Alexa Internet, Inc. is an American web traffic analysis company based in San Francisco. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Amazon. Alexa was founded as an independent company in 1996 and acquired by Amazon in 1999 for $250M in stock, its toolbar collects data on Internet browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis including its Alexa Rank. According to its website, Alexa provides web traffic data, global rankings, other information on 30 million websites; as of 2018, its website is visited by over 3 million people every month. Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by Bruce Gilliat; the company's name was chosen in homage to the Library of Alexandria of Ptolemaic Egypt, drawing a parallel between the largest repository of knowledge in the ancient world and the potential of the Internet to become a similar store of knowledge. Alexa offered a toolbar that gave Internet users suggestions on where to go next, based on the traffic patterns of its user community.
The company offered context for each site visited: to whom it was registered, how many pages it had, how many other sites pointed to it, how it was updated. Alexa's operations grew to include archiving of web pages as they are "crawled" and examined by an automated computer program; this database served as the basis for the creation of the Internet Archive accessible through the Wayback Machine. In 1998, the company donated a copy of the archive, two terabytes in size, to the Library of Congress. Alexa continues to supply the Internet Archive with Web crawls. In 1999, as the company moved away from its original vision of providing an "intelligent" search engine, Alexa was acquired by Amazon.com for US$250 million in Amazon stock. Alexa began a partnership with Google in early 2002, with the web directory DMOZ in January 2003. In December 2005, Alexa opened its extensive search index and Web-crawling facilities to third-party programs through a comprehensive set of Web services and APIs; these could be used, for instance, to construct vertical search engines that could run on Alexa's servers or elsewhere.
In May 2006, Google was replaced with Windows Live Search as a provider of search results. In December 2006, Amazon released Alexa Image Search. Built in-house, it was the first major application built on the company's Web platform. In May 2007, Alexa changed their API to limit comparisons to three websites, reduce the size of embedded graphs in Flash, add mandatory embedded BritePic advertisements. In April 2007, the company filed a lawsuit, Alexa v. Hornbaker, to stop trademark infringement by the Statsaholic service. In the lawsuit, Alexa alleged that Ron Hornbaker was stealing traffic graphs for profit, that the primary purpose of his site was to display graphs that were generated by Alexa's servers. Hornbaker removed the term "Alexa" from his service name on March 19, 2007. On November 27, 2008, Amazon announced that Alexa Web Search was no longer accepting new customers, that the service would be deprecated or discontinued for existing customers on January 26, 2009. Thereafter, Alexa became a purely analytics-focused company.
On March 31, 2009, Alexa revealed a major website redesign. The redesigned site provided new web traffic metrics—including average page views per individual user, bounce rate, user time on website. In the following weeks, Alexa added more features, including visitor demographics and web search traffic statistics. Alexa introduced these new features to compete with other web analytics services. A key metric published from Alexa Internet analytics is the Alexa Traffic Rank simply known as Alexa Rank, it is referred to as Global Rank by Alexa Internet and is designed to be an estimate of a website's popularity. As of May 2018, Alexa Internet's tooltip for Global Rank says the rank is calculated from a combination of daily visitors and page views on a website over a 3-month period; the Alexa Traffic Rank can be used to monitor the popularity trend of a website and to compare the popularity of different websites. Alexa used to rank sites based on tracking a sample set of Internet traffic—users of its toolbar for the Internet Explorer and Google Chrome web browsers.
The Alexa Toolbar includes a popup blocker, a search box, links to Amazon.com and the Alexa homepage, the Alexa ranking of the website that the user is visiting. It allows the user to rate the website and view links to external, relevant websites. In early 2005, Alexa stated that there had been 10 million downloads of the toolbar, though the company did not provide statistics about active usage. Web pages were only ranked amongst users who had the Alexa Toolbar installed, could be biased if a specific audience subgroup was reluctant to take part in the rankings; this caused some controversies over how representative Alexa's user base was of typical Internet behavior for less-visited sites. In 2007, Michael Arrington provided examples of Alexa rankings known to contradict data from the comScore web analytics service, including ranking YouTube ahead of Google; until 2007, a third-party-supplied plugin for the Firefox browser served as the only option for Firefox users after Amazon abandoned its A9 toolbar.
On July 16, 2007, Alexa released. On 16 April 2008, many users reported drastic shifts in their Alexa rankings. Alexa confirmed this in the day with an announcement that they had released an updated ranking system, claiming that they would now take into account more sources of data "beyond Alexa Toolbar user
Vice-Senior General Maung Aye is a Burmese military official, Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council, the ruling military junta of Burma, from 1993 to 2011. Maung Aye was the second highest-ranking member of the SPDC. Maung Aye graduated from the Defence Services Academy in Pyin U Lwin with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1959. In 1968, he became commander of the Northeast Region. In 1988, he became commander of the Eastern Region. Two years he was promoted to major-general. In 1992 he was made Army Chief. In 1993 he was named the Deputy Commander in Chief of Defense Services. In 1994 he was appointed Deputy Chairman of SLORC, subsequently held the same position in the SPDC. Maung Aye and Senior General Than Shwe, along with six other top military officers, were reported to have resigned their military posts on 27 August 2010, he transferred the deputy commander-in-chief post to Lt-Gen Ko Ko, head of Chief of Bureau of Special Operation-3, but remains the country's deputy head of state.
The rumours were proven false. However, on 30 March 2011 the SPDC was dissolved by Than Shwe in favour of the elected President Thein Sein, which meant that Maung Aye's post ceased to exist, he has one daughter, Nandar Aye. Nandar Aye is married to Pyi Aung, the son of Aung Thaung, a former government minister and Pyithu Hluttaw representative. Kyaw Nyein. "Understanding the Burma's SPDC Generals". Mizzima News. Archived from the original on 2006-10-22. Retrieved 2006-12-26. "General Maung Aye's Putsch?". The Irrawaddy. 2004-10-20. Retrieved 2007-12-28
Ben Arogundade is a British-born author, voiceover artist and creative director of books. He trained as an architect before diversifying into print journalism and graphic design. In the mid-1990s he launched Extract. In 2000 he wrote his first book, Black Beauty, a work of non-fiction which explored Western culture's perceptions of the black image. In 2006 he became creative director at Gloria books — publishers of high end limited edition photography collectables. Today he runs his own book publishing imprint, White Labels Books, as well as 365 Positivity, an apps start-up. Ben Arogundade was born in Shepherd's Bush, west London, he is one of eight children of Yoruba Nigerian parents who emigrated to the capital in 1961. His mother was a nurse and midwife while his father was a photographer, film director and playwright who died in September 1984, his family on his mother's side come from the royal house of Owu in Abeokuta, capital of Ogun State, south west Nigeria. His grandfather was king of the region from 1949 to 1972.
Arogundade attended Henry Compton School in London. Olympic sprint champion Linford Christie was in the year above him. After graduating he went on to study architecture at South Bank University, where he was classmates with Patrik Schumacher, now the principal at Zaha Hadid architects. After graduating in 1990 Arogundade worked as a junior architect on a range of commercial buildings, including the Oxo Tower on London's South Bank, adjacent to The Tate Modern, he left the profession during the recession of the mid-1990s, diversifying into journalism and graphic design, both of which he taught himself. In 1995 he wrote the business plan for a new kind of magazine which preceded the birth of reality TV in Britain. Launched in 1996, Extract was radical — a celebrity-free bi-monthly style magazine dedicated to interviews with life's unknown characters; the magazine's creative irreverence attracted the attention of advertising geniuses Thomas Carty and Walter Campbell from the Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO agency.
The duo were creators of the famous Surfer campaign. They produced a series of controversial ads for the fledgling magazine, which were banned in cinemas but won two industry awards; the magazine ran for four issues before closing a year later. After this Arogundade began working as a freelance journalist, he has written for a number of publications, including The Times, The Observer, The Guardian, Marie Claire and The Evening Standard. It was while reporting backstage at a Paris fashion show that he had the idea for his first book, Black Beauty, it began as a magazine article about discrimination against black models, but evolved into an analysis of the way the black image has fared within Western culture. The book was published in 2000, was adapted into a three-part BBC documentary. Following this Arogundade diversified into fiction and screenplays, adapting a series of short stories for television, with actor Laurence Fishburne, he signed on as a voiceover artist with Sue Terry Voices in London.
His voice has featured on a range of commercials and TV channel idents. In 2006 he was appointed creative director at Gloria books; the company was founded by Ovais Naqvi, co-editor of the Muhammad Ali super book, GOAT, published by Taschen in 2003. The new company specialised in super-sized, limited-edition photography books, aimed at high-end collectors globally. During his tenure Arogundade produced four groundbreaking limited-edition collectables — Pelé, Super-yacht, Scarfe on the Wall and New York. In 2016 he started his own publishing imprint, White Labels Books, producing print-on-demand, direct-to-consumer fiction and non-fiction. Obama: 101 Best Covers is its debut release, he runs a tech start-up, 365 Positivity, which produces health and wellbeing apps. Arogundade is the father of Swedish singer and creative ECCO2K born from a prior relationship with a Swedish makeup artist. Obama: 101 Best Covers The Sexual Language Of Strangers Scarfe on the Wall New York Super-yacht Pelé Black Beauty Official website White Labels Books Extract magazine ad 1 Extract magazine ads 2,3 Black Beauty, Amazon.com Black Beauty review, VIBE magazine 2001 Sue Terry Voices Pele, Scarfe on the Wall, New York New York book, The Guardian New York book interview and launch Pele Superyacht Scarfe on the Wall 365 Positivity Black Beauty official site Sue Terry Voices Extract Obama: 101 Best Covers