Achille Lauro hijacking
The Achille Lauro hijacking happened on October 7, 1985, when the Italian MS Achille Lauro was hijacked by four men representing the Palestine Liberation Front off the coast of Egypt, as she was sailing from Alexandria to Ashdod, Israel. A 69-year-old Jewish American man in a wheelchair, Leon Klinghoffer, was murdered by the hijackers and thrown overboard; the hijacking sparked the "Sigonella Crisis". Several events before the October 7, 1985 hijacking provide a context for. Since being driven out of Southern Lebanon by Israel in 1978 and out of Beirut in 1982, Palestine Liberation Organization guerrillas had dispersed to Tunisia, Southern Yemen, Jordan, Syria and the Sudan. While in Lebanon PLO chairman Yasser Arafat had run into problems with Syrian President Hafez al-Assad who in 1983 sought to wrest effective control of the group from him by backing a mutiny within the PLO. Arafat was backed by the Soviet Union and was helped to escape Lebanon by the Syrian President's brother Rifaat Assad and his "Red Knights" of Alawite notables near the Lebanese border with Syria.
When the attempt to wrest control failed, the Syrian military backed the mutineers in an attack on Arafat loyalists within Tripoli, Lebanon. Arafat moved the PLO headquarters from Tripoli to Tunisia. Throughout the 1980s, the Palestine Liberation Front and other members of PLO launched attacks on both civilian and military targets in the north of Israel, across the Lebanese border. One such attack by the PLO's Force 17 on September 25, 1985 on an Israeli yacht in Larnaca, Cyprus where three Israelis were killed, triggered the Israeli Air Force to bomb the PLO headquarters in Tunis in on October 1, 1985; the headquarters were destroyed in this attack, 60 PLO members were killed. Speculation arose that the hijacking of Achille Lauro was an act of retaliation for the Israeli bombing of the PLO headquarters in Tunis; this was disputed by Abbas' widow, Reem al-Nimer in 2013. According to al-Nimer, the hijacking had been planned 11 months in advance, the hijackers had been on two'dummy' training runs on Achille Lauro.
The plan was to open fire on Israeli soldiers. The hijacking of the Achille Lauro was planned and executed by one of the three factions of the Palestine Liberation Front; the PLF as a whole was one of the eight constituent groups that had formed the Palestinian Liberation Organization, under the chairmanship of Yasser Arafat. The first faction of the PLF was headed by Taalat Yacoub, a Palestinian who opposed Arafat and was supported by Syria; the second PLF faction was headed by Abd al-Fatah Ghanim, who opposed Arafat. The last faction was headed by Abbas, loyal to Arafat and sat on the PLO Executive Committee, his faction of the PLF had carried out a series of armed raids in Israel and the West Bank since the late 1970s. The hijackers of the Achille Lauro in their demands to be met before they freed their hostages specified only one by name Samir Kuntar; the Lebanese Kuntar was a friend of the mastermind behind the hijacking. Kuntar and an accomplice had been jailed by Israel five years before for attempting on April 22, 1979 to kidnap a Jewish family in Nahariya, Northern Israel, close to the Lebanese border.
The botched kidnapping had resulted in the death of an Israeli policeman Eliyahu Shahar, 31-year-old father Danny Kaiser and his two daughters four-year-old Einat, two year-old Yael – leaving only wife and mother Smadar Haran Kaiser alive. Events on the Achille Lauro cruise in the days; the Achille Lauro embarked from Genoa, Italy on Thursday, October 3, 1985 with an itinerary for an eleven-day cruise with ports of call in Naples and Syracuse in Italy. The fares for a double-berthed cabin were between $955 and $1,550; the ship had become the physical property of the Italian government when its previous owner Costa Lines went bankrupt and the vessel was seized by the companies creditors who sold it the state in 1983, who in turn leased it to Chandris cruise line under an agreement that would last until 1987. The ship set out with 748 passengers. Among the passengers was a group of close friends from New York and New Jersey who had a usual practice of vacationing on the Jersey shore, they had all decided to take a cruise to celebrate the 58th birthday of Marilyn Klinghoffer and to observe her 36th wedding anniversary with Leon.
The pair had two adult daughters Lisa, married and 34 years-old, Ilsa, 28 years-old and engaged. As a result of two strokes Leon was paralyzed on his right side, while he could walk with a cane, he relied on a wheelchair. Travelling with the Kilinghoffers were their friends Frank and Mildred Hodes and June Kantor and Viola Meskin, Sylvia Sherman, Charlotte Spiegel. Due to ship hijackings being unheard of at the t
Santa Ana, California
Santa Ana is the county seat and second most populous city in Orange County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2011 population at 329,427, making Santa Ana the 57th most-populous city in the United States. Santa Ana is in Southern California, adjacent to the Santa Ana River, about 10 miles from the coast. Founded in 1869, the city is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, the second largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 18 million residents in 2010. Santa Ana is a densely populated city, ranking fourth nationally in that regard among cities of over 300,000 residents. In 2011, Forbes ranked Santa Ana the fourth-safest city of over 250,000 residents in the United States. Santa Ana lends its name to the Santa Ana Freeway, it shares its name with the nearby Santa Ana Mountains, the Santa Ana winds, which have fueled seasonal wildfires throughout Southern California. The current Office of Management and Budget metropolitan designation for the Orange County Area is Santa Ana–Anaheim–Irvine, California.
Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño are indigenous to the area. The Tongva called the Santa Ana area "Hotuuk."After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá out of Mexico City capital of New Spain, Friar Junípero Serra named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano was established within this valley; this Santa Ana Valley comprised. In 1810, year of the commencement of the war of Mexican Independence, Jose Antonio Yorba, a sergeant of the Spanish army, was granted land that he called Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Yorba's rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Irvine, Yorba Linda, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and unincorporated El Modena, Santa Ana Heights, are today; this rancho was the only land grant in Orange County granted under Spanish Rule. Surrounding land grants in Orange County were granted after Mexican Independence by the new government. After the Mexican-American war ended in 1848, Alta California became part of the United States and American settlers arrived in this area.
Santa Ana was listed as a township of Los Angeles County in the 1860 and 1870 census, with an area encompassing most of what is now northern and central Orange County. It had a population of 756 in 1860 and 880 in 1870; the Annaheim district was enumerated separately from Santa Ana in 1870Claimed in 1869 by Kentuckian William H. Spurgeon on land obtained from the descendents of Jose Antonio Yorba, Santa Ana was incorporated as a city in 1886 with a population of 2000 and in 1889 became the seat of the newly formed Orange County. In 1877, the Southern Pacific Railroad built a branch line from Los Angeles to Santa Ana, which offered free right of way, land for a depot, $10,000 in cash to the railroad in exchange for terminating the line in Santa Ana and not neighboring Tustin. In 1887, the California Central Railway broke the Southern Pacific's local monopoly on rail travel, offering service between Los Angeles and San Diego by way of Santa Ana as a major intermediate station. By 1905 the Los Angeles Interurban Railway, a predecessor to the Pacific Electric Railway, extended from Los Angeles to Santa Ana, running along Fourth Street downtown.
Firestone Boulevard, the first direct automobile route between Los Angeles and Santa Ana, opened in 1935. Santa Ana was the home of the original Glenn L. Martin aviation company, founded in 1912 before merging with the Wright Company in 1916. Glenn Luther Martin created a second company of the same name in Cleveland, Ohio which merged with the Lockheed Corporation to form the largest defense contractor in the world, Lockheed Martin. During World War II, the Santa Ana Army Air Base was built as a training center for the United States Army Air Forces; the base was responsible for continued population growth in Santa Ana and the rest of Orange County as many veterans moved to the area to raise families after the end of the war. In 1958, Fashion Square Mall was built, adjoining the existing Bullock's Department Store building, built in 1954, it became a major retail center for the area. In 1987, the mall was renovated and became MainPlace Mall. Having been a charter city since November 11, 1952, the citizens of Santa Ana amended the charter in November 1988 to provide for the direct election of the Mayor who until that point had been appointed from the council membership.
The current mayor of Santa Ana is Miguel A. Pulido, the first mayor of Latino descent in the city's history and the first Mayor directly elected by the voters. Since the 1980s, Santa Ana has been characterized by an effort to revitalize the downtown area which had declined in influence; the Santa Ana Artist's Village was created around Cal State Fullerton's Grand Central Art Center to attract artists and young professionals to live-work lofts and new businesses. The process continued into 2009 with the reopening of the historic Yost Theater. Santa Ana is located at 33°44′27″N 117°52′53″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.5 square miles. 27.3 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. It is the 4th most densely populated place in the United States, with a population of 300,000 or more with 12,471.5 people per sq. mile. Santa Ana is ne
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people. It is used in this regard to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants; the terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D. C. in 2001. There are different definitions of terrorism. Terrorism is a charged term, it is used with the connotation of something, "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups denounce opposing groups. Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives; these organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups and ruling governments.
Legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. There is no consensus as to; the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014. Etmologically, the word terror is derived from the Latin verb Tersere, which becomes Terrere; the latter form appears in European languages as early as the 12th century. By 1356 the word terreur is in use. Terreur is the origin of the Middle English term terrour, which becomes the modern word "terror"; the term terroriste, meaning "terrorist", is first used in 1794 by the French philosopher François-Noël Babeuf, who denounces Maximilien Robespierre's Jacobin regime as a dictatorship. In the years leading up to the Reign of Terror, the Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris with an "exemplary, never to be forgotten vengeance: the city would be subjected to military punishment and total destruction" if the royal family was harmed, but this only increased the Revolution's will to abolish the monarchy.
Some writers attitudes about French Revolution grew less favorable after the French monarchy was abolished in 1792. During the Reign of Terror, which began in July 1793 and lasted thirteen months, Paris was governed by the Committee of Public safety who oversaw a regime of mass executions and public purges. Prior to the French Revolution, ancient philosophers wrote about tyrannicide, as tyranny was seen as the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization. Medieval philosophers were occupied with the concept of tyranny, though the analysis of some theologians like Thomas Aquinas drew a distinction between usurpers, who could be killed by anyone, legitimate rulers who abused their power – the latter, in Aquinas' view, could only be punished by a public authority. John of Salisbury was the first medieval Christian scholar. Most scholars today trace the origins of the modern tactic of terrorism to the Jewish Sicarii Zealots who attacked Romans and Jews in 1st century Palestine, they follow its development from the Persian Order of Assassins through to 19th-century anarchists.
The "Reign of Terror" is regarded as an issue of etymology. The term terrorism has been used to describe violence by non-state actors rather than government violence since the 19th-century Anarchist Movement. In December 1795, Edmund Burke used the word "Terrorists" in a description of the new French government called'Directory': At length, after a terrible struggle, the Troops prevailed over the Citizens To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars, ready armed. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people; the terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" gained renewed currency in the 1970s as a result of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Northern Ireland conflict, the Basque conflict, the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction. Leila Khaled was described as a terrorist in a 1970 number of Life magazine. A number of books on terrorism were published in the 1970s.
The topic came further to the fore after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks and the 2002 Bali bombings. There are over 109 different definitions of terrorism. American political philosopher Michael Walzer in 2002 wrote: "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders". Bruce Hoffman, an American scholar, has noted that It is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism. Experts and other long-established scholars in the field are incapable of reaching a consensus. C. A. J. Coady has written that the question of how to define terrorism is "irresolvable" because "its natural home is in polemical and propagandist contexts". French historian Sophie Wahnich distinguishes between the revolutionary terror of the French Revolution and the terrorists of the September 11 attacks: Revolutionary terror is not terrorism.
To make a moral equivalence between the Revolution's year II and September 2001 is historical and philosophical nonsense... The violence exercised on 11 September 2001 aimed neither at liberty. Nor did the preventive war announced by the president of the United States. Experts
American Jewish Committee
American Jewish Committee is a Jewish advocacy group established on November 11, 1906. It is one of the oldest Jewish advocacy organizations and, according to The New York Times, is "widely regarded as the dean of American Jewish organizations"; as of 2009, AJC envisions itself as the "Global Center for Jewish and Israel Advocacy". Besides working in favor of civil liberties for Jews, the organization has a history of fighting against forms of discrimination in the United States and working on behalf of social equality, such as filing a friend-of-the-court brief in the May 1954 case of Brown v. Board of Education and participating in other events in the Civil Rights Movement. AJC is an international advocacy organization whose key areas of focus is to promote religious and civil rights for Jews internationally; the organization has 22 regional offices in the United States, 10 overseas offices, 33 international partnerships with Jewish communal institutions around the world. AJC's programs and departments include the Africa Institute, the Asia Pacific Institute, the Belfer Center for American Pluralism, the Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights, Contemporary Jewish Life and International Affairs, the Harriet and Robert Heilbrunn Institute for International Interreligious Affairs and Intergroup Relations, the Dorothy and Julius Koppelman Institute for American Jewish-Israeli Relations, the Latino and Latin American Institute, Project Interchange, the Lawrence and Lee Ramer institute for German-Jewish Relations, Russian Affairs, Thanks to Scandinavia, the Transatlantic Institute, the Muslim-Jewish Advisory Council.
On November 11, 1906, 81 Jewish Americans met in the Hotel Savoy in New York City to establish the American Jewish Committee. The group was concerned about pogroms against Jews in the Russian Empire; the official committee statement on the purpose was to "prevent infringement of the civil and religious rights of Jews and to alleviate the consequences of persecution."The organization was led in its early years by lawyer Louis Marshall, banker Jacob H. Schiff, Judge Mayer Sulzberger, scholar Cyrus Adler, other well-to-do and politically connected Jews. Leaders were Judge Joseph M. Proskauer, Jacob Blaustein, Irving M. Engel. In addition to the central office in New York City, local offices were established around the country. AJC did not want the American public to envision American Jewry as a foreign culture transplanted artificially to American shores; the committee saw itself as the natural "steward" of the community and took on the mission of educating the new arrivals in proper Americanism.
Starting in 1912, Louis B. Marshall was president of the organization until 1929. In 1914, AJC helped create the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, established to aid Jewish victims of World War I. After the war, Marshall went to Europe and used his influence to have provisions guaranteeing the rights of minorities inserted into the peace treaties. While president, Marshall is credited with making the AJC a leading voice in the 1920s against immigration restriction. Additionally, he succeeded in stopping Henry Ford from publishing anti-Semitic literature and distributing it through his car dealerships and forced Ford to apologize publicly. AJC advocated finding places of refuge for Jewish refugees from Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, but had little success. After World War II broke out in 1939, AJC stressed that the war was for democracy and discouraged emphasis on Hitler's anti-Jewish policies lest a backlash identify it as a "Jewish war" and increase anti-Semitism in the U. S; when the war ended in 1945, it urged a human rights program upon the United Nations and proved vital in enlisting the support that made possible the human rights provisions in the UN Charter.
AJC took the position that prejudice was indivisible, that the rights of Jews in the United States could be best protected by arguing in favor of the equality of all Americans. AJC supported social science research into the causes of and cures for prejudice, forged alliances with other ethnic and religious groups; the organization's research was cited in the 1954 U. S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education that outlawed segregated schools. In 1950 AJC President Jacob Blaustein reached an agreement with Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion stating that the political allegiance of American Jews was to their country of residence. By the Six-Day War of 1967 AJC had become a passionate defender of the Jewish state, shedding old inhibitions to espouse the centrality of Jewish peoplehood. Through direct dialogue with the Catholic Church, AJC played a leading role in paving the way for a significant upturn in Jewish-Christian relations in the years leading up to the Roman Catholic Church's 1965 document Nostra aetate, in the ensuing years.
Before the Six-Day War in 1967, AJC was "non-Zionist". It had long been ambivalent about Zionism as opening up Jews to the charge of dual loyalty, but it supported the creation of Israel in 1947-48, after the United States backed the partition of Palestine, it was the first American Jewish organization. In the 1970s AJC spearheaded the fight to pass anti-boycott legislation to counter the Arab League boycott of Israel. In particular, Japan's defection from the boycott was attributed to AJC persuasion. In 1975 AJC became the first Jewish organization to campaign against the UN's "Zionism is Racism" resolution, a campaign that succeeded in 1991. AJC played a leading role in breaking Israel's diplomatic isolation at the UN by helping it gain acceptance in WEOG, one of the UN's five regional groups. AJC was active in the campaign to gain emigration rights for Jews living in the Soviet Union.
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Supreme Court of Israel
The Supreme Court is the highest court in Israel. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all other courts, in some cases original jurisdiction; the Supreme Court consists of 15 Judges, who are appointed by the President of Israel, upon nomination by the Judicial Selection Committee. Once appointed, Judges serve until retirement at the age of 70, unless they resign or are removed from office; the current President of the Supreme Court is Esther Hayut. The Court is situated in Jerusalem's Givat Ram governmental campus, about half a kilometer from Israel's legislature, the Knesset; when ruling as the High Court of Justice, the court rules on the legality of decisions of State authorities: government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset. The court may review actions by state authorities outside of Israel. By the principle of binding precedent, Supreme Court rulings are binding upon every other court, except itself.
Over the years, it has ruled on numerous sensitive issues, some of which relate to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the rights of Arab citizens, discrimination between Jewish groups in Israel. Supreme Court Judges are appointed by the President of Israel, from names submitted by the Judicial Selection Committee, composed of nine members: three Supreme Court Judges, two cabinet ministers, two Knesset members, two representatives of the Israel Bar Association. Appointing Supreme Court Judges requires a majority of 7 of the 9 committee members, or two less than the number present at the meeting; the three organs of state—the legislative and judicial branches of government—as well as the bar association are represented in the Judges' Nominations Committee. Thus, the shaping of the judicial body, through the manner of judicial appointment, is carried out by all the authorities together. Supreme Court Judges cannot be removed from office except by a decision of the Court of Discipline, consisting of judges appointed by the President of the Supreme Court, or upon a decision of the Judicial Selection Committee—at the proposal of the Minister of Justice or the President of the Supreme Court—with the agreement of seven of its nine members.
The following are qualified to be appointed Judge of the Supreme Court: a person who has held office as a judge of a District Court for a period of five years, or a person, inscribed, or entitled to be inscribed, in the roll of advocates, has for not less than ten years –continuously or intermittently, of which five years at least in Israel – been engaged in the profession of an advocate, served in a judicial capacity or other legal function in the service of the State of Israel or other service as designated in regulations in this regard, or has taught law at a university or a higher school of learning as designated in regulations in this regard. An "eminent jurist" can be appointed to the Supreme Court; the number of Supreme Court Judges is determined by a resolution of the Knesset. There are 15 Supreme Court Judges. At the head of the Supreme Court and at the head of the judicial system as a whole stands the President of the Supreme Court, at his or her side, the Deputy President. A judge's term ends when he or she reaches 70 years of age, dies, is appointed to another position that disqualifies him or her, or is removed from office.
As of August 2018, the Supreme Court Judges are: Gilad Lubinsky Ziv and Sarit Abadian serve as the Court Magistrate Judges. Below is a list of presidents of the Supreme Court: As an appellate court, the Supreme Court considers cases on appeal on judgments and other decisions of the District Courts, it considers appeals on judicial and quasi-judicial decisions of various kinds, such as matters relating to the legality of Knesset elections and disciplinary rulings of the Bar Association. As the High Court of Justice, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance in matters regarding the legality of decisions of State authorities: Government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset; the Israeli Defense Forces are subject to the HCJ's judicial review. The court has broad discretionary authority to rule on matters in which it considers it necessary to grant relief in the interests of justice, which are not within the jurisdiction of another court or tribunal.
The High Court of Justice grants relief through orders such as injunction and Habeas Corpus, as well as through declaratory judgments. The Supreme Court can sit at a “further hearing” on its own judgment. In a matter on which the Supreme Court has ruled, whether as a court of appeals or as the High Court of Justice, with a panel of three or more Judges, it may rule at a further hearing with a panel of a larger number of Judges. A further hearing may be held if the Supreme Court makes a ruling inconsistent with a previous ruling or if the Court deems that the importance, difficulty or novelty of a ruling of the Court justifies such hearing; the Supreme Court, both as an appellate court and the High Court of Justice, is constituted of a panel of three Judges. A single Supreme Court Judge may rule on interim orders