The Advocates Library, founded in 1682, is the law library of the Faculty of Advocates, in Edinburgh. It served as the national deposit library of Scotland until 1925, at which time through an Act of Parliament the National Library of Scotland was created. All the non-legal collections were given to the National Library. Today, it alone of the Scottish libraries still holds the privilege of receiving a copy of every law book entered at Stationers' Hall; the library forms part of the complex. The Library was formally opened in 1689, it was an initiative of George Mackenzie. The present library building was designed by William Henry Playfair in 1830, is a category A listed building. Librarian Samuel Halkett began an ambitious catalogue, based on the rules of John Winter Jones for the British Museum catalogue of 1839, but with extensive biographical information on authors, it was published in six volumes, from 1858 to 1878. Halkett's successor, Thomas Hill Jamieson, met a fire that damaged some thousands of books on 9 March 1875.
By 1923 the library held around 725,000 pamphlets. 1684–1693 James Nasmith 1693–1702 James Stevenson 1702–1728 John Spottiswoode of that ilk 1703–1718 Adam Colt or Coult 1705–1719 William Forbes 1730–1752 Thomas Ruddiman 1735–1766 Walter Goodall 1752–1757 David Hume 1757–1758 Adam Ferguson 1758–1765 William Wallace 1766–1794 Alexander Brown 1794–1818 Alexander Manners 1820–1848 David Irving 1849–1871 Samuel Halkett 1871–1876 Thomas Hill Jamieson 1877–1906 James Toshach Clark 1906–1925 William Kirk Dickson 1925-1928 James Stevenson Leadbetter 1928-1948 Robert Candlish Henderson 1948-1949 Henry Wallace Guthrie 1949-1956 Thomas Pringle McDonald 1956-1970 Margaret Henderson Kidd 1970-1972 Alexander John Mackenzie Stuart 1972-1977 Charles Kemp Davidson 1977-1987 John Taylor Cameron 1987–1994 Brian Gill 1994-2002 Angus Stewart 2002-2004 Edgar Prais 2004-2008 Steven Woolman 2008- Mungo Bovey Edinburgh City Chambers Patrick Cadell and Ann Matheson, editors. For the Encouragement of Learning: Scotland's National Library 1689–1989.
Edinburgh: HMSO. John St Clair and Roger Craik; the Advocates' Library: 300 Years of a National Institution 1689-1989. Edinburgh HMSO. Official website
The Auchinleck Manuscript, NLS Adv. MS 19.2.1 forms part of the collection of the National Library of Scotland. It is an illuminated manuscript copied on parchment in the 14th century in London; the manuscript provides a glimpse of social change in England. The English were continuing to reclaim their language and national identity, to distance themselves from the Norman conquerors who had taken over the country after the Battle of Hastings 300 years before; the manuscript is named after Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck, a lawyer and supreme court judge in Edinburgh, Scotland. Lord Auchinleck lived from 1706 to 1782, was the father of James Boswell who wrote The Life of Samuel Johnson, it is not known how Lord Auchinleck came to possess the manuscript, but it is believed he acquired it in 1740 and gave the book to the Advocates Library in Edinburgh in 1744. It is a mystery who owned the book in the four hundred years from the time it was completed to when Lord Auchinleck first laid hands on it, but there are clues within.
On some of the pages are names that have been added in, which are presumed to be previous owners and their family members. One of the quires of the manuscript is a list of Norman aristocracy, now assumed to be a version of the Battle Abbey Roll, at the end of this list has been entered, in a different hand, the list of members from a family named Browne. Sprinkled throughout the text, others have entered their names individually for posterity, such as Christian Gunter and John Harreis; these names have never been researched against town records. Auchinleck is believed to have been produced in London around 1340, by professional scribes, who were laymen, not monks as was the case; the number of scribes involved in the production is a source of debate with scholars of Middle English. The controversy involves not only the number of scribes who wrote the text out, but if they, in fact, only copied the work from the exemplar, the original, or translated the works from French or Latin, inadvertently into their own Middle English dialects.
Through the use of palaeography, or the study of ancient handwriting, it has been determined that there had to be at least four five, different scribes. Some scholars have argued that there were six scribes, yet most agree that the majority of the manuscript is in the hand of one man, who it is believed translated most of the literature. With this knowledge, when one looks at the photographs of the manuscript found on the website of the National Library of Scotland, it is easy to see the discrepancies in the actual handwriting of the scribes; some is tight and regimented, attributed to Scribe 1, while some more loose, as if the scribe did not make the correct adjustments for space and ran out of room at the ends of the lines. While this makes for fun visual entertainment when looking at the folios, or pages, the historical importance is that it gives clues into how the book might have been produced in a time when the commerce of making books for private clients in a secular bookshop began to flourish.
The Auchinleck, in its present state, consists of forty-three pieces of literature. All of these works are in Middle English but the language used has been determined to be several differing dialects that would have been used in different parts of England; these dialects further serve to determine the origins of the scribes, such as London as opposed to south-west Midlands, as they would have written the language in the manner they spoke as well as the spelling they were taught, which furthers the question of translation. Since the language is consistent within each text, it is surmised the scribes worked independently on each whole story as opposed to the manner more used in monasteries in which the monks would copy text directly from the exemplars, only one page at a time, with a catchword inscribed at the bottom corner for collation. Although there are catchwords in the manuscript, each scribe would have been responsible for all of the pages of each of his assignments; this newer method of production suggests that one production manager was responsible for contracting the work, gave each scribe assignments that included whole stories, while overseeing the project, being the contact person to the client if the book was indeed bespoke, or special order.
Of significance is that the Auchinleck manuscript is the first known anthology of English literature the largest collection of English romances up until that time. The use of Latin or French had been exclusive in books, but English was beginning to be an acceptable language for pamphlets and literature, it was during this time that the English were beginning to shift away from French and to form a separate identity and politically, so it would follow that the use of "Inglisch", as it is referred to in the manuscript, in the written word would be a source of national unification. The Auchinleck manuscript was illuminated, although not as ornately as the religious books of the era, such as Books of Hours. Many of the miniatures in the manuscript have been lost to thieves or people peddling the images for profit; the four remaining miniatures and the historiated letters suggest it was beautifully, yet modestly, decorated at one time. It has been determined through comparing artistic styles that the illustration was done by a handful of artists who illuminated other manuscripts commercially produced in the London area.
This points to a group of illuminators, who it is believed collaborated on other works that have been preserved from the Middle Ages, who have been studied independently, whose work is now being seen in a new light as a collective community. The Auchinleck manuscript is not wel
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is an ancient university founded in 1495 when William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen and Chancellor of Scotland, petitioned Pope Alexander VI on behalf of James IV, King of Scots to establish King's College, making it Scotland's third-oldest university and the fifth-oldest in the English-speaking world. Today, Aberdeen is ranked among the top 200 universities in the world and is ranked within the top 30 universities in the United Kingdom. In the 2019 Times Higher Education University Impact Rankings, Aberdeen was ranked 31st in the world for impact on society. Aberdeen was named the 2019 Scottish University of the Year by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide; the university as it is comprised was formed in 1860 by a merger between King's College and Marischal College, a second university founded in 1593 as a Protestant alternative to the former. The university's iconic buildings act as symbols of wider Aberdeen Marischal College in the city centre and the crown steeple of King's College in Old Aberdeen.
There are two campuses. Although the original site of the university's foundation, most academic buildings apart from the King's College Chapel and Quadrangle were constructed in the 20th century during a period of significant expansion; the university's Foresterhill campus is next to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary and houses the School of Medicine and Dentistry as well as the School of Medical Sciences. Together these buildings comprise one of Europe's largest health campuses; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £219.5 million of which £56.1 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £226.8 million. Aberdeen has 13,500 students from undergraduate to doctoral level, including many international students. An abundant range of disciplines are taught at the university, with 650 undergraduate degree programmes offered in the 2012-13 academic year. Many important figures in the field of theology were educated at the university in its earlier history, giving rise to the Aberdeen doctors in the 17th century and prolific enlightenment philosopher Thomas Reid in the 18th.
Five Nobel laureates have since been associated with Aberdeen. The first university in Aberdeen, King's College, formally The University and King's College of Aberdeen, was founded in February 1495 by William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen, Chancellor of Scotland, a graduate of the University of Glasgow drafting a request on behalf of King James IV to Pope Alexander VI resulting in a Papal Bull being issued; the university, modelled on that of the University of Paris and intended principally as a law school, soon became the most famous and popular of the Scots seats of learning due to the prestige of Elphinstone and his friend, Hector Boece, the first principal. Despite this founding date, teaching did not start for another ten years, the University of Aberdeen celebrated 500 years of teaching and learning in 2005. Following the Scottish Reformation in 1560, King's College was purged of its Roman Catholic staff but in other respects was resistant to change. George Keith, the fifth Earl Marischal was a moderniser within the college and supportive of the reforming ideas of Peter Ramus.
In April 1593 he founded a second university in Marischal College. It is possible the founding of another college in nearby Fraserburgh by Sir Alexander Fraser, a business rival of Keith, was instrumental in its creation. Aberdeen was unusual at this time for having two universities in one city: as 20th-century University prospectuses observed, Aberdeen had the same number as existed in England at the time. Marischal College offered the Principal of King's College a role in selecting its academics, but this was refused - the first blow in a developing rivalry. Marischal College, in the commercial heart of the city, was quite different in outlook. For example, it was more integrated into the life of the city, such as allowing students to live outwith the College; the two rival colleges clashed, sometimes in court, but in brawls between students on the streets of Aberdeen. As the institutions put aside their differences, a process of attempted mergers began in the 17th century. During this time, both colleges made notable intellectual contributions to the Scottish Enlightenment.
Both colleges supported the Jacobite rebellion and following the defeat of the 1715 rising were purged by the authorities of their academics and officials. The nearest the two colleges had come to full union was as the "Caroline University of Aberdeen", a merger initiated by Charles I of Scotland in 1641. Following the civil conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a more complete unification was attempted following the ratification of Parliament by Oliver Cromwell during the interregnum in 1654; this united university survived until the Restoration whereby all laws made during this period were rescinded by Charles II and the two colleges reverted to independent status. Charles I is still recognised as one of the university's founders, due to his part in creating the Caroline University and his benevolence towards King's College. Further unsuccessful suggestions for union were brought about throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries; the two universities in Aberdeen merged on 15 September 1860 in accord
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
Sir Alexander Boswell, 1st Baronet
Sir Alexander Boswell, 1st Baronet was a Scottish poet and song writer. The son of Samuel Johnson's friend and biographer James Boswell of Auchinleck, he used the funds from his inheritance to pay for a seat in Parliament and successfully sought a baronetcy for his political support of the government; however his finances subsequently collapsed and after being revealed as the author of violent attacks on a rival, he died as a result of wounds received in a duel. Boswell was the eldest son of James Boswell of Auchinleck, by Margaret Montgomerie of Lainshaw, grandson of Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck, he was born in Auchinleck House. He attended Soho Academy in London in 1786 and Eton College from 1789 to 1792. Following his father's intention that he follow a legal career, he went to the University of Edinburgh in 1793. Shortly after his father's death he went to the University of Leipzig to study law, but soon dropped out of the course and visited Dresden and Berlin before returning to London in the summer of 1796.
Boswell was a tall and muscular man, thought by his sister to have exceeded his expectations. Having inherited land from his father, he took care of his inheritance and by 1801 the rents paid annually to him were more than his father had received. Boswell was keen on country sports. Having abandoned a legal career, Boswell developed his interest in old Scottish authors and became a poet and bibliophile, becoming friends with Walter Scott. In 1815 he established a private press at Auchinleck, he wrote some popular Scottish songs, of which Jenny's Bawbee and Jenny dang the Weaver are the best known. He was a Captain in the Ayr yeomanry from 1803, promoted to Major in 1815 and becoming the Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant in 1816. Boswell bought his entry to the House of Commons in 1816, paying Paul Treby who controlled one seat in the borough of Plympton Erle in Devon. In politics he was a staunch Tory voting with the Government of the day, his complaint was that Liverpool had not given help to him in his search for a seat in Parliament, despite having "conscientiously supported the administration with more persevering punctuality than any paid man in office", as he wrote to Lord Sidmouth.
When Sidmouth as Home Secretary brought in the "Six Acts" against sedition following the Peterloo Massacre, Boswell turned up to speak on the Seditious Meetings Bill despite wanting to be on the spot to suppress sedition in Ayrshire with his yeomanry. He spoke against reform of Scottish burgh government in 1819. In 1820 he was with the yeomanry and active in suppressing dissent, although he did not only use force in countering them. Boswell attended an Ayrshire meeting to vote a loyal address to King George IV over the Queen Caroline affair on 30 December 1820. Having sought a baronetcy from the Government for his support, Boswell became angered when Liverpool's refusal to grant one was given good publicity. In November 1820 he was on the point of resigning his seat when Sidmouth implied that Liverpool might have rethought his opposition. However, he was hit by a financial crisis in his once profitable land holdings: Boswell had made some bad decisions to buy land, his rental income suffered in a poor economy.
He had the expense of equipping his yeomanry. It cost him £1,000 per session to remain in Parliament, Boswell concluded that he could not afford it; that summer he received the baronetcy he had sought, in recognition of his loyalty. After leaving Parliament, Boswell wrote a series of virulent but anonymous attacks in two Scottish newspapers, the Beacon and the Sentinel, attacking a prominent Whig as a bully and a coward; when a legal fight broke out between the proprietors of the Sentinel, Stuart was able to get access to internal documents which indicated Boswell was the author. Stuart demanded that Boswell either deny apologise, they met on 26 March 1822 at Auchtertool, near Kirkcaldy in Fife. Boswell deliberately fired wide, but Stuart, who had never before handled a gun, shot Boswell in the collarbone. Boswell was taken to Balmuto House, part of the Boswell family estate, died the following day, he left assets of £10,000 and debts of £72,000. Stuart was unanimously found not guilty of murder at his trial.
More than 11,000 people attended the funeral procession was over a mile long. Chalmers, Duel Personalities: James Stuart versus Sir Alexander Boswell, Newbattle Publishing, 2014. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Alexander Boswell The trial of James Stuart contemporary account of the duel