the heats of the 4×100-meter freestyle relay and earned a gold medal when the United States team won in the final. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, Adrian won gold medals in both the 100-meter freestyle and the 4×100-meter medley relay, a silver medal in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, he has won a total of thirty-two medals in major international competitions. In the 2016 Summer Olympics, along with Michael Phelps, Caeleb Dressel, Ryan Held, he won a gold medal in the 4x100-meter freestyle relay as well as individual bronze medals in the 50-meter and 100-meter freestyles. Adrian was born in Bremerton, Washington, in 1988, he is the son of James Adrian. His mother works as a nurse for the Bremerton school district. Adrian has an older sister, who swam at Arizona State University, an older brother, who swam at the University of Washington.
Adrian started swimming at the age of five because of the influence of his siblings. He graduated in 2006 from Bremerton High School. Adrian attended at the University of California, Berkeley in fall 2006, where he majored in public health, he graduated with honors in the spring of 2012. Adrian was a five-time individual NCAA champion, winning the 50-yard freestyle in 2009 and 2011 and the 100-yard freestyle in 2009, 2010, 2011. At the 2008 Short Course World Championships, Adrian won gold in the 100-meter freestyle and 4×100-meter freestyle relay and silver in the 4×100-meter medley relay. In the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, Adrian combined with Ryan Lochte, Bryan Lundquist and Doug Van Wie won gold in a world record time of 3:08.44. In his second event, the 100-meter freestyle, Adrian won gold in a time of 46.67, just ahead of Filippo Magnini who finished second with a time of 46.70. For his last event, the 4×100-meter medley relay, Adrian combined with Randall Bal, Mark Gangloff and Ryan Lochte, won silver behind Russia.
At the 2008 United States Olympic Trials, Adrian placed fourth in the 100-meter freestyle, qualifying him to swim in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay at the Olympics. He placed sixth in the 50-meter freestyle. At the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, Adrian swam the first leg in the preliminary heats of the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, splitting a time of 48.82 seconds. Cullen Jones, Ben Wildman-Tobriner and Matt Grevers completed the relay with a final time of 3:12.23, a world record. This record was broken one day when Michael Phelps, Garrett Weber-Gale, Cullen Jones and Jason Lezak swam a time of 3:08.24, beating France and Australia in the final. By swimming in the heats, Adrian earned a gold medal though he didn't swim in the final. Adrian was training under coach Mike Bottom in the Florida Keys as part of The Race Club swimming training program World Team leading up to the 2008 Olympics. At the 2009 National Championships, Adrian placed first in the 50-meter and 100-meter freestyle events, qualifying him to swim at the 2009 World Aquatics Championships in Rome.
At the 2009 World Aquatics Championships, Adrian earned gold in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay and the 4×100-meter medley relay. Adrian placed sixth in the 50-meter freestyle and tenth in the 100-meter freestyle. After Michael Phelps, Ryan Lochte and Matt Grevers completed their legs in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, the United States had a slight deficit behind the Russian team. However, Adrian swam the anchor leg in 46.79 to overtake Danila Izotov for first place. The final time of 3:09.21 was a championship record. In the 4×100-meter medley relay, Adrian contributed in the heats and earned a gold medal when the U. S. team placed first in the final. At the 2010 National Championships, Adrian qualified to compete at the 2010 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships by winning the 50-meter and 100-meter freestyle titles, his win in the 100-meter freestyle guaranteed him a spot on the 4×100-meter freestyle and 4×100-meter medley relay teams. At the 2010 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships, Adrian won a total of four gold medals, the best performance of his career.
In his first event, the 100-meter freestyle, Adrian won the gold medal in 48.15, beating Canadian Brent Hayden and world-record holder in the 100-meter freestyle César Cielo. The following day, Adrian lined up alongside Michael Phelps, Ryan Lochte and Jason Lezak to anchor the 4×100-meter freestyle relay. With no competition, Adrian recorded a time of 47.51 and the U. S. team won the gold in a time of 3:11.74. The following day, Adrian competed in the 50-meter freestyle and the 4×100-meter medley relay. In the final of the 50-meter freestyle, Adrian shocked favorite Cielo, winning in a time of 21.55 seconds. About an hour and a half Adrian competed in the 4×100-meter medley relay with Aaron Peirsol, Mark Gangloff and Michael Phelps. Swimming the freestyle leg, Adrian recorded a time of 47.54, the fastest in the field and the U. S. team won the gold in a time of 3:32.48. Adrian won his first medal, a bronze, in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay with Michael Phelps, Garrett Weber-Gale and Jason Lezak.
Swimming the anchor leg, Adrian recorded a time of 47.40. In the final of the 100-meter freestyle, Adrian placed sixth with a time of 48.23, well off his semi-final time of 48.05. In the 50-meter freestyle final, Adrian placed fourth with a time of
Rochester is a city founded in 1854 in the U. S. State of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County located on the Zumbro River's south fork in Southeast Minnesota, it is Minnesota's third-largest city and the largest city located outside the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of 2015, the Rochester metropolitan area has a population of 215,884. According to the 2010 United States Census the city has a population of 106,769; the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that the 2017 population was 115,733, it is the home of the Mayo Clinic and an IBM facility one of the company's largest. The city has long been rated as one of the best places to live in the United States by multiple publications such as Money; the area developed as a stagecoach stop between Saint Paul and Dubuque, Iowa near the Zumbro River. The community was founded by George Head and his wife Henrietta who built log cabin Head's Tavern in 1854 and named the city after his hometown of Rochester, New York; when the Winona and St Peter Railroad initiated service in October 1864, it brought new residents and business opportunities further spurring growth and expansion.
In 1863, Dr. William W. Mayo arrived as the examining surgeon for Union draftees in the Civil War. Rochester celebrated its sesquicentennial in 2004. On August 21, 1883, the Great Tornado demolished much of Rochester, leaving 37 dead and 200 injured; as there was no medical facility in the immediate area at the time, Dr. Mayo and his two sons worked together to care for the wounded. Donations of US$60,000 were collected and the Sisters of St. Francis, assisted by Mayo, opened a new facility named St. Marys Hospital in 1889; the Mayo practice grew and is today among the largest and most well-respected medical facilities in the world. Many notable people from around the world, including former Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, George H. W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, have visited Rochester as patients of the Mayo Clinic. Rochester has been hit by two F4 tornadoes since 1950. Rochester lies alongside the South Fork of the Zumbro River, 57.6 miles long and is ringed by gentle hills and surrounded by farmland within a deciduous forest biome.
The Zumbro Watershed flows through 1,422 square miles of urban lands. Located in southeast Minnesota, the City of Rochester falls within the Driftless Area: the only region in North America, never glaciated and contains deeply-carved river valleys; the rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.75 square miles, of which 54.59 square miles of it is land and 0.16 square miles is water. The city is located 85 miles southeast of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Rochester is in one of only four counties in Minnesota without a natural lake. Artificial lakes exist in the area, including Silver Lake, a dammed portion of the South Fork Zumbro River just below the convergence with Silver Creek near the city center. Silver Lake was once used as a cooling pond when the coal-burning power plant was operated by Rochester Public Utilities at the lake.
When operational, the RPU coal plant's heated water output prevented the lake from freezing over during the winter months. Rochester has an extensive parks system, the largest of which are Silver Lake and Soldiers Field in the central part of the city. A major flood in 1978 led the city to embark on an expensive and successful flood-control project that involved altering many nearby rivers and streams; the Zumbro river flowing through the center of the city is presently being readdressed for increased development and use as part of city planning in conjunction with funding from the Destination Medical Center project. Rochester features a humid continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters; the city features four distinct seasons. Rochester sees on 48 inches of snowfall per year. Significant snow accumulation is common during the winter months. Spring and fall are transitional seasons, with a general warming trend during the spring and a general cooling trend during the fall. However, it is not uncommon to see some snowfall during the early months of spring and the months of fall.
Rochester is the second windiest city in the United States, with wind speeds averaging 12.6 mph. January to April are the windiest months on average, according to The Weather Channel; as of the census of 2010, there were 106,769 people, 43,025 households, 26,853 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,955.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 45,683 housing units at an average density of 836.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.0% White, 6.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, the 2005–2007 American Community Survey found German Americans to be the largest single ethnic group in Rochester, making up 35.5% of the city's population. Norwegian Americans made up 15.9%, while Irish Americans contributed to 11.6% of the city's populace. English Americans made up 8.2% of the populatio