The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
The Aiguille Verte, which is French for Green Needle, is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. It was first climbed on 29 June 1865 by Edward Whymper, Christian Almer and Franz Biner, Whymper was unable to climb with his usual guide, Michel Croz, who had to wait for a client in Chamonix. As a result, Whymper hired the services of Christian Almer, Whymper describes the push for the summit, At the top of the small gully we crossed over the intervening rocks into the large one. At last ice replaced snow, and we turned over to the rocks upon its left, charming rocks they were, granitic in texture, holding the nails well. At 9.45 we parted from them, and completed the ascent by a ridge of snow which descended in the direction of the Aiguille du Moine. At 10.15 we stood on the summit, and devoured our bread, the second ascent was by Charles Hudson, T. S. Kennedy and Michel Croz via the Moine ridge. The first ascent of the Arête Sans was accomplished by Nicolas Jaeger in 1972, there have been a number of incidents where climbers have been killed or gone missing during climbing Aiguille Verte.
The body of Patrice Hyvert, a French climber who went missing on March 1,1982, was found on July 9,2014
An avalanche is a rapid flow of snow down a sloping surface. Avalanches are typically triggered in a zone from a mechanical failure in the snowpack when the forces on the snow exceed its strength. After initiation, avalanches usually accelerate rapidly and grow in mass, if the avalanche moves fast enough some of the snow may mix with the air forming a powder snow avalanche, which is a type of gravity current. Slides of rocks or debris, behaving in a way to snow, are referred to as avalanches. The remainder of this article refers to snow avalanches, the load on the snowpack may be only due to gravity, in which case failure may result either from weakening in the snowpack or increased load due to precipitation. Avalanches that occur in this way are known as spontaneous avalanches, Avalanches can be triggered by other loads such as skiers, animals or explosives. Seismic activity may trigger the failure in the snowpack and avalanches. A popular myth is that avalanches can be triggered by loud noise or shouting, Avalanches are not rare or random events and are endemic to any mountain range that accumulates a standing snowpack.
Avalanches are most common during winter or spring but glacier movements may cause ice, there is no universally accepted classification of avalanches—different classifications are useful for different purposes. Avalanches can be described by their size, their potential, their initiation mechanism, their composition. Most avalanches occur spontaneously during storms under increased load due to snowfall, the second largest cause of natural avalanches is metamorphic changes in the snowpack such as melting due to solar radiation. Other natural causes include rain, earthquakes and icefall, artificial triggers of avalanches include skiers and controlled explosive work. Avalanche initiation can start at a point with only an amount of snow moving initially. A snowpack will fail when the load exceeds the strength, the load is straightforward, it is the weight of the snow. However, the strength of the snowpack is much more difficult to determine and is extremely heterogenous and it varies in detail with properties of the snow grains, density, temperature, water content, and the properties of the bonds between the grains.
These properties may all metamorphose in time according to the humidity, water vapour flux, temperature. The top of the snowpack is influenced by incoming radiation. One of the aims of research is to develop and validate computer models that can describe the evolution of the seasonal snowpack over time
The Lenzspitze is a 4, 294-metre mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. This route is used today. The east-north-east ridge starts at the Mischabel Hut and this ridge was first climbed on 3 August 1882 by William Woodman Goodman with guides Ambros Supersaxo and Theodor Andenmatten. This face was descended on skis by Heini Holzer on 22 July 1972, the High Mountains of the Alps
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
Clinton Thomas Dent
Clinton Thomas Dent FRCS was an English surgeon and mountaineer. The fourth surviving son of Thomas Dent, he was educated at Eton College, alongside Albert Mummery, Dent was one of the most prominent of the British climbers who attempted the few remaining unclimbed mountains in the Alps in the period known as the silver age of alpinism. As an alpinist, Dent was very different from Mummery, lacked the others fiery touch, dents expeditions had an almost austerely classic perfection. While Mummerys alpine career hardly met with any ill will from the mountains until the end, Dent had to wage a long and protracted war against his greatest conquest. He wrote of the Dru, Those who follow us, and I think there will be many, taken together, it affords the most continuously interesting rock climb with which I am acquainted. There is no wearisome tramp over moraine, no great extent of snow fields to traverse, sleeping out as we did, it would be possible to ascend and return to Chamonix in about 16 to 18 hrs.
But the mountain is never safe when snow is on the rocks, the best time for the expedition would be, in ordinary seasons, in the month of August. The rocks are sound and are peculiarly unlike those of other mountains, from the moment the glacier is left, hard climbing begins, and the hands as well as the feet are continuously employed. The difficulties are therefore enormously increased if the rocks be glazed or cold, would you revive in all their freshness the pleasures which the founders of our Club discovered thirty years ago. If the old feeling still is as strong as I think, as I know it to be, go there. If you prefer the grandeur, with some of the rough edges knocked off, if you choose rather to play at travelling and roughing it and you will have missed much, and your mountains education will have been imperfect. If you think your temper is perfectly equable – go there, you will be undeceived, if you wish to be far from the madding crowd, far from the noise and vulgarity of the buzzing, clustering swarms of tourists – go there.
Nature will, as it were, take you gently by the hand and seem to say, I am glad to welcome you, come, if you wish for this – go there. To the end of days you will remember it with pleasure. Dent may have been the first person to have written – in his book Above the Snow Line – that an ascent of Mount Everest was possible and he took part in the establishment of the Alpine distress signal in 1894. In Whos Who 1912, Dent gave his recreations as mountaineering and travel, or any form of exercise, art collecting. The University of Cambridge awarded him the degree of MCh. He had a special interest in dermatology, Dent died at the age of 61 after a mysterious attack of blood poisoning
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Charles Scribner's Sons
The firm published Scribners Magazine for many years. More recently, several Scribner titles and authors have garnered Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards, in 1978 the company merged with Atheneum and became The Scribner Book Companies. In turn it merged into Macmillan in 1984, Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan in 1994. By this point only the book and reference book operations still bore the original family name. The former imprint, now simply Scribner, was retained by Simon & Schuster, as of 2012, Scribner is a division of Simon & Schuster under the title Scribner Publishing Group which includes the Touchstone Books imprint. The president of Scribner as of 2017 is Susan Moldow, the firm was founded in 1846 by Charles Scribner I and Isaac D. Baker as Baker & Scribner. After Bakers death, Scribner bought the remainder of the company, in 1865, the company made its first venture into magazine publishing with Hours at Home. In 1870, the Scribners organized a new firm and Company, after the death of Charles Scribner I in 1871, his son John Blair Scribner took over as president of the company.
His other sons Charles Scribner II and Arthur Hawley Scribner would join the firm and they each served as presidents. When the other partners in the sold their stake to the family. The company launched St. Nicholas Magazine in 1873 with Mary Mapes Dodge as editor and Frank R. Stockton as assistant editor, when the Scribner family sold the magazine company to outside investors in 1881, Scribner’s Monthly was renamed the Century Magazine. The Scribners brothers were enjoined from publishing any magazine for a period of five years, in 1886, at the expiration of this term, they launched Scribners Magazine. The firms headquarters were in the Scribner Building, built in 1893, on lower Fifth Avenue at 21st Street, both buildings were designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux Arts style. The childrens book division was established in 1934 under the leadership of Alice Dalgliesh and it published works by distinguished authors and illustrators including N. C. Wyeth, Robert A. Heinlein, Marcia Brown, Will James, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, as of 2011 the publisher is owned by the CBS Corporation.
Simon & Schuster reorganized their adult imprints into four divisions in 2012, Scribner became the Scribner Publishing Group and would expand to include Touchstone Books which had previously been part of Free Press. The other divisions are Atria Publishing Group, Simon & Schuster Publishing Group, the new Scribner division would be led by Susan Moldow as president. Scott Fitzgerald Thomas Wolfe Simon & Schuster has published thousands of books from thousands of authors and this list represents some of the more notable authors from Scribner since becoming part of Simon & Schuster
Albert F. Mummery
Albert Frederick Mummery, was an English mountaineer and author. Although most notable for his many and varied first ascents put up in the Alps, mummerys father was a tanner and mayor of Dover. The tanning business was prosperous enough for Mummery to devote most of his energies to climbing and he became a friend of J. A. Mummery is best remembered for his pioneering efforts in mountaineering. He invented the Mummery tent, a type of tent used in the days of mountaineering. In 1894, he led his friend, the young Duke of the Abruzzi, Mummery occasionally climbed with his wife Mary, or with her friend Lily Bristow. In 1880, Mummery and Burgener were repelled while trying to make the first ascent of the much-coveted Dent du Géant and this provoked Mummery to exclaim prophetically, Absolutely inaccessible by fair means. In 1895, Collie and Mummery were the first climbers to attempt the Himalayan 8,000 metre peak, Nanga Parbat, the story of this disastrous expedition is told in J. Norman Collies book From the Himalaya to Skye.
My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus, peter H. Hansen, ‘Mummery, Albert Frederick ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,2004
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format