Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Samuel Goldwyn known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish-American film producer. He was most well known for being the founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood, his awards include the 1973 Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award in 1947, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award in 1958. Goldwyn was born Szmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw to Polish Jewish Hasidic parents, Aaron Dawid Gelbfisz, a peddler, his wife, Hanna Reban, he made his way for Hamburg. There he stayed with acquaintances of his family. On 26 November 1898 Goldwyn left Hamburg for Birmingham, where he remained with relatives for six weeks under the name Samuel Goldfish. On January 4, he sailed from Liverpool, arrived in Baltimore on 19 January 1899 and came to New York in late January 1899, he found work in New York in the bustling garment business. Soon his innate marketing skills made him a successful salesman at the Elite Glove Company. After four years, as vice-president of sales, he moved back to New York City and settled at 10 West 61st Street.
In 1913, along with his brother-in-law Jesse L. Lasky, Cecil B. DeMille, Arthur Friend formed a partnership, The Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, to produce feature-length motion pictures. Film rights for a stage play, The Squaw Man, were purchased for $4,000 and Dustin Farnum was hired for the leading role. Shooting for the first feature film made in Hollywood began on December 29, 1913. In 1914, Paramount was a film exhibition corporation headed by W. W. Hodkinson. Looking for more movies to distribute, Paramount signed a contract with the Lasky Company on June 1, 1914 to supply 36 films per year. One of Paramount's other suppliers was Adolph Zukor's Famous Players Company; the two companies merged on June 1916 forming The Famous Players-Lasky Corporation. Zukor had been buying Paramount stock, two weeks prior to the merger, became president of Paramount Pictures Corporation and had Hodkinson replaced with Hiram Abrams, a Zukor associate. With the merger, Zukor became president of both Paramount and Famous Players-Lasky, with Goldfish being named chairman of the board of Famous Players-Lasky, Jesse Lasky first vice-president.
After a series of conflicts with Zukor, Goldfish resigned as chairman of the board, as member of the executive committee of the corporation on September 14, 1916. Goldfish was no longer an active member of management, although he still owned stock and was a member of the board of directors. Famous Players-Lasky would become part of Paramount Pictures Corporation, Paramount would become one of Hollywood's major studios. In 1916, Goldfish partnered with Broadway producers Edgar and Archibald Selwyn, using a combination of both names to call their film-making enterprise Goldwyn Pictures. Seeing an opportunity, he had his name changed to Samuel Goldwyn, which he used for the rest of his life. Goldwyn Pictures proved successful but it is their "Leo the Lion" trademark for which the organization is most famous. On April 10, 1924, Goldwyn Pictures was acquired by Marcus Loew and merged into his Metro Pictures Corporation. Despite the inclusion of his name, Goldwyn had no role in the management or production at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Before the sale and merger of Goldwyn Pictures in April 1924, Goldwyn had established Samuel Goldwyn Productions in 1923 as a production-only operation. Their first feature was Potash and Perlmutter, released in September 1923 through First National Pictures; some of the early productions named for Goldwyn's wife, Frances. For 35 years, Goldwyn built a reputation in filmmaking and developed an eye for finding the talent for making films. William Wyler directed many of his most celebrated productions, he hired writers such as Ben Hecht, Sidney Howard, Dorothy Parker, Lillian Hellman. During that time, Goldwyn made numerous films and reigned as the most successful independent producer in the US. Many of his films were forgettable. William Wyler was responsible for most of Goldwyn's lauded films, with Best Picture Oscar nominations for Dodsworth, Dead End, Wuthering Heights, The Little Foxes and The Best Years of Our Lives. Leading actors in several of Goldwyn films those directed by Wyler, were Oscar-nominated for their performances.
Throughout the 1930s, he released all his films through United Artists, but beginning in 1941, continuing through the end of his career, Goldwyn released his films through RKO Radio Pictures. In 1946, the year he was honored by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences with the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, Goldwyn's drama, The Best Years of Our Lives, starring Myrna Loy, Fredric March, Teresa Wright and Dana Andrews, won the Academy Award for Best Picture. In the 1950s Samuel Goldwyn turned to making a number of musicals including the 1952 hit Hans Christian Andersen, the 1955 hit Guys and Dolls starring Marlon Brando, Jean Simmons, Frank Sinatra, Vivian Blaine, based on the successful Broadway musical; this was the only independent f
The film industry or motion picture industry, comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e. film production companies, film studios, animation, film production, pre-production, post production, film festivals and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel. Though the expense involved in making films immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve; as of 2018, the global box office is worth $41.7 billion. When including box office and home entertainment revenue, the global film industry is worth $136 billion as of 2018. Hollywood is the world's oldest national film industry, remains the largest in terms of box office gross revenue. Indian cinema is the largest national film industry in terms of the number of films produced and the number of tickets sold, with 3.5 billion tickets sold worldwide annually and 1,986 feature films produced annually.
The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.6 billion in 2016. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were: Asia-Pacific with US$14.9 billion, the U. S. and Canada with US$11.4 billion, Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with US$9.5 billion. As of 2016, the largest markets by box office were, in decreasing order, the United States, Japan and the United Kingdom; as of 2011, the countries with the largest number of film productions were India and the United States. In Europe, significant centers of movie production are France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Distinct from the centers are the locations; because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in countries other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U. S. films are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian films are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian films are filmed in the Americas, Singapore etc. The cinema of the United States generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century.
The United States cinema is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the primary nexus of the U. S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film Institute, LA Film School and NYFA being established in the area. However, four of the six major film studios are owned by East Coast companies; the major film studios of Hollywood including Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as Star Wars, Titanic. American film studios today collectively generate several hundred films every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world. Only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is based in Southern California, and while Sony Pictures Entertainment is headquartered in Culver City, its parent company, the Sony Corporation, is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana and North Carolina. Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, is the highest-grossing film industry in the world. Between 2009-2015, Hollywood grossed $10 billion annually. Hollywood's award ceremony, the Academy Awards known as The Oscars, is held by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences every year and a total of 2,947 Oscars have been awarded since the inception of the award; the earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins which makes United States cinema the earliest cinema in the whole world. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family and reporters; the film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895.
The was sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edison's Vitascope. Nestor Studios was Hollywood's first film studio, founded on 27 October 1911, it was built by David Horsley for Nestor Motion Picture Company. It was owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley; the first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern. Other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestor's move west; the California weather allowed for year-round filming and the ambitious studio operated three principal divisions under its Canadian-born general manager, Al Christie. Other filmmakers began opening studios in the Hollywood area; the Horsleys operated the Nestor Studios at the Sunset and Gower location until 20 May 1912, when the Universal Studios was formed, headed by Carl Laemmle. Nestor, along with several other motion picture companies, including Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures, was merged with Universal; the Cinema of China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of Taiwan.
Cinema was introduced in China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was made in 1905, with the film industry being cent
The Ariel is the Mexican Academy of Film Award. It has been awarded annually since 1947; the award recognizes excellence in motion picture making, such as acting and screenwriting in Mexican cinema. It is considered the most prestigious award in the Mexican movie industry. In cinema, it is considered Mexico's equivalent to the Academy Awards of the United States; the statuette is in the image of a man and it was designed by the sculptor Ignacio Asúnsolo. The original statuette is found inside Churubusco Studios in Mexico City; the name "Ariel" was inspired by a series of short writings called El Ariel by Uruguayan writer José Enrique Rodó that inspired generations of young Latin Americans in the first decades of the 20th century. Ariel de Oro Ariel Award for Best Picture Ariel Award for Best Director Ariel Award for Best Actress Ariel Award for Best Actor Ariel Award for Best Supporting Actor Ariel Award for Best Supporting Actress Ariel a Mejor Guión Original Ariel a Mejor Fotografía Ariel a Mejor Edición Ariel a Mejor Música Compuesta para Cine Ariel a Mejor Sonido Ariel a Mejor Diseño de Arte Ariel a Mejor Vestuario Ariel a Mejor Maquillaje Ariel a Mejor Efectos Especiales Ariel a Mejor Ópera Prima Ariel a Mejor Cortometraje Documental Ariel a Mejor Largometraje Documental Ariel a Mejor Largometraje de Animación Ariel a Mejor Cortometraje de Ficción Ariel a Mejor Cortometraje de Animación Ariel a Mejor Película Iberoamericana Ariel a Mejor Actor de Cuadro Ariel a Mejor Actriz de Cuadro Ariel a Mejor Actuación Infantil Ariel a Mejor Actuación Juvenil Ariel a Mejor Ambientación Ariel a Mejor Argumento Original Ariel a Mejor Cortometraje Educativo, Científico o de Divulgación Artística Ariel a Mejor Escenografía Ariel a Mejor Guión Adaptado Ariel a Mejor Guión Cinematográfico Ariel a Mejor Música de Fondo Ariel a Mejor Mediometraje Ficción Ariel a Mejor Mediometraje Documental Ariel a Mejor Tema Musical Ariel Especial de Plata Premio Especial Premio de Honor † Premio Medalla Salvador Toscano Reconocimiento del Instituto Mexicano de Cinematografía Diploma de Honor Ariel Awards, Mexico at Internet Movie Database History of the Ariel at the Mexican Academy of Film.
El Ariel at wikisource
Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order initiated by the debtor. Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, whereas the term faillite is used for bankruptcy in accordance with the law; the word bankruptcy is derived from Italian banca rotta, meaning "broken bench", which may stem from a widespread custom in the Republic of Genoa of breaking a moneychanger's bench or counter to signify their insolvency, or which may be only a figure of speech. In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist.
If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into "debt slavery", until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime under harsher conditions. An exception to this rule was Athens; the Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency. Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times. A failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. According to Kenneth S. Rogoff, "Although the development of international capital markets was quite limited prior to 1800, we catalog the various defaults of France, Prussia and the early Italian city-states.
At the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well." The principal focus of modern insolvency legislation and business debt restructuring practices no longer rests on the elimination of insolvent entities, but on the remodeling of the financial and organizational structure of debtors experiencing financial distress so as to permit the rehabilitation and continuation of the business. For private households, some argue that it is insufficient to dismiss debts after a certain period, it is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur. It has been stressed that debt advice, a supervised rehabilitation period, financial education and social help to find sources of income and to improve the management of household expenditures must be provided during this period of rehabilitation. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation and by a number of requirements concerning the debtor's behavior.
In the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent. The spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system; the Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. Spain, for example, passed a bankruptcy law in 2003 which provides for debt settlement plans that can result in a reduction of the debt or an extension of the payment period of maximally five years, but it does not foresee debt discharge. In the US, it is difficult to discharge federal or federally guaranteed student loan debt by filing bankruptcy. Unlike most other debts, those student loans may be discharged only if the person seeking discharge establishes specific grounds for discharge under the Brunner test, under which the court evaluates three factors: If required to repay the loan, the borrower cannot maintain a minimal standard of living. If a debtor proves all three elements, a court may permit only a partial discharge of the student loan. Student loan borrowers may benefit from restructuring their payments through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy repayment plan, but few qualify for discharge of part or all of their student loan debt.
Bankruptcy fraud is a white-collar crime. While difficult to generalize across jurisdictions, common criminal acts under bankruptcy statutes involve concealment of assets, concealment or destruction of documents, conflicts of interest, fraudulent claims, false statements or declarations, fee fixing or redistribution arrangements. Falsifications on bankruptcy forms constitute perjury. Multiple filings are not in and of themselves criminal, but they may violate provisions of bankruptcy law. In the U. S. bankruptcy fraud statutes are focused on the mental state of particular actions. Bankruptcy fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Bankruptcy fraud should be distinguished from strategic bankruptcy, not a criminal act since it creates a real bankruptcy state. Howeve
Robinson Crusoe (1954 film)
Robinson Crusoe is a 1954 Mexican film by director Luis Buñuel, based on the novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. Both English and Spanish versions were produced. Dan O'Herlihy was nominated for the 1955 Academy Award for Best Actor. Robinson Crusoe, a third son with few prospects, goes to sea against his father's wishes. On a voyage from Brazil to Africa to collect slaves, a storm forces him to abandon ship, he swims alone to a deserted island somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean on September 30, 1659. To his delight, the abandoned ship turns up on an offshore rock, allowing him to salvage food, tools and other items before it sinks, he herds goats, hunts game, makes clothes, builds a home, with only the company of a dog, a cat, his only fellow castaways. Crusoe lets Sam and her kittens run wild; when Rex dies of old age in 1673, Crusoe nearly goes insane from loneliness. After 18 years, Crusoe discovers; the next time he spots them with his telescope, he sees a prisoner make a break for it, pursued by two cannibals.
He shoots the other. Crusoe takes the man back to his stockade, he names him Friday. Crusoe turns Friday into a servant. Crusoe does not trust him at first, believing Friday to be a cannibal who would kill him if given the chance, he builds a door to the cave. When Friday enters without permission late one night to sneak some tobacco, Crusoe puts leg irons on him; the next day, Crusoe relents and takes them off. He comes to trust his new companion completely. After 28 years, Friday saves Crusoe from a cannibal sneaking up behind him. Seeing a large group, they flee back to their stockade; the cannibals, are driven off by white men with guns. Captain Oberzo and his bosun are the victims of a mutiny. Crusoe and Friday get away undetected. Friday goes to the leader of the mutiny, offering him a basket of fruit, but the mutineers are more interested in the necklace of gold coins he is wearing. Friday leads the greedy men to the stockade. There, Friday and the bosun capture them. Oberzo regains control of his ship.
At Crusoe's suggestion, Oberzo agrees to let the mutineers remain on the island instead of being sentenced to die on the gallows. Crusoe leaves them his instructions on how to survive. Crusoe leaves for home with Friday, having spent 28 years, two months, 19 days on the island; as they row for the ship, Crusoe imagines. Daniel O'Herlihy as Robinson Crusoe / Crusoe's father Jaime Fernández as Friday Felipe de Alba as Captain Oberzo Chel López as Bosun José Chávez as Pirate Emilio Garibay as Leader of the Mutiny Luis Buñuel began working with screenwriter Phillip Ansel Roll in 1950 on a script. Mexican-Canadian Alex Phillips was hired as the cinematographer. More than 300 actors were considered for the lead role. O'Herlihy recalled that the producers of the film wanted Buñuel to use Orson Welles for the role, with Buñuel refusing, saying he was too loud and too fat, they arranged a screening of Welles' Macbeth to show how a bearded Welles would look, but Buñuel demanded O'Herlihy, who played Macduff, for the lead role.
Negotiations with Herlihy occurred at the last moment and under strict conditions of secrecy to prevent a wealthier motion picture studio from rushing a similar story into production. Jaime Fernández was cast as Friday. Fernández was the younger brother of the Mexican actor Emilio Fernández and star of 1947's La perla. Jaime Fernández was working as a grip, he spoke no English, learned it on the set much as his character did. Filming began on July 1952, on the west coast of Mexico. Principal photography was scheduled for seven weeks, with both an English and Spanish language version shot simultaneously. Both films were budgeted at a total of $350,000. Exterior shots were filmed near the city of Manzanillo in the Mexican state of Colima. There were 60 people in the production crew; the crew took daily doses of Diodoquin and aralen to guard against dysentery and malaria, respectively. A security squad of local Manzanillans kept snakes, wild boar, other dangerous animals at bay with guns and machetes.
Interior shots were filmed on Sound Stage 3 at Tepeyac Studios in Mexico City. The negatives were flown to Hollywood, where they were color-corrected. Three times a week, Buñuel, the producers, O'Herlihy, others watched the rushes in a local movie theater. Editing and scoring were done in Mexico City. According to O'Herlihy, Buñuel saw the central theme of the story as that of a man who ages and loses his mind, only to find that companionship is his salvation. O'Herlihy said that the script was used only for the first week of shooting. Afterward, Buñuel and O'Herlihy would discuss the story and how O'Herlihy should act and react; the producers believed the film would be ready for distribution by December 1952, but numerous delays upset these plans. On October 14, 1953, the producers announced that United Artists had signed an agreement for worldwide distribution rights to the film; the film premiered in New York City on August 1954, at the Normandie Theatre. Survival film, about the film genre, with a list of related films Robinson Crusoe on IMDb Robinson Crusoe at
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the