Sir Alexander Arnold Constantine Issigonis, was a British-Greek designer of cars noted for the groundbreaking and influential development of the Mini, launched by the British Motor Corporation in 1959. Alec Issigonis was born 18 November 1906, into the Greek cosmopolitan community of the Ottoman port Smyrna in Asia Minor; the son of Greek and German parents, he inherited British citizenship via his father and developed "English" attitudes. His grandfather Demosthenis migrated to Smyrna from Paros in Greece in the 1830s and through the work he did for the British-built Smyrna-Aydın Railway managed to acquire British nationality. Demosthenis's son Constantine Issigonis, was born, with British nationality, in Smyrna in 1872. Constantine studied in England. Alec's mother, Hulda Prokopp, could trace her origins back to Württemberg, it was through his mother's kinships that Issigonis was a first cousin once removed to BMW director Bernd Pischetsrieder. Because Alec and his parents were British subjects, they were evacuated to Malta by British Royal Marines in September 1922, ahead of the Great Fire of Smyrna and the Turkish capture of Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War.
Following the death of his father in 1922, Alec and his mother moved to the UK in 1923. Alec studied engineering at Battersea Polytechnic in London, he failed his mathematics exams three times and subsequently called pure mathematics'the enemy of every creative genius'. After Battersea Polytechnic, Alec decided to enter the University of London External Programme to complete his university education. Issigonis went into the motor industry as an engineer and designer working for Humber and competed in motor racing during the 1930s and 1940s. Starting around 1930, he raced a supercharged "Ulster" Austin Seven fitting it with a front axle of his own design, leading to employment at Austin; this modified machine was replaced with a radical special completed in 1939, constructed of plywood laminated in aluminium sheeting. The suspension was of advanced design, with trailing arm front suspension attached to a steel cross-member, swing axle rear, all with rubber springs made of catapult elastic; this car was remarkably light.
By the time the chassis had been completed, Issigonis had moved to Morris Motors Limited, but Austin supplied a "works" specification supercharged side-valve engine. Issigonis won when entered in the 1100cc class if there was no 750cc category. Most events entered were sprints, but he raced at circuits. In 1936, he moved to Morris Motors Limited at Cowley working on an independent front suspension system for the Morris 10; the war prevented this design from going into production but it was used on the MG Y-type. He worked on various projects for Morris through the war and towards its end started work on an advanced post war car codenamed Mosquito that became the Morris Minor, produced from 1948 until 1971. In 1952, just as BMC was formed by the merger of Morris and Austin, he moved to Alvis Cars where he designed an advanced saloon with all-aluminium V-8 engine, experimented with interconnected independent suspension systems; this prototype was never manufactured. At the end of 1955, Issigonis was recruited back into BMC, this time into the Austin plant at Longbridge, by its chairman Sir Leonard Lord, to design a new model family of three cars.
The XC code names assigned for the new cars were XC/9001, for a large comfortable car, XC/9002, for a medium-sized family car, XC/9003, for a small town car. During 1956 Issigonis concentrated on the larger two cars. However, at the end of 1956, following fuel rationing brought about by the Suez Crisis, Issigonis was ordered by Lord to bring the smaller car, XC/9003, to production as as possible. By early 1957, prototypes were running, by mid-1957 the project was given an official drawing office project number so that the thousands of drawings required for production could be produced. In August 1959 the car was launched as the Morris Mini Minor and the Austin Seven, which soon became known as the Austin Mini. In years, the car would become known as the Mini. Due to time pressures, the interconnected suspension system that Issigonis had planned for the car was replaced by an novel, but cruder, rubber cone system designed by Alex Moulton; the Mini went on to become the best selling British car in history with a production run of 5.3 million cars.
This ground-breaking design, with its front wheel drive, transverse engine, sump gearbox, 10-inch wheels, phenomenal space efficiency, was still being manufactured in 2000 and has been the inspiration for all small front-wheel drive cars produced since the early 1960s. In 1961, with the Mini gaining popularity, Issigonis was promoted to Technical Director of BMC, he continued to be responsible for his original XC projects. XC/9002 became ADO16 and was launched as the Morris 1100 with the Hydrolastic interconnected suspension system in August 1962. XC/9001 became ADO17 and was launched with the Hydrolastic suspension system, as the Austin 1800 in October 1964; the same principle was carried over for his next production car the Austin Maxi, However, by he had become more aware of the cost considerations of vehicle manufacture and in service warranty costs which were crippling BMC. It appeared by t
Tern is a held company that designs, manufactures and sells bicycles for everyday use. The company is based in Taipei and has offices in the US, China and the UK; the company's primary products include folding bicycles, electric bicycles, cycling accessories which are sold in 65 countries. Tern was founded by Florence Shen and Joshua Hon and son of David T. Hon, founder of the established Dahon brand of folding bicycles; the company was the subject of litigation between Dahon and the founders, but a settlement was reached in 2013. The Arctic tern was the inspiration for the company name, due to the fact that it travels the longest distance of all migratory animals and is light and small, qualities the company attributes to its bicycles; the company's graphic symbol is of an origami tern taking flight. Tern has eight bike lines: GSD, Verge, Eclipse, Node and Roji; each bike line offers different models with different specifications. Tern has an accessory lineup, which includes its sister brand BioLogic.
In August 2014, Tern announced the eLink. The eLink weighs 21 folds in under 10 seconds, it is equipped with mudguards, chainguard and features a Shimano Nexus 8 internal hub and Schwalbe Big Apple tyres. Tern partnered with cargo-bike specialist Xtracycles to create the Cargo Node, a folding cargo bike that uses the Tern Node bicycle and Xtracycles' rear cargo extension attachment; the companies announced the product via a Kickstarter campaign on September 17, 2015 and raised US$153,638 to help fund the project. From 2011, Tern was the subject of litigation between Dahon North America Inc. and Joshua and Florence Hon. Specifically, the lawsuit charged that Joshua Hon and Florence Hon breached their fiduciary duties as officers of Dahon to start the competing companies Mobility Holdings and Tern. On April 2, 2013, industry media reported that Dahon unilaterally declared its legal disputes with Tern were settled. Official website Tern Vektron S10 review Tern Link A7 review Tern Verge S8i review Tern Node D8 review Tern Link D8 review Tern Eclipse X22 review Tern Eclipse P20 review Tern Link C8 review
Giant Manufacturing Co. Ltd. is a Taiwanese bicycle manufacturer, recognized as the world's largest bicycle manufacturer. Giant has manufacturing facilities in Taiwan, the Netherlands, China. Giant was established in 1972 in Taichung County, by King Liu and several friends. A major breakthrough came in 1977 when Giant’s chief executive, Tony Lo, negotiated a deal with Schwinn to begin manufacturing bikes as an OEM, manufacturing bicycles to be sold under other brand names as a private label; as bike sales increased in the U. S. and after workers at the Schwinn plant in Chicago went on strike in 1980, Giant became a key supplier, making more than two-thirds of Schwinn bikes by the mid-1980s, representing 75% of Giant’s sales. When Schwinn decided to find a new source and in 1987 signed a contract with the China Bicycle Company to produce bikes in Shenzhen, under new president Bill Austin, established its own brand of bicycles to compete in the expanding $200-and-above price range. In 1984, Giant set up a joint venture, "Giant Europe," with Andries Gaastra of Dutch bicycle manufacturer Koga-Miyata.
In 1992, Gaastra sold his shares back, Giant became a full shareholder of Giant Europe. By 2018, Giant had sales in over 50 countries, in more than 12,000 retail stores, its total annual sales in 2017 reached 6.6 million bicycles with revenue of US$1.9 billion. In 2008 Giant launched the Liv/Giant sub-brand with products focused on the female cycling market. In 2014, the Liv/Giant sub-brand was re-branded to Liv; the re-branding was meant to further differentiate the Liv brand products with existing Giant product, communicating the concept of "designed by women for women". All Liv products are designed from the ground up including frame geometry, carbon layup and utilizes separate molds and designs that separate it from Giant branded products; as part of the rebranding, dedicated Liv stores and Liv zones within most Giant retailers were introduced. In 2015, Giant announced the global launch of its Momentum brand lifestyle bikes; the first two models, the iNeed Street and iWant Park, had an ARP of US$425 and were aimed at a younger, more urban demographic than Giant's more expensive performance road and mountain bikes.
In 1995, Giant designed the first road bicycle with a sloping top tube featuring a smaller rear triangle. The tighter chainstay-seatstay configuration is said to be inherently stiffer than a more conventional frame design, because less material is used, the Compact Road design is said to be lighter. With more responsive cornering and improved acceleration, as well as improved aerodynamics, the Giant design became imitated. By 1998, with Mike Burrows, Giant refined the design for racing by the professional ONCE team; this was only after initial resistance by the Union Cycliste Internationale and subsequent amendment to its regulations to allow for bicycles with a sloping top tube. Giant road frames were made of 6061 aluminium alloy and were characterised by bladed forks and seatposts to reduce air resistance. Frames came in three sizes, with riders fitted through the use of stems and seatposts of different lengths. By 2018, Giant road frames were available in up to six sizes. In 2003, the TCR frame was offered in carbon fibre construction and marketed as the TCR Composite range.
In 2006, Giant added a higher-grade carbon fibre frame marketed as the TCR Advanced frame, characterised by an integrated seatpost. These frames were most notably raced at the Tour de France by T-Mobile's professional team. Using this design, the seatpost on the new frame must be cut to fit the owner by a trained Giant dealer; the TCR Advanced SL frames with ISP continued to be raced internationally, most notably by the Rabobank team, Team Giant-Shimano, Giant-Alpecin and Team Sunweb. In terms of other innovations, Giant introduced its Maestro suspension in 2006. Maestro Suspension, according to Giant, is designed to deliver an efficient rear suspension power transfer. Maestro utilizes a setup of four pivot points and two linkages to create a floating pivot point, designed to reduce pedal bob and enables the rear wheel to travel vertically; as of 2018, Giant categorizes its bicycles by user: On-Road X-Road Off-Road E-bikes YouthWithin each Level are several Uses, such as Race, City, etc. In late 2016, Giant announced the Road-E+ e-Bike, which features: HCT drive system 500 watt 80Nm Yamaha mid drive motor 400Wh or 500Wh EnergyPack integrated frame battery PedalPlus 4-sensor technology, RideControl display & control pad with Bluetooth integration.
Giant's first foray into professional road cycling was with now defunct Spanish Team ONCE directed by Manolo Sainz using Giant TCR frames in custom sizes for each individual rider, Laurent_Jalabert was one of the most notable cyclists in the ONCE TeamGiant sponsors a number of cycling teams as well as individual athletes. In road cycling, Giant celebrated multiple achievements as the bike supplier of UCI WorldTeam Team Sunweb, which competes in the highest level of road cycling, they are most noted for when both men and women teams won the Team Time Trial event at the 2017 UCI World Championships in Bergen, Norway. Notable riders include winner of the pink jersey in the 2017 Giro d'Italia. In 2019, Giant switched sponsorship from Team Sunweb to CCC Pro
The Birdy is a folding bicycle designed by Riese und Müller in Germany and produced by Pacific Cycles in Taiwan. As of 2010 over 100,000 had been sold. Three distinct models have been marketed, the third sold from July 2015. First released in 1995, it was the first suspended folding bike; the ride is regarded by some as more sporty than the Brompton, thanks in part to a stiff single-piece aluminium frame with road bike rider geometry and no hinge. Some prefer its stiff suspended ride and rapid acceleration to that of a full-sized bike. Markus Riese had the basic idea for the Birdy in 1992; the first prototype was welded together from two old bicycles in his parent's garage. After a year, Markus Riese and Heiko Muller built a prototype out of aluminium and won the “Hessian Innovation Prize”; the prototype was shown at two trade shows, Intercycle in Cologne and Eurobike in Friedrichshafen, caused a stir. The first Birdy bikes were sold in 1995 as the first with full suspension, it had a high price tag over US$1,000.
Several specifications were available, most with dérailleur gears but including one model with a rubber belt drive. All had only one front chainring, a range of gearing options on the rear wheel from 6 to 14 gears. There was a short period in 1996-1997 when a stock of blue frames entered the USA and were built up and sold with inferior 6 speed components, branded as'Jeep Renegade'; the Birdy's dimensions are small enough to take into offices, on buses, to pack for travelling. It is the second smallest of the quality folding bikes, is similar in size to the Mezzo performance folder: Width: 35 to 39 cm Height: 58 to 61 cm Length: 76 to 79 cm The front suspension is unique among bikes on the market; the leading arm design provides anti-dive suspension, unlike trailing arm designs. The hinged rear swingarm is suspended by a urethane bush, that can be replaced with a gas-filled unit; the bike has always offered standard rear dropout spacing, which allows a wide range of gearing options and disc brakes.
Standard options include: 8-speed hub gear, 8-speed dérailleur, 24-speed SRAM Dual Drive hybrid gearing system, Rohloff Speedhub 14-speed hub gear. The more expensive models are now fitted with disc brakes. Wheels are 18" but conversions can be made to the more available 16" size used by Brompton. For a long time there were no decent 18" tyres; some have fitted 20-inch wheels to the bike. For folding, the rear suspension tucks under the frame, the front suspension is unclipped and hinges back under the frame, the seat post is collapsed. Lastly the handlebars hinge downward; the front wheel can be left unfolded if the package is to be wheeled, for example when boarding public transport. Folding is more complicated than for a Brompton and takes longer. Available accessories are mudguards and rear folding racks, lighting sets and some upmarket extra components sold in Singapore and Hong Kong, like gas suspension units. Two optional rear racks are available, the SL Carrier and the Expedition Carrier.
The former mounts directly to the swingarm, allows only the use of a rack-top bag. The latter is a folding 16mm tubular rack mounted on pivots on both the main frame and the swingarm, which allows use of small panniers when mudguards are fitted; the mounting pivots for this rack have only been fitted to frames since 2003. Both racks are available with rollers. A lighter Mark 2 monocoque frame, with greater support for the seatpost, was introduced in 2006 along with new component choices; the Mark 1 continues to be used with a updated frame on some models, notably the World Comfort (7 speed Nexus, 14.2 kg or 31 lb. Mark 1 frames are available in Asia, badged as Rhine; the standard Mark 2 weighed 10.8 kg. Some riders have reduced the Birdy's weight to 8 kg using racing components, but this was only on the Mark 1 frames. Stock bikes ranged from 10.2 kg depending on the setup. The heavier bikes tend to have 3x8 gearing systems, involving an internally geared rear hub and an external derailleur; the Birdy Race was introduced in 2013 and has dropped handlebars, Shimano 20-speed gears with two front chainrings.
A smaller version of the Birdy, the Frog, was introduced in the 2000s withdrawn due to poor sales, was back on the market again from 2010. A mark 3 design was released in July 2015; the frame looks the same as a Mk2, but the fold is smaller, the bike is lighter, components have again been strengthened, the front fork redesigned. The confusing number of models has been reduced to four. Equipment set up differs from country to country. In the US, entry-level bikes cost $1,500 and are equipped with low-mid range Shimano Alivio components; the Birdy monocoque frameset costs US$1,000 without parts. Prices for the Mk 2 rose to the electric model with a 250watt motor in the rear wheel In the UK, the entry-level model costs £939 to permit purchase under cycle-to-work schemes. High-end titanium models can cost over US$4,500. Japan offers a wide array of cost-effective choices. In Japan, the bike is distributed as the Bianchi Fretta and BD-1; the cheapest model in Australia is A$1,400 in 2015. The Birdy is distributed in Europe by Riese
The Austin Allegro is a small family car, manufactured by the Austin-Morris division of British Leyland from 1973 until 1982. The same vehicle was built in Italy by Innocenti between 1974 and 1975 and sold as the Innocenti Regent. In total, 642,350 Austin Allegros were produced during its ten-year production life, most of which were sold on the home market; the Allegro announced in May 1973 was designed as the replacement for the Austin 1100 and 1300 models, which were designed by Sir Alec Issigonis. As with the Morris Marina, the car can be seen with hindsight as symptomatic of the enormous difficulties facing British Leyland during that period; the key factor that British Leyland can now be seen to have missed is that a much more useful and popular form of car, the hatchback, was emerging in Europe, with designs such as the Autobianchi A112, Renault 16, Volkswagen Golf. This configuration would go on to dominate the market for small family cars in the space of a few years. British Leyland stuck to the more traditional and less versatile booted design when they launched the Allegro.
This was because of internal company politics: it had been decided that the Austin Maxi should have a hatchback as its unique selling point, that no other car in the company's line-up was allowed one. This decision hamstrung both the Allegro and the Princess, both designs suited to a hatchback yet not given one; the Allegro used front-wheel drive, using the familiar A-Series engine with a sump-mounted transmission. The higher-specification models used the SOHC E-Series engine, in 1750 cc displacements; the two-box saloon bodyshell was suspended using the new Hydragas system. Stylistically, it went against the sharp-edged styling cues that were becoming fashionable, featured rounded panel work; the original styling proposal, by Harris Mann, had the same sleek, wedge-like shape of the Princess, but because British Leyland management, keen to control costs, wanted to install the existing E-Series engine and bulky heating system from the Marina, it became impossible to incorporate the low bonnet line as envisaged: the bodyshell began to look more and more bloated and tubby.
This was acceptable to BL, which according to Jeff Daniels' book British Leyland, The Truth About The Cars, published in 1980, wanted to follow the Citroën approach of combining advanced technology with styling that eschewed mainstream trends in order to create long-lasting "timeless" models. Its unfashionable shape was thus not a problem to them; the final car bore little resemblance to Mann's original concept, conceived as an 1100/1300 re-skin. This, as well as British Leyland's faith in it as a model that would help turn the company around, led to it earning the early nickname of the "flying pig". Models that were finished in the fashionable brown colour were given an ruder nickname. With the Allegro, the makers avoided the full extent of badge engineering that had defined the marketing of its predecessor, sold as an Austin although it was sold under all of the brands which BMC/BL owned, but they introduced in September 1974 an upmarket Allegro, branded as the Vanden Plas 1500/automatic.
This featured a prominent grille at the front and an interior enhanced by a range of modifications designed to attract traditionally inclined customers, including: special seats upholstered in real leather, with reclining backrests. In 1974, a time when the UK starting price for the Austin Allegro was given as £1159, BLMC were quoting, at launch, a list price of £1951 for the Vanden Plas 1500; the Allegro name was not used on this version. Early Allegro models featured a "quartic" steering wheel, rectangular with rounded sides; this was touted as allowing extra room between the driver's legs. The quartic wheel did not take off, was dropped in 1974 when the SS model was replaced by the HL; the VP 1500 was never introduced despite it being featured in the owner's manual. Despite this feature only having appeared on certain models for a limited time, the Allegro has always been associated with the criticism that it "had a square steering wheel", it could now be seen as being ahead of its time as today many cars have squared off lower section steering wheels and some Formula 1 cars have square steering wheels.
Some other BL cars from this period were fitted with a semi Quartic steering wheel, such as the Rover SD1. In April 1975 a 3-door estate car version was added to the range. Allegros were now coming off the production line with the same conventional steering wheel as the Morris Marina, although the company waited till early June 1975 to announce, rather the demise of the Allegro's quartic steering wheel to give time for older cars to emerge from the sales and distribution network. Similar to the 2-door saloon, the Allegro estate had a coachline and featured a rear wash-wipe; the spare wheel was housed under the rear load floor area. It was only in production for about 100 days before the arrival of the Series 2 model, making Series I Allegro estate rarer than most other models in the range. There was a similar situation in New Zealand, where the New Zealand Motor Corporation, which at the time had CKD kit assembly plants in Newmarket and Panmure and Petone, began Allegro assembly in 1975 – with the circular steering wheel.
Only a few hundred'Mark Ones' – amon
The A-bike is a folding bicycle released by Sir Clive Sinclair in the United Kingdom on 12 July 2006. It was designed by Hong Kong design agency Daka, in collaboration with Sinclair Research, over a 5-year period, it was announced to the public in 2004. Clive Sinclair envisioned the A-bike, Alex Kalogroulis was the main designer, it weighs 5.7 folds to 67 × 30 × 16 centimetres, small enough to fit in a rucksack. The first version had 6-inch wheels, increased to 8 inches in models. In 2015, an electric version, the A-Bike Electric, was introduced to the public as part of a Kickstarter campaign; the A-bike was designed by Sinclair Research, in collaboration with Hong Kong design agency Daka, over a 5-year period. It was announced to the public in 2004. Clive Sinclair envisioned the A-bike, Alex Kalogroulis was the main design engineer, it was released on 12 July 2006, was priced at £199. The official Europe distributor, Mayhem UK, hoped to sell 25,000 units in the first 12 months. By 2007 it was being noted that a "large number of counterfeit" A-bikes were appearing in China and elsewhere.
Early reviews praised the A-bike for being lightweight and easy to fold, but noted the flexing frame and uncomfortable saddle, criticised the tiny wheels for being unsafe on uneven roads. In 2008 the Mark-II version was released: known as the A-Bike Plus; this version had strengthened aluminium tubing, a new air-sprung cushioned saddle, an upgraded drive mechanism. The Mark-III version was released in 2010, was known as the A-Bike City; the main changes were larger 8-inch wheels and it was priced at £299.99. The A-bike is a small wheel bicycle with 6-inch wheels, increasing to 8 inches in models; the original model weighs 5.7 kilograms, folds to 67×30×16 centimetres reducing its volume to about 25% of its original size. A twin-chain system enables the bike to travel about 3.2 metres per crank rotation despite the bicycle's small-diameter wheels. The crankcase housing completely encloses the drive mechanism, protecting it and preventing oil stains on clothing or floor surfaces. In November 2006, A-bike was featured on UK television programme The Gadget Show, alongside the Strida.
The distribution company behind the A-bike was featured on the UK Television programme Badger or Bust broadcast on 5 June 2007. In the Top Gear epic race Car vs. Train 2. Richard Hammond and James May carried A-bikes in their suitcases and unfolded them to bike from a ferry dock to a cable car. In 2015, an electric version, the A-Bike Electric, was introduced to the public as part of a Kickstarter campaign; the design featured 8-inch wheels, as well as sturdier frame. The funding campaign was successful and production began before the end of the year. Sinclair Zike - Sinclair's earlier attempt at a portable electric bicycle Mini125 - a similar Italian-designed small-wheeled bicycle Official website Chief Design Engineer Alexander Kalogroulis explains the folding unfolding procedure on YouTube Heald, Claire. "A-bike, no less". Review. BBC
A folding bicycle is a bicycle designed to fold into a compact form, facilitating transport and storage. When folded, the bikes can be more carried into buildings, on public transportation, more stored in compact living quarters or aboard a car, boat or plane. Folding mechanisms vary, with each offering a distinct combination of folding speed, folding ease, ride, weight and price. Distinguished by the complexities of their folding mechanism, more demanding structural requirements, greater number of parts, more specialized market appeal, folding bikes may be more expensive than comparable non-folding models; the choice of model, apart from cost considerations, is a matter of resolving the various practical requirements: a quick, easy fold, a compact folded size, or a faster but less compact model. There are bicycles that provide similar advantages by separating into pieces rather than folding. Military interest in bicycles arose in the 1890s, the French army and others deployed folding bikes for bicycle infantry use.
In 1900, Mikael Pedersen developed for the British army a folding version of his Pedersen bicycle that weighed 15 pounds and had 24 inch wheels. It was used in the Second Boer War. In 1941, during the Second World War, the British War Office called for a machine that weighed less than 23 lb and would withstand being dropped by parachute. In response, the Birmingham Small Arms Company developed a folding bicycle small enough to be taken in small gliders or on parachute jumps from aircraft; this British WWII Airborne BSA folding bicycle was rigged so that, when parachuted, the handlebars and seat were the first parts to hit the ground. BSA abandoned the traditional diamond bicycle design as too weak for the shock and instead made an elliptical frame of twin parallel tubes, one forming the top tube and seat stays, the other the chainstay and down tube; the hinges were in front of the bottom bracket and in the corresponding position in front of the saddle, fastened by wing nuts. The peg pedals could be pushed in to avoid snagging and further reduce the space occupied during transit.
From 1942-1945, the British WWII Airborne BSA folding bicycle was used by British & Commonwealth airborne troops and some infantry regiments. The bicycle was used by British paratroopers and second-wave infantry units on the D-Day landings and at the Battle of Arnhem; the 1970s saw increased interest in the folding bike, the popular Raleigh Twenty and Bickerton Portable have become the iconic folders of their decade. It was, the early 1980s that can be said to have marked the birth of the modern, compact folding bicycle, with competing tiny-footprint models from Brompton and Dahon. Founded in 1982, by inventor and physicist Dr. David Hon and his brother Henry Hon, Dahon has grown to become the world's largest manufacturer of folding bikes, with a two-thirds marketshare in 2006. Folding bikes come with a wider range of adjustments for accommodating various riders than do conventional bikes, because folding bike frames are only made in one size; however and handlebar stems on folders extend as much as four times higher than conventional bikes, still longer after-market posts and stems provide an greater range of adjustment.
While folders are smaller in overall size than conventional bicycles, the distances among the center of bottom bracket, the top of the saddle, the handlebars - the primary factors in determining whether or not a bicycle fits its rider - are similar to those of conventional bikes. The wheelbase of many folding designs is very similar to that of conventional, non-folding, bicycles; some manufacturers are producing folding bikes designed around folding systems that allow them to use 26" wheels, e.g. Dahon, KHS, Tern Bicycles. Advantages of smaller wheels include potential for more speed, quicker acceleration, greater maneuverability, easier storage. For example, the A-bike has tiny wheels and folds a bit smaller. Bikes with smaller than 16" wheels are called portable bicycles; these forgo the performance and easy ride benefits of their larger counterparts, acquiring characteristics similar to those of an adult folding kick scooter. Nonetheless, regardless of how each bike folds, the result is easier to transport and store than a traditional bicycle.
Folding mechanisms are variable. Half- or mid-foldMany folding frames follow the classic frame pattern of the safety bicycle's diamond frame, but feature a hinge point allowing the bicycle to fold in half. Quick-release clamps enable lowering steering and seat columns. A similar swing hinge may be combined with a folding steering column. Fold designs may use larger wheels the same size as in non-folders, for users prioritizing ride over fold compactness. Bikes that use this kind of fold include and Montague, Tern. Vertical FoldInstead of folding horizontally, this style of bike has one or two hinges along the main tube and/or chain and seat stays that allow the bike to fold vertically; the result leaves the two wheels side by side but is more compact than a horizontally hinged design. The Brompton and Dahon Qix D8 both feature vertical folding. Triangle hingeA hinge in the frame may allow the rear triangle and wheel to be folded down and flipped forward, under the main frame tube, as in the Bike Friday, Brompton Mezzo Folder, Swift Folder.
Such a flip hinge may be combined with a folding front