Pulaski County, Arkansas
Pulaski County is a county in the U. S. state of Arkansas with a population of 392,664. Its county seat is Little Rock, Arkansas's capital and largest city. Pulaski County is Arkansas's fifth county, formed on December 15, 1818, alongside Clark and Hempstead Counties; the county is named for Casimir Pulaski, a Polish volunteer who saved George Washington's life during the American Revolutionary War. Pulaski County is included in the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area which had 731,612 people in the 2015 census estimates; the Little Rock, North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area had 904,469 people in the 2015 census estimates. An 1863 American Civil War battle, the Battle of Bayou Fourche, occurred in Pulaski County. Pulaski County was home to Willow Springs Water Park, one of the oldest water parks in the nation, which opened in 1928 and closed in 2013. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 808 square miles, of which 760 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water.
I-30 I-40 Future I-57 I-430 I-440 I-530 I-630 U. S. Highway 65 U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 165 U. S. Highway 167 Highway 5 Highway 10 Highway 100 Highway 161 Highway 300 Highway 338 Highway 365 Highway 367 Faulkner County Lonoke County Grant County Jefferson County Saline County Perry County Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site I-30 Speedway As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 361,474 people, 147,942 households, 95,718 families residing in the county; the population density was 469 people per square mile. There were 161,135 housing units at an average density of 209 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.96% White, 31.87% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 1.25% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. 2.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 147,942 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.90% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.30% were non-families.
30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,120, the median income for a family was $46,523. Males had a median income of $33,131 versus $25,943 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,466. About 10.40% of families and 13.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.90% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. The Arkansas Department of Correction Wrightsville Unit is in Wrightsville. Pulaski County is one of the most Democratic counties in the Southern United States.
The city of North Little Rock was ranked the most liberal community in the state. In the Reconstruction Era following the Civil War, Republicans carried the county in every presidential election from 1868 to 1892. Since Republicans have only won the county four times: 1956, 1972, 1984, 1988; the Pulaski County Special School District is the county's public school district for 729 square miles surrounding Little Rock and North Little Rock, which maintain independent districts. The Little Rock School District and North Little Rock School District. Pulaski Technical College is a two-year community college and technical school that offers seven locations throughout the county, including a flagship campus in western North Little Rock. Four-year postsecondary institutions include the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, the University of Arkansas System's only metropolitan campus, the United Methodist Church-affiliated Philander Smith College, Arkansas Baptist College, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences — all located in Little Rock.
Cammack Village Jacksonville Little Rock Maumelle North Little Rock Sherwood Wrightsville Cabot Alexander Crystal Hill Gravel Ridge Ironton Mabelvale Marche Woodyardville Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas and some may have incorporated towns or cities within part of their space. Townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the US Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps. Pulaski County only has two townships, as of 2010, they are listed below. List of lakes in Pulaski County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Pulaski County, Arkansas Pulaski County Government Pulaski County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Jacksonville is a city in Pulaski County, United States, a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 28,364, it is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area with 729,135 people as of 2014. The city is named for Nicholas Jackson, a landowner who deeded the land for the railroad right-of-way to the Cairo & Fulton Railroad in 1870; the community evolved from the settlement surrounding the railroad depot incorporating in 1941. In 1941, construction began on the Arkansas Ordnance Plant, which served as the primary facility for the development of fuses and detonators for World War II. Following the war, AOP ceased operations and the land was sold for commercial interests, including the development of the Little Rock Air Force Base in 1955. Today, portions of AOP still remain, including the Arkansas Ordnance Plant Guard House, on the National Register of Historic Places and the Jacksonville Museum of Military History. Despite Pulaski County being an Arkansas county, not a "dry" county, as it allows the sales of beer and liquor, the municipal limits of Jacksonville are "moist", as it does not allow the sales of alcohol in stores, but allows the sale of alcohol in some restaurants with special permits.
Jacksonville is located at 34°52′13″N 92°6′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.2 square miles, of which 28.1 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.42%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,916 people, 10,890 households, 8,004 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,134.2 people per square mile. There were 11,890 housing units at an average density of 450.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.17% White, 27.88% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 1.98% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 1.14% from other races, 2.58% from two or more races. 6.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,890 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 12.8% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,460, the median income for a family was $40,381. Males had a median income of $26,708 versus $21,804 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,369. About 11.9% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Since 1927, Jacksonville had been part of the Pulaski County Special School District, one of the largest school districts in Arkansas.
In the years leading up to September, 2008, parts of the Jacksonville community expressed a desire to split from the PCSSD. This measure was approved by the board of the PCSSD during that month, clearing the way for the formation of what would become Jacksonville North Pulaski School District. In a response to a petition signed by more than 2,000 voters, the Arkansas Board of Education ordered an election to carve a new school district out of the existing Pulaski County Special School District. Jacksonville voters approved of the separation on September 16, 2014 with a vote of 3,672 for and 202 against. According to JNPSD officials, the district would be administered by the Pulaski County Special School District until its final detachment, which became effective July 1, 2016; the district consists of one middle school and one high school. The schools include Jacksonville High School, Jacksonville Middle School, Bayou Meto Elementary School, Arnold Drive Elementary School, Tolleson Elementary School, Dupree Elementary School, Pinewood Elementary School and Taylor Elementary School.
A number of operated daycare services and church-affiliated schools are available throughout the city. In addition, Arkansas State University-Beebe maintains a degree center at Little Rock Air Force Base for post-secondary education; the Central Arkansas Library System includes the Esther Dewitt Nixon Library in Jacksonville. Grady Adkins, pitcher for Chicago White Sox 1928-29 Glen Rice, NBA champion in 2000 Homer Martin Adkins, governor of Arkansas from 1941 to 1945, was born in Jacksonville in 1890 Kris Allen, American Idol Season 8 winner Lisa Blount, memorable role An Officer and a Gentleman Clinton McDonald, defensive tackle for NFL's Tampa Bay Buccaneers of Seattle Seahawks, Super Bowl XLVIII champion.
Natural Steps, Arkansas
Natural Steps is an unincorporated census-designated place in Pulaski County, United States, 18 miles northwest of Little Rock along the southern bank of the Arkansas River, on Arkansas Highway 300. As of the 2010 census, its population is 426. Today, it is a small farming community with scattered businesses. Most of the natural steps, a geologic formation, still stand today and are used as a marker for river runners; the Natural Steps are not open to the public for viewing. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 426 people residing in the CDP; the racial makeup of the CDP was 93.4% White, 3.8% Black, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Asian and 0.5% from two or more races. 1.4 % were Latino of any race. The small town was named after "two parallel vertical walls of sandstone, twenty feet apart, that jut out from the disintegrated soft slates, prominent conformity, descending step like, fifty-one feet from the top of the bank, where they first show themselves, to the edge of the lowest water-mark of the Arkansas River and can be seen running their course beneath the stream.
These form a conspicuous landmark to boatman and travelers on the Arkansas River, are known under the name of the "Natural Steps". Beginning in 1822, the local "Natural Steps" provided a convenient stop for Little Rock visitors to disembark for their hike to the mountain." The Natural Steps were first written about and drawn by David Dale Owen in his Second Report of a Geological Reconnaissance of the Middle and Southern Counties of Arkansas ordered by Elias Nelson Conway, Governor of Arkansas. He wrote, In sight of the Pinnacle on the Arkansas River, near the mouth of the Big Maumelle, are "The Natural Steps". I found to be forty feet above the Arkansas River, at its stage when I examined and sketched them, on May 30, 1859, but they are fifty-one feet above low-water mark. Seen from the River at a little distance, they have a wonderfully artificial appearance, looking like steps laid by regular masonry, form, not only a remarkable feature in the landscape, but a striking and unequivocal instance, of which Arkansas furnishes several, of strata tilted nearly on edge.
In 1870, United States Army Corps of Engineers Col. John Navarre Macomb, along with Assistant Engineer S. T. Abert, a good-sized support staff of soldiers, set out to map the Arkansas River and show low-water depths across the channel at close intervals, they showed gravel bars and shoals and landing locations, other features important to river travel. The map was intended for navigation. In their maps, a drawing and location of the "Natural Steps" were included. Fred O. Henker, M. D. wrote, "The first inhabitants of the Natural Steps area were Native Americans, Indians whose presence in the vicinity dates back 10,000 years." "During early European explorations and the colonial period, local Native Americans, from about 1500 to the late 1700s, were the Quapaw meaning." Naturalist Thomas Nuttall wrote A Journal of Travels into the Arkansas Territory During the Year 1819. It was based on his travels from 1819–1821 to study botany along the Arkansas River, he observed the Quapaw and other Native Americans.
"A number of families were now about to settle, or rather take provisionary possession of the land purchased from the Osage, situated along the banks of the Arkansas, from Frog bayou to the falls of the Verdigris..." Nuttall's travels took him to the mouth of the Verdigris River. " Thomas Nuttall found few Native Americans in the Natural Steps area in 1819. The Pinnacle Mountain Community Post wrote: History reveals the French were notorious traders with the Natives and many canoe or river raft pulled up and tied off in the area. Word has it; the French explorers were coming down the river and when they rounded the bend, right near Palarm Creek, they named the twin peaks of Pinnacle Mountain Maumelle, French for a woman's breasts. The Natural Steps used to be famous for boatloads of picnickers that went up and down the Arkansas river in steamboats in the 19th century. "Natural Steps was a natural port with water at the bank of sufficient depth to enable convenient docking, sufficient population to provide passengers and cargo.
By 1849 the Arkansas Gazette reported fifteen to twenty steamboat arrivals and departures weekly." The Arkansas Gazette on May 19, 1878 wrote, The excursion yesterday to Natural Steps on the steamer Maumelle under the auspices of the M. E. church and the management of its popular pastor, Rev. A. W. Decker, Gen. Henry Rudd, was a great success, both pecuniarily and pleasurably; the boat left Little Rock promptly at 8:30 a.m. and after traversing our beautiful river, with its varied and picturesque scenery for about thirty miles duly reached its point of destination, the Natural Steps, where the excursionists disembarked and sought the shady groves in the vicinity, where they indulged in picnicking in the true and time-honored style. A riverboat pilot on the Arkansas River in the late 19th century, R. E. Cross wrote in 1938: For years and years I rafted timber from Dardanelle and points below, to the old Freeman Lumber Company at Gleason, Ark. and to the Beebe Stave Company, located a few miles below Little Rock.
There once lived a Dr. Moreland at Natural Steps who had a farm and a cotton gin, in whose cottonseed house we slept many, many times after landing near Scott eddy. We cooked many a savory breakfast in that old gin-lot. We would each dig a hole in the cottonseed and crawl in, wet clothes and all, we slept well. Cotton and firewood
Area code 501
Area code 501 is a telephone area code serving central Arkansas, including Little Rock and most of its suburbs. The coverage area includes most communities in Cleburne, Faulkner, Hot Spring, Perry, Saline and Van Buren counties, it is one of the original 86 North American Numbering Plan areas assigned in 1947, covered all of Arkansas. Due to Arkansas' low population density, 501 remained the sole area code for the state until 1995, when area code 870 was created to serve north-central, northeast and southern Arkansas. In 2002, the northwestern part of the state was split off as area code 479. Major cities in area code 501 include: NANPA Area Code Map of Arkansas List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 501 Area Code
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income