Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
1953 Formula One season
The 1953 Formula One season was the seventh season of the FIA's Formula One racing. It consisted only of a number of non-championship motor races; as in 1952, all races counting towards the World Championship of Drivers, apart from the Indianapolis 500, were held for cars complying with Formula Two regulations rather than with Formula One, with the Indianalpolis 500 held to AAA regulations. The 4th FIA World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 18 January and ended on 13 September after nine races, was won by Alberto Ascari, driving for a Scuderia Ferrari. Ascari became the first driver to defend his title. In addition to the non-championship Formula One races and the World Championship Formula Two races, numerous other non-championship Formula Two races were held during the year. Ferrari drivers again dominated the championship, taking seven of the eight grands prix, although Juan Manuel Fangio's challenge in his more fragile Maserati took him to second place in the championship and a win at Monza.
Ascari extended his unbeaten run to nine consecutive World Championship grand prix wins before his teammate Mike Hawthorn broke the sequence in becoming the first British winner in the French Grand Prix at Reims after a thrilling battle with Fangio. In 1953, all but one of the races counting towards the World Championship of Drivers were run under Formula 2 regulations, while the remaining one, the Indianapolis 500, was run under AAA Championship Car regulations; the 1953 championship was the first global World Championship of Drivers, with a championship event being staged outside of Europe or the United States for the first time. That race, the 1953 Argentine Grand Prix, was marred by an accident involving the Ferrari of Giuseppe Farina, which crashed into an unprotected crowd, killing nine spectators; the 1953 World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series. The Spanish Grand Prix, scheduled to be staged on 26 October, was cancelled; the Indianapolis 500 counted towards the 1953 AAA Championship.
The following teams and drivers competed in the 1953 FIA World Championship of Drivers. Championship points were awarded to first five finishers in each race on 6, 4, 3, 2 basis. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of the number of laps driven by each. 1 point was awarded for the fastest lap in each race. The point was shared between drivers sharing the fastest lap. Only the best four results from the nine races counted towards a driver's total points in the World Championship. Numbers without parentheses are retained championship points and numbers within parentheses are total points scored. * Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between more drivers of the same car ‡ Several cars were shared in this race. See the race page for details; the following Formula One/Formula Two races, which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers, were held during 1953
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
1952 Swiss Grand Prix
The 1952 Swiss Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 18 May 1952 at Bremgarten Circuit. It was the first round of the 1952 World Championship of Drivers, in which each Grand Prix was run to Formula Two rules rather than the Formula One regulations used. Pre-WWII Grand Prix great Rudolf Caracciola crashed during a support sports car race, he survived with a broken leg, but this crash ended his racing career. He was driving a Mercedes 300SL. Italian driver Piero Taruffi scored his only win in a World Championship race. With the withdrawal of Alfa Romeo from the World Championship, Ferrari were left as the sole competitive team under the existing regulations, it was therefore decided to run the Championship to Formula Two regulations. The works Ferrari team brought three drivers to the Swiss Grand Prix, namely Farina and Simon. Regular Ferrari drivers Alberto Ascari and Luigi Villoresi were both unavailable, the former due to his participation in the Indianapolis 500, the latter because of his having had a road accident.
Running Ferraris were Rudi Fischer and Peter Hirt of Ecurie Espadon, veteran Frenchman Louis Rosier. Gordini had a three-car team for this race, consisting of Robert Manzon, B. Bira and the debutant Jean Behra; the HWM team, returning to the World Championship for the first time since the previous race at Bremgarten, fielded the all-British quartet of Abecassis, Collins and Moss. Maserati had planned to enter defending World Drivers' Champion Juan Manuel Fangio and fellow Argentinian José Froilán González, but this did not come into fruition. Completing the field were the sole AFM entry of Hans Stuck and a number of run cars representing various constructors. Former Alfa Romeo driver Nino Farina took pole position, alongside Taruffi and Manzon on the front row of the grid. Simon and Fischer started from the second row, in front of Collins and Toulo de Graffenried, driving an Enrico Platé-entered Maserati. Polesitter Farina led the race, his Ferrari teammate assumed the lead. Moss was impressively running in third place in the early stages, behind Farina and Taruffi, before he had to stop.
The main battle was for second place. When Behra had to stop, due to his exhaust pipe having fallen off, who had taken over Simon's car, assumed second place. However, further problems meant that he once again had to retire, on lap 51, handing second to local driver Rudi Fischer; the Swiss driver took his first Championship podium, being the only driver not to be lapped by Taruffi, who took his first World Championship race victory. Behra completed the podium, taking third on debut, while Ken Wharton and Alan Brown took the first points finishes for Frazer Nash and Cooper, respectively. ^1 — André Simon qualified and drove 21 laps of the race in the #32 Ferrari. Nino Farina, whose own vehicle had retired, took over the car for a further 30 laps before again being forced to retire. ^2 — Juan Manuel Fangio and José Froilán González, whose cars were unavailable, withdrew from the event prior to practice. ^3 — Peter Hirt qualified and drove the entire race in the #44 Ferrari. Rudolf Schoeller, named substitute driver for the car, was not used during the Grand Prix.
^4 — Max de Terra drove the #50 Simca-Gordini in the race. Alfred Dattner, entered in the same car, was unable to take part in the Grand Prix due to illness. Notes ^ 1 -- Includes 1 point for fastest lap Macklin withdrew from the race. Farina took over from Simon. First Grand Prix start for Hans Stuck Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
Brescia is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. It is situated at the foot of the Alps, a few kilometres from the lakes Iseo. With a population of more than 200,000, it is the second largest city in the region and the fourth of northwest Italy; the urban area of Brescia extends beyond the administrative city limits and has a population of 672,822, while over 1.5 million people live in its metropolitan area. The city is the administrative capital of the Province of Brescia, one of the largest in Italy, with over 1,200,000 inhabitants. Founded over 3,200 years ago, Brescia has been an important regional centre since pre-Roman times, its old town contains the best-preserved Roman public buildings in northern Italy and numerous monuments, among these the medieval castle, the Old and New cathedral, the Renaissance Piazza della Loggia and the rationalist Piazza della Vittoria. The monumental archaeological area of the Roman forum and the monastic complex of San Salvatore-Santa Giulia have become a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of a group of seven inscribed as Longobards in Italy, Places of Power.
Brescia is considered to be an important industrial city. The metallurgy and the production of machine tools and firearms are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical and automotive engineering; the major companies based in the city are utility company A2A, steel producer Lucchini, firearms manufacturer Beretta, shotgun producer Perazzi, machine tools manufacturer Camozzi and gas equipment manufacturer Cavagna Group. Nicknamed Leonessa d'Italia, Brescia is the home of Italian caviar, is known for being the original production area of the Franciacorta sparkling wine as well as the prestigious Mille Miglia classic car race that starts and ends in the city. In addition, Brescia is the setting for most of the action in Alessandro Manzoni's 1822 play Adelchi. Brescia and its territory was the "European Region of Gastronomy" in 2017. Various myths relate to the founding of Brescia: one assigns it to Hercules while another attributes its foundation as Altilia by a fugitive from the siege of Troy.
According to another myth, the founder was the king of the Ligures, who had invaded the Padan Plain in the late Bronze Age. Colle Cidneo was named after that version, it is the site of the medieval castle; this myth seems to have a grain of truth, because recent archaeological excavations have unearthed remains of a settlement dating back to 1,200 BC that scholars presume to have been built and inhabited by Ligures peoples. Others scholars attribute the founding of Brescia to the Etruscans; the Gallic Cenomani, allies of the Insubres, invaded in the 7th century BC, used the town as their capital. The city became Roman in 225 BC. During the Carthaginian Wars,'Brixia' was allied with the Romans. During a Celtic alliance against Rome the city remained fateful to the Romans. With their Roman allies the city destroyed the Insubres by surprise. Subsequently, the city and the tribe entered the Roman world peacefully as faithful allies, maintaining a certain administrative freedom. In 89 BC, Brixia was recognized as civitas and in 41 BC, its inhabitants received Roman citizenship.
Augustus founded a civil colony there in 27 BC, he and Tiberius constructed an aqueduct to supply it. Roman Brixia had at least three temples, an aqueduct, a theatre, a forum with another temple built under Vespasianus, some baths; when Constantine advanced against Maxentius in 312, an engagement took place at Brixia in which the enemy was forced to retreat as far as Verona. In 402, the city was ravaged by the Visigoths of Alaric I. During the 452 invasion of the Huns under Attila, the city sacked. Forty years it was one of the first conquests by the Gothic general Theoderic the Great in his war against Odoacer. In 568, Brescia was taken from the Byzantines by the Lombards, who made it the capital of one of their semi-independent duchies; the first duke was Alachis, who died in 573. Dukes included the future kings of the Lombards Rothari and Rodoald, Alachis II, a fervent anti-Catholic, killed in battle at Cornate d'Adda in 688; the last king of the Lombards, had held the title Duke of Brescia.
In 774, Charlemagne captured the city and ended the existence of the Lombard kingdom in northern Italy. Notingus was the first bishop. From 855 to 875, under Louis II the Younger, Brescia become de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire; the power of the bishop as imperial representative was opposed by the local citizens and nobles, Brescia becoming a free commune around the early 12th century. Subsequently, it expanded into the nearby countryside, first at the expense of the local landholders, against the neighbouring communes, notably Bergamo and Cremona. Brescia defeated the latter two times at Pontoglio at the Grumore and in the battle of the Malamorte. During the struggles in 12th and 13th centuries between the Lombard cities and the German emperors, Brescia was implicated in some of the leagues and in all of the uprisings against them. In the Battle of Legnano the contingent from Brescia was the second in size after that of Milan; the Peace of Constance that ended the war with Frederick Barbarossa confirmed the free status of the comune.
In 1201 the podestà Rambertino Buvalelli made peace and established a leagu
This article is about the father. Hans Stuck was a German motor racing driver. Both his son Hans-Joachim Stuck and his grandsons Johannes and Ferdinand Stuck became race drivers. Despite many successes in Grand Prix motor racing for Auto Union in the early 1930s, during the era of the famous "Silver Arrows", he is now known for his domination of hillclimbing, which earned him the nickname "Bergkönig" or "King of the Mountains". Stuck's experience with car racing started in 1922 with early morning runs bringing milk from his farm to Munich, shortly after his first marriage; this led to his taking up hill-climbing. A few years after a year as a privateer for Austro-Daimler, he became a works driver for them in 1927, doing well in hill climbs, making his first appearance in a circuit race that year as well. In 1931, Austro-Daimler left racing, Stuck wound up driving a Mercedes-Benz SSKL in sports car racing, where he continued to excel. In 1933, his acquaintance with Adolf Hitler led to his involvement with Ferdinand Porsche and Auto Union in Hitler's plans for German auto racing.
With his experience from racing up mountain passes in the Alps in the 1920s, he was unbeatable when he got the new Auto Union car, designed by Porsche. Its rear mounted engine provided superior traction compared to conventional front engine designs, so that its 500+ horse-power could be transformed into speed on non-paved roads. In circuit racing, the new car was hard to master, due to the swing axle rear suspension design adopted by Porsche, his career with Auto Union was quite successful. In 1934, he won the German and Czechoslovakian Grand Prix races. There was no European Championship for the circuit races that year. Wins in a number of hill-climb races brought him European Mountain Champion, the first of three he would collect. In 1935, he won the Italian Grand Prix (along with second at the German Grand Prix. 1936 was leaner. After Stuck missed a number of hill-climbs because of injuries suffered in accidents, that year the European Mountain Championship fell to his famous team-mate, Bernd Rosemeyer.
1937 was lean, bringing only second places in the Rio de Janeiro and Belgian Grands Prix. 1938 opened poorly. After a series of injuries to other team drivers, as well as pressure from the German government, he was re-hired, proved himself by winning a third European Mountain Championship, his last major pre-war success. After the war, although Germans were banned from racing until 1950, Stuck obtained Austrian citizenship and continued racing. A link with Alex von Falkenhausen led to Stuck driving for his team in Formula Two racing, although with little success, he drove a Porsche Spyder in 1953 with no success. A liaison with BMW, starting in 1957, was more fruitful, although his first hill-climbs for them were not. A switch to their tiny BMW 700 RS did the trick, at age 60, he became German Hillclimb Champion for the last time, he decided to retire on a high note, thereupon closed his professional driving career. As an instructor on the Nürburgring, he taught his son Hans-Joachim the secrets of this challenging circuit.
Stuck was born in Warsaw in 1900. Although his parents were of Swiss ancestry, they had moved to Germany by the time Stuck was born, he grew up there, he was called up for military service in World War I in 1917. In 1918, his older brother Walter was killed, along with Walter's commanding officer. After several years, Stuck's involvement in the fast life on the track as well as off it caused them to split up and divorce. In 1931, he met a famous tennis player; the fact that she had a Jewish grandfather caused Stuck some problems with the rise of the Nazis, but his personal relationship with Hitler saved him from serious trouble. In 1939, he met Christa Thielmann, at that point engaged to Paula's youngest brother. Stuck and Paula divorced in 1948, he married Christa that year, their son, Hans-Joachim, was born in 1951. Christa died in 2014, at the age of 93. Notes^1 – Not listed in the Championship. Chris Nixon, Racing the Silver Arrows: Mercedes-Benz versus Auto Union 1934-1939 pp. 30–37, 164-168 Reuß, Eberhard: Hitlers Rennschlachten.
Die Silberpfeile unterm Hakenkreuz. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-351-02625-0. Seper, Pfundner, Lenz, Hans Peter: Österreichische Automobilgeschichte. Eurotax, Wien 1999, ISBN 3-905566-01-X. Hans Stuck and E. G. Burggaller, Motoring Sport Although this is a collection of items by various writers, it does contain a number of items b
Veritas was a West German post World War II sports and race car company, located in the village of Hausen am Andelsbach, near Sigmaringen, Baden-Württemberg at Meßkirch and Muggensturm and moved to the Nürburgring. The company was founded by Ernst Loof, Georg Meier and Lorenz Dietrich who re-built and tuned pre-war BMW 328 cars using components supplied by a customer, turning them into BMW-Veritas cars; the first car was used in 1947 by its owner Karl Kling to win at Hockenheim and subsequently become the 1947 German 2-litre champion. After only a few cars were made, following an objection from BMW, the cars became known as Veritas; the first Veritas to be made for normal road use was made in 1949 with the launch of the Komet coupé, little more than a racing Veritas RS made street legal. It was followed by the more civilised 2+2 Saturn coupé and Scorpion cabriolet, both being styled by Ben Bowden; the company were badly undercapitalised. New cars were designed using a 1998 cc engine built by Heinkel.
Over 200 orders were received for the new car but there was not enough money available to buy the components and production came to a halt in 1950 and the company continued in operation until 1952 by making new bodies for Panhard cars. Ernst Loof moved to the Nürburgring in 1950 where he rented the old Auto Union workshops and set up a new company Automobilwerke Ernst Loof GmbH and started a new range of Veritas cars at first with the Heinkel manufactured engine and saloon or cabriolet coachwork by Spohn. Money ran out however and the final bodies were fitted with Ford or Opel engines; the number of cars made at the Nürburgring is estimated as between 6 and 20. Veritas Meteor Other Veritas vehicles A total of 17 entered Veritas cars participated in 5 FIA World Championship races. After a virtual disappearance from motor racing and automotive engineering for nearly 50 years, a small company known as VerMot AG of Grafschaft, Rhineland planned to revive the Veritas name, it produced a concept known as the Veritas RS III in 2001, iniitially using a BMW sourced 6.0 litre V-12, producing 670 hp.
Over the following years pre-production models of the RS III were exhibited at trade shows and used as press demonstrators. The motor was changed to a 5 litre BMW unit. In 2011 VerMot announced that the RS III would be offered as a hybrid with an additional electric motor, that a electric version was in planning. Various dates from 2008 onwards were announced for the start of production of the RS III, but this appears to have failed to occur and by 2014 the company was dormant; the Veritas story