The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. Seleucus received Babylonia and from there expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories. At the height of its power, the Empire included central Anatolia, the Levant and what is now Kuwait and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan; the Seleucid Empire became a major center of Hellenistic culture – it maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated in the urban areas. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece. Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece halted abruptly in the early 2nd century BC after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Seleucid attempts to defeat their old enemy. Having come into conflict in the East with Chandragupta Maurya of the Maurya Empire, Seleucus I entered into an agreement with Chandragupta whereby he ceded vast territory west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern-day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan and offered his daughter in marriage to the Maurya Emperor to formalize the alliance.
Antiochus III the Great attempted to project Seleucid power and authority into Hellenistic Greece, but his attempts were thwarted by the Roman Republic and by Greek allies such as the Kingdom of Pergamon, culminating in a Seleucid defeat at the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia. In the subsequent Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC, the Seleucids were compelled to pay costly war reparations and relinquished claims to territories west of the Taurus Mountains; the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia conquered much of the remaining eastern part of the Seleucid Empire in the mid-2nd century BC, while the independent Greco-Bactrian Kingdom continued to flourish in the northeast. However, the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by Armenian king Tigranes the Great in 83 BC and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey in 63 BC. Contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom.
Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia. Starting from the 2nd century BC, ancient writers referred to the Seleucid ruler as the King of Syria, Lord of Asia, other designations, he refers to either Alexander Balas or Alexander II Zabinas as a ruler. Alexander, who conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC, leaving an expansive empire of Hellenised culture without an adult heir; the empire was put under the authority of a regent in the person of Perdiccas, the territories were divided among Alexander's generals, who thereby became satraps, at the Partition of Babylon, all in that same year. Alexander's generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire. Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system. Ptolemy's revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC. Seleucus, "Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry" and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly.
Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the year used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The rise of Seleucus in Babylon threatened the eastern extent of Antigonus I territory in Asia. Antigonus, along with his son Demetrius I of Macedon, unsuccessfully led a campaign to annex Babylon; the victory of Seleucus ensured his claim of legitimacy. He ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire, as described by Appian:Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia,'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Parthia, Arabia, Sogdia, Arachosia and other adjacent peoples, subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander; the whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. In the region of Punjab, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in 321 BC. Chandragupta conquered the Nanda Empire in Magadha, relocated to the capital of Pataliputra.
Chandragupta redirected his attention back to the Indus and by 317 BC he conquered the remaining Greek satraps left by Alexander. Expecting a confrontation, Seleucid marched to the Indus, it is said that Chandragupta himself fielded an army of 9,000 war elephants. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory, sealed in a treaty, west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. According to Appian: He [Sel
Persis, better known as Persia, or "Persia proper", is a region located to the southwest of modern Iran. The Persians are thought to have migrated either from Central Asia or, more from the north through the Caucasus, they would have migrated to the current region of Persis in the early 1st millennium BC. The country name Persia was derived directly from the Old Persian Parsa; the ancient Persians were present in the region of Persis from about the 10th century BC. They became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty, established in the late 6th century BC, at its peak stretching from Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in its far east; the ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars. The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, incorporating most of their vast empire. Several Hellenistic satraps of Persis are known, following the conquests of Alexander the Great, from circa 330 BC Phrasaortes, who ruled from 330 to 324 BC, Oxines who usurped his position and was executed by Alexander, the Macedonian general Peucestas, who learned the Persian language and followed local customs, implementing a persophile policy.
Peucestas retained the satrapy of Persis until the Battle of Gabiene, after which he was removed from his position by Antigonus. A short period of Antigonid rule followed, until Seleucus took possession of the region in 312 BC; when the Seleucid Empire was established, it never extended its power beyond the main trade routes in Fars, by the reign of Antiochus I or later, Persis emerged as a state with a level of independence that minted its own coins. "Frataraka" Governors of the Seleucid Empire Several Persian rulers, forming the Frataraka dynasty, are known to have acted as representatives of the Seleucids in the region of Fārs. They ruled from the end of the 3rd century BC to the beginning of the 2nd century BC, Vahbarz or Vādfradād I obtained independence circa 150 BC, when Seleucid power waned in the areas of southwestern Persia and the Persian Gulf region. During an apparent transitional period, corresponding to the reigns of Vādfradād II and another uncertain king, no titles of authority appeared on the reverse of their coins.
The earlier title prtrk' zy alhaya had disappeared. Under Dārēv I however, the new title of mlk, or king, sometimes with the mention of prs, suggesting that the kings of Persis had become independent rulers; when the Parthian Arsacid king Mithridates I took control of Persis, he left the Persian dynasts in office, known as the Kings of Persis, they were allowed to continue minting coins with the title of mlk. Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Persis; the subsequent events are due to the sketchy nature of the sources. It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur; the sources tell us. Ardaxšir V, defeated the last legitimate Parthian king, Artabanos V in 224 CE, was crowned at Ctesiphon as Ardaxšir I, šāhanšāh ī Ērān, becoming the first king of the new Sasanian Empire.
At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah. After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I extended the territory of his Sassanid Persian Empire, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene. Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224, their armies clashed at Hormizdegan. Ardashir was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, starting the equally long rule of the Sassanian Empire, over an larger territory, once again making Persia a leading power in the known world, only this time along with its arch-rival and successor to Persia's earlier opponents; the Sassanids ruled for 425 years. Afterward, the Persians started to convert to Islam, this making it much easier for the new Muslim empire to continue the expansion of Islam. Persis passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments.
The ruins of Bishapur and Firouzabad are all reminders of this. Arab invaders brought about a decline of Zoroastrian rule and made Islam ascendant from the 7th century. Fars Province Pars
Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Niğde Provinces in Turkey. According to Herodotus, in the time of the Ionian Revolt, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying a region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine. Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia, to the east by the upper Euphrates, to the north by Pontus, to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia; the name, traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history, continues in use as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders, in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century BC, when it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early Achaemenid kings, Darius I and Xerxes, as one of the countries of the Persian Empire. In these lists of countries, the Old Persian name is Haspaduya, which according to some researchers is derived from Iranian Huw-aspa-dahyu- "the land/country of beautiful horses".
Others proposed that Kat-patuka came from the Luwian language, meaning "Low Country". Subsequent research suggests that the adverb katta meaning'down, below' is Hittite, while its Luwian equivalent is zanta; therefore the recent modification of this proposal operates with the Hittite katta peda- "place below" as a starting point for the development of the toponym Cappadocia. Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks "Syrians" or "White Syrians" Leucosyri. One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions is the Moschoi, associated by Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure Meshech, son of Japheth: "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch. AotJ I:6. Cappadocia appears in the biblical account given in the book of Acts 2:9; the Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews".
See Acts of the Apostles. The region is mentioned in the Jewish Mishnah, in Ketubot 13:11. Under the kings of the Persian Empire, the Cappadocians were divided into two satrapies, or governments, with one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Pontus; this division had come about before the time of Xenophon. As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction was perpetuated, the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province, which alone will be the focus of this article; the kingdom of Cappadocia still existed in the time of Strabo as a nominally independent state. Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea, the capital of the whole country, was situated; the only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Caesarea and Tyana, not far from the foot of the Taurus. Cappadocia lies in the heartland of what is now Turkey.
The relief consists of a high plateau over 1000 m in altitude, pierced by volcanic peaks, with Mount Erciyes near Kayseri being the tallest at 3916 m. The boundaries of historical Cappadocia are vague towards the west. To the south, the Taurus Mountains form the boundary with Cilicia and separate Cappadocia from the Mediterranean Sea. To the west, Cappadocia is bounded by the historical regions of Lycaonia to the southwest, Galatia to the northwest. Due to its inland location and high altitude, Cappadocia has a markedly continental climate, with hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. Rainfall is sparse and the region is semi-arid. Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which made them apt to foreign slavery.
It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King. After ending the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great tried to rule the area through one of his military commanders, but Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, somehow became king of the Cappadocians. As Ariarathes I, he was a successful ruler, he extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as to the Black Sea; the kingdom of Cappadocia lived in peace until the death of Alexander. The previous empire was divided into many parts, Cappadocia fell to Eumenes, his claims were made good in 322 BC by the regent Perdiccas. Persian colonists in the Cappadocian kingdom, cut off from their co-religionists in Iran proper, continued to practice Zoroastrianism. Stra
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, its capital was Sardis. The Kingdom of Lydia existed from about 1200 BC to 546 BC. At its greatest extent, during the 7th century BC, it covered all of western Anatolia. In 546 BC, it became a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, known as the satrapy of Lydia or Sparda in Old Persian. In 133 BC, it became part of the Roman province of Asia. Coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC; the endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire: the satrapy of Sparda, Aramaic Saparda, Babylonian Sapardu, Elamitic Išbarda, Hebrew סְפָרַד. These in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC; the region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom.
However, the Lydian language is not categorized as part of the Luwic subgroup, as are the other nearby Anatolian languages Luwian and Lycian. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture; the Greek historian Herodotus stated that the Etruscans came from Lydia, repeated in Virgil's epic poem the Aeneid, Etruscan-like language was found on the Lemnos stele from the Aegean Sea island of Lemnos. However, the decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not part of the same language family. Furthermore, a mitochondrial DNA study suggests that the Etruscans were an indigenous population, showing that Etruscans appear to fall close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations suggesting that the Etruscan civilization developed locally from the Villanovan culture, genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago during the Neolithic; the boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries.
It was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia. The military power of Alyattes and Croesus expanded Lydia, with its capital at Sardis, controlled all Asia Minor west of the River Halys, except Lycia. After the Persian conquest the River Maeander was regarded as its southern boundary, during imperial Roman times Lydia comprised the country between Mysia and Caria on the one side and Phrygia and the Aegean Sea on the other; the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. Due to its fragmentary attestation, the meanings of many words are unknown but much of the grammar has been determined. Similar to other Anatolian languages, it featured extensive use of prefixes and grammatical particles to chain clauses together. Lydian had undergone extensive syncope, leading to numerous consonant clusters atypical of Indo-European languages. Lydian became extinct during the 1st century BC. Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC.
In Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the original name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia: Homer refers to the inhabitants of Lydia as Maiones. Homer describes their capital not as Hyde. Herodotus adds that the "Meiones" were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys, during the mythical epoch that preceded the Heracleid dynasty; this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. The Hebrew term for Lydians, Lûḏîm, as found in the Book of Jeremiah, has been considered, beginning with Flavius Josephus, to be derived from Lud son of Shem. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers; some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles. Lydian mythology is unknown, their literature and rituals have been lost due to the absence of any monuments or archaeological finds with extensive inscriptions.
For the Greeks, Tantalus was a primordial ruler of mythic Lydia, Niobe his proud daughter. In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the double-axe symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization, the labrys. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, whom Heracles was required to serve for a time, his adventures in Lydia are the adventures of a Greek hero in a peripheral and foreign land: during his stay, Heracles enslaved the Itones.
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Ada of Caria
Ada of Caria was a member of the House of Hecatomnus and ruler of Caria during the mid-4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III of Macedon. Ada was the daughter of Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria, sister of Mausolus, Artemisia and Pixodarus, she was married to her brother Idrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in 351 BC and died in 344 BC. On the death of her husband Ada became satrap of Caria, but was expelled by her brother Pixodarus in 340 BC, who upon his death in 335 BC was succeeded by his own son-in-law, the Persian Orontobates. Ada fled to the fortress of Alinda; when Alexander the Great entered Caria in 334 BC, Ada adopted Alexander as her son and surrendered Alinda to him. Alexander, in return, gave Ada formal command of the Siege of Halicarnassus. After the fall of Halicarnassus, Alexander returned Alinda to Ada and made her queen of all of Caria. Ada's popularity with the populace in turn ensured the Carians' loyalty to Alexander. "Ada meanwhile held the strongest fortress in Caria.
Alexander gave Alinda to her charge, did not reject the title of son, when he had taken Halicarnassus and became master of the rest of Caria, he gave her command of the whole country." She was under the protection of Hellenistic satrap of Lydia. According to Turkish archaeologists, the tomb of Ada has been discovered, although this claim remains unresolved, her remains are on display in the archaeological museum of Bodrum. E. D. Carney, "Women and Dunasteia in Caria", American Journal of Philology 126, pp. 65–91. W. Heckel, Who’s Who in the Age of Alexander the Great, Oxford, 2006, p. 3 Attilio Mastrocinque, La Caria e la Ionia meridionale in epoca ellenistica, 323-188 a. C. Stephen Ruzicka, Politics of a Persian dynasty: the Hecatomnids in the fourth century B. C. Simon Hornblower, Mausolus Bean, George E.. Turkey beyond the Maeander. London: Praeger. ISBN 0-87471-038-3. Livius, Ada by Jona Lendering Ada from Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Photos of Halicarnassus Includes a picture of the skeleton of Ada
Kerman Province is the largest province of the 31 provinces of Iran. Kerman is in the southeast of Iran with its administrative center in the city of Kerman. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5. Mentioned in ancient times as the Achamenid satrapy of Carmania, it is the first-largest province of Iran with an area of 183,285 km2, that encompasses nearly 11 percent of the land area of Iran; the population of the province is about 3 million. Kerman province is considered a paradise for palaeontologists because of an abundance of vertebrate fossils from different geological eras. Fossils include Placodermi and jawless armoured fish dating back to the Devonian period and mammals from the Tertiary period; the history of human settlements in the territory of Kerman dates back to the 4th millennium BC. This area is considered as one of the ancient regions of Iran and valuable historical vestiges have been discovered here. Jiroft is an example, where a unknown settlement dating back to around 2500 BC has been established by archeologists.
Kerman has an abundance of historical sites and landmarks, 283 in total, according to Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization. Ancient abandoned citadels such as Arg-e Bam and Rayen Castle have been preserved in the desert for 2,000 years. Historical documents refer to Kerman as "Karmania", "Kermania", "Germania", "Carmonia", "Žermanya", which means bravery and combat. Geographers have recorded Kerman's ancient name as "Go'asheer"; the altitudes and heights of the province are the continuation of the central mountain ranges of Iran. They extend from the volcanic folds beginning in Azarbaijan and, by branching out in the central plateau of Iran, terminate in Baluchestan; these mountain ranges have brought about vast plains in the province. The Bashagard and Kuh-e Banan Mountains are the highest in this region and include peaks such as Toghrol, Palvar, Sirach and Tahrood. Other ranges that stretch out from Yazd to Kerman and Challeh-ye-Jazmoorian include high peaks like hazaran 4501 meters above sea level, kuh-e Shah 4402 meters, bahr Aseman and Khabr mountain in Khabr national park and others.
Most of the province is steppe or sandy desert, although there are some oases where dates and pistachios are cultivated. In antiquity "Carmanian" wine was famed for its quality; the province is dependent on qanats for its irrigation. In the central parts, Mount Hezar is 4501 meters above sea level. Kerman is prone to natural disasters. A recent flood for example, unearthed the archeological ancient city of Jiroft, in the south of Kerman province. Arg-é Bam on the other hand, the world's largest adobe structure, was destroyed in an earthquake in December 2003. On February 22, 2005, a major earthquake killed hundreds of residents in the town of Zarand and several nearby villages in north Kerman; the counties of Kerman province are Baft County, Bardsir County, Bam County, Jiroft County, Rafsanjan County, Zarand County, Sirjan County, Shahr-e-Babak County, Kerman County, Kahnuj County, Qaleh Ganj County, Manujan County, Rudbar-e Jonubi County, Anbarabad County, Rabor County, Rigan County, Arzuiyeh County, Fahraj County, Faryab County and Ravar County.
The climate in the province varies across regions. The north and central areas experience a dry and moderate climate, whereas in the south and southeast, the weather is warm and humid; the city of Kerman and the surrounding regions have a semi-moderate and dry climate, with a maximum and minimum temperature of 39.6 °C, -7 °C, respectively. The average temperature during the months of March–June has been recorded as 20°-25 °C; these months are the most suitable for traveling and tourism. Most of the population of Kerman are Persians, Shi'a Muslims. There is a minority of Baloch population living in the south of Kerman Province and are predominantly Sunni. Kerman has a small but culturally significant Zoroastrian minority. In 2011 the population of the province was 2,938,988 in 786,400 households. 1,684,982 lived in urban areas, 1,242,344 in rural vicinities and 6,082 accounted as non-residents. In 1996, 52.9% of Kerman's population lived in urban areas, 46% in rural vicinities, the remaining 1.1% accounted as non-residents.
In 2006 urban population made 58.5%, in 2011 this rate decreased by one percent. The city of Kerman embraces about 80% of the urban population, being the most developed and largest city of the province. Natural attractions include thermal and mineral springs, recreational areas, verdant spaces and peaks, pools, protected areas and the special desert features for adventure seekers; as of 1920, the province was known for the quality of its caraway. Today, Kerman is. Sirjan, a specially designated economic zone, is considered a passageway for transfer of imported commercial goods from the south. Arg e Jadid, is another specially designated economic zone of Iran, located in Kerman province. Kerman province contains the following universities: Jiroft University Kerman University of Medical Sciences Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman Sirjan University of Technology ValiAsr University of Rafsanjan Kirman Kerman Province parliamentary districts List of monuments in Kerman Province Carmania (s