Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of St Michael and St George; the Order of St Michael and St George was awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, can be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs; the Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.
People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander, it is the traditional award for members of the FCO. The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi, its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael subduing Satan in battle; the Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse.
The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947. The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817, it was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean". In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
In 1965 the order was opened to women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967. The British Sovereign appoints all other members of the Order; the next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Grand Masters include: 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales 1910–1917: None 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of KentThe Order included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers; the Usher of the Order is known as the Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords. Prelate – The Rt. Rev. David Urquhart Chancellor – Rt Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary – Sir Simon McDonald Registrar – Sir David Manning King of Arms – Sir Jeremy Greenstock Lady Usher of the Blue Rod – Dame DeAnne Julius Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions, which vary by rank: The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star; the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold, it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately.
In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows. At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used: The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders, it is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and
Hedon is a small town and civil parish in Holderness in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated 5 miles east of Hull city centre, it lies to the north of the A1033 road at the crossroads of the B1362 roads. It is noted for the parish church of St. Augustine, known as the'King of Holderness', a Grade I listed building. According to the 2011 UK census, Hedon parish had a population of 7,100, an increase on the 2001 UK census figure of 6,322. Hedon is not mentioned in the Domesday Book which leads to the belief that it was a new town created by the Normans as a port. Hedon was at its most prosperous in the 12th and 13th centuries and at one time was the 11th largest port in England; the decline of the port came with the development of the port of Hull and the building of larger ships which were unable to get up the small river to Hedon. Hedon was given its first charter by Henry II in 1158 and was granted improved ones by King John in 1200 and Henry III in 1248 and 1272. Edward III granted the most important charter.
In 1415 Hedon was granted an important charter, which let the town have burgesses and other ministers and gave the town a mace. This mace is now the oldest surviving mace in the country; the town was a parliamentary borough until it was disenfranchised under the Reform Act 1832. It still enjoyed its borough status granted by its charters until 1974 when it was removed in a reorganisation of local government. To the west of the town was a racecourse. After popularity waned, it was developed into an aerodrome opened in 1929 by Prince George, Duke of Kent, it was the arrival point of Hull-born aviator Amy Johnson on her record-breaking solo flight to Australia in 1930, where she began a triumphant homecoming. After ten years of operation, the aerodrome closed during Second World War, 1939-1945. Afterward, the site was used as a motorcycle speedway track. Attempts were made in the late-1950s to reopen it for flying, which failed and the land has been used as grazing for cattle. A plaque commemorating the memory of the airfield was installed at the nearby Kingstown Hotel in July 2017.
The Hull and Holderness Railway opened in 1854 which ran from Victoria Dock in Hull to Withernsea, through Hedon. The station was built to the north of the town and it proved a vital part of Hedon's transport system for a century. In 1965 Hedon lost its passenger service when British Railways appointed Lord Beeching to stop losses, closed branch lines not making a profit; the line from Hull as far as Hedon remained open for goods until 1968. Hedon became the subject of national media attention in August 2000 when a freak mini-tornado in the Humber Estuary caused flash floods and hailstones to drop on parts of the town. Hedon was affected by the widespread floods that occurred in the UK in the summer of 2007. A nearby village, saw the most homes flooded in the East Riding of Yorkshire. There have been plans to create a country park around the Hedon Haven, south of the town; the English potter, Dorothy Marion Campbell was born here. Sir Alexander Campbell, PC, KCMG, QC was born here. Mezzo-soprano singer Amy Black is now buried in the cemetery.
Historic England. "Details from image database". Images of England. – St Augustine's Church
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Quebec. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which "confederation" means in contemporary political theory, it is often considered to be among the world's more decentralized federations. The use of the term Confederation arose in the Province of Canada to refer to proposals beginning in the 1850s to federate all of the British North American colonies, as opposed to only Canada West and Canada East. To contemporaries of Confederation the con- prefix indicated a strengthening of the centrist principle compared to the American federation. In this Canadian context, confederation here describes the political process that united the colonies in the 1860s, related events and the subsequent incorporation of other colonies and territories.
The term is now used to describe Canada in an abstract way, such as in "the Fathers of Confederation". Provinces and territories that became part of Canada after 1867 are said to have joined, or entered into, confederation; the term is used to divide Canadian history into pre-Confederation and post-Confederation periods. All the former colonies and territories that became involved in the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, were part of New France, were once ruled by France. Nova Scotia was granted in 1621 to Sir William Alexander under charter by James VI; this claim overlapped the French claims to Acadia, although the Scottish colony of Nova Scotia was short-lived, for political reasons, the conflicting imperial interests of France and the 18th century Great Britain led to a long and bitter struggle for control. The British acquired present-day mainland Nova Scotia by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 and the Acadian population was expelled by the British in 1755, they called Acadia Nova Scotia.
The rest of New France was acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. From 1763 to 1791, most of New France became the Province of Quebec. However, in 1769 the present-day Prince Edward Island, part of Acadia, was renamed "St John's Island" and organized as a separate colony, it was renamed "Prince Edward Island" in 1798 in honour of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. The first English attempt at settlement had been in Newfoundland, which would not join Confederation until 1949; the Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol began to settle Newfoundland and Labrador at Cuper's Cove as far back as 1610, Newfoundland had been the subject of a French colonial enterprise. In the wake of the American Revolution, an estimated 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America; the British created the separate colony of New Brunswick in 1784 for the Loyalists who settled in the western part of Nova Scotia. While Nova Scotia received more than half of this influx, many Loyalists settled in the Province of Quebec, which by the Constitutional Act of 1791 was separated into a predominantly English Upper Canada and a predominantly French Lower Canada.
The War of 1812 and Treaty of 1818 established the 49th parallel as the border with the United States from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains in Western Canada. Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and the new province should have a responsible government; as a result of Durham's report, the British Parliament passed the Act of Union 1840, the Province of Canada was formed in 1841. The new province was divided into two parts: Canada East. Governor General Lord Elgin granted ministerial responsibility in 1848, first to Nova Scotia and to Canada. In the following years, the British would extend responsible government to Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland; the area which constitutes modern-day British Columbia is the remnants of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia District and New Caledonia District following the Oregon Treaty. Before joining Canada in 1871, British Columbia consisted of the separate Colony of British Columbia, the Colony of Vancouver Island constituting a separate crown colony until it was united with the colony of British Columbia in 1866.
The remainder of modern-day Canada was made up of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and the Arctic Islands, which were under direct British control and became a part of Canada in 1880. The idea of unification was presented in 1839 by Lord Durham in his Report on the Affairs of British North America, which resulted in the Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Beginning in 1857, Joseph-Charles Taché proposed a federation in a series of 33 articles published in the Courrier du Canada. In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies; the proposal was received by the Lond
George Airey Kirkpatrick
Sir George Airey Kirkpatrick was a politician from Ontario, Canada. Born in 1841 in Kingston, the son of Thomas Kirkpatrick, George Kirkpatrick was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he was called to the bar in 1865 and served as a Conservative Member of Parliament in the House of Commons of Canada from 1870 to 1892 taking over the Frontenac seat held by his late father. He was a supporter of Sir John A. Macdonald's National Policy but was a friend of Liberal leader Edward Blake whom he supported on issues such as proportional representation. Kirkpatrick considered joining the Liberal Party over the Pacific Scandal but decided to remain with the Conservatives. In 1875, Kirkpatrick contested the Governor General's right to pardon Louis Riel without the consent of the Canadian Cabinet; as a result of his arguments, the Colonial Office issued new instructions that future Governors General not act without the advice of his ministers in such matters. Kirkpatrick argued in favour of protection of sailors from ship-owners who went bankrupt.
Following the 1882 election, Prime Minister Macdonald nominated Kirkpatrick as Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada. He was unenthusiastic about the position, but was considered to be the most impartial Canadian Speaker of the nineteenth century; the Conservative government was unimpressed with his lack of partisanship, he was not renominated for the position following the 1887 election. He returned to the backbenches where he remained until 1892 when he was appointed the seventh Lieutenant Governor of Ontario by Sir John Abbott. During his time in office, Kirkpatrick made a special effort to visit and support the rural areas of the province, he served until 1896, was knighted the same year. Sir Mackenzie Bowell offered Kirkpatrick a position in the Cabinet, but by this time, he had lost interest in politics, he died in Toronto in 1899. In 1865, Kirkpatrick married Frances Macauley, after her death, married Isabel Macpherson at Paris, September 26, 1883. Isabel Louise Macpherson, was the daughter of Hon.
Sir D. L. Macpherson, P. C. K. C. M. G. and his wife, Elizabeth Sarah, daughter of William Molson, Esquire, of Montreal. She was born in Toronto, educated in England. While first lady of Ontario, she secured funds for the presentation of a wedding gift to the present Prince and Princess of Wales and assisted in securing the establishment in Canada of a branch of the St. John Ambulance Association. In 1898 she was selected to present colours to the Navy Veterans, his son was General Sir George Macaulay Kirkpatrick Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India. Upper Canada College has a chair. Works by or about George Airey Kirkpatrick at Internet Archive Morley, Leslie H.. "Kirkpatrick, Sir George Airey". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XII. University of Toronto Press. George Airey Kirkpatrick – Parliament of Canada biography
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
John Beverley Robinson
John Beverley Robinson was a Canadian politician and businessman. He was a provincial and federal member of parliament, he was the fifth Lieutenant Governor of Ontario between the years 1880–1887. He was born in York, Upper Canada in 1821, the son of Sir John Robinson, an important political figure in Upper Canada, he attended Upper Canada College, where he was a leading cricketer representing Canada in the inaugural international cricket match, against United States in 1844. During the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, Robinson served as aide-de-camp to Sir Francis Bond Head, he studied law and was called to the bar in 1844. He became an alderman in Toronto at St. Patrick's Ward during the 1850s, including a term as mayor in 1856, he was involved in the incorporation of a number of companies in the Toronto area including the Toronto and Georgian Bay Canal Company in 1856. He was elected to the 6th Parliament of the Province of Canada representing Toronto in 1858, he helped promote the Northern Railway and served as president from 1862 to 1875.
He represented Algoma in the House of Commons of Canada in 1872 and represented West Toronto in 1878. He was a member of the Orange Order in Canada, he lived at The Grange, a house in Springfield, Toronto Township. Now Erindale, a community in Mississauga, it is home to Heritage Mississauga, he suffered a stroke while preparing to give a speech at Massey Hall in Toronto and died in 1896. Hon. John Beverley Robinson married Mary Jane Hagerman, daughter of Judge Christopher Alexander Hagerman and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of James Macaulay, their daughter Minnie Caroline Robinson was educated in Toronto. She married, 1881, William Forsyth-Grant, Esquire Captain of H. M.'s 82nd Regiment, son of William Forsyth, Esquire, of Ecclesgreig Castle, County Kincardine, Scotland, J. P. and D. L. who, in 1842, assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Grant. Her husband was grandson of John Forsyth of Montreal, she contributed to periodicals and newspapers and authored a travel book "Scenes in Hawaii, or Life in the Sandwich Islands."
She served as President of the Woman's Historical Society of Toronto, was elected President of the Ladies' Relief Society of Toronto, Ontario. The couple`s youngest daughter Augusta Louisa, sang in London at public concerts, in company with other artists, was on tour in the Provinces. During John Beverley Robinson's term as Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, 1880–87, his wife Mary Jane Robinson and daughter Augusta Louise dispensed the hospitalities of Government House, she sang at Government House and subsequently took vocal instruction in London, from Randegger, in Paris, from Laborde. In London she lived with Maude Valerie White. Augusta Louisa returned to Canada in 1895, sang on tour with Emma Albani, Pol Plançon, Harry Plunket Greene, Allan James Foley, she October 8, 1898, Stewart Fielde Houston, Barrister. Adams, P. A history of Canadian cricket, lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4466-9652-1. Saunders, Robert E.. "Robinson, Sir John Beverley". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. IX. University of Toronto Press.
John Beverley Robinson – Parliament of Canada biography Robinson, C. W. 1836-1924. Life of Sir John Beverley Robinson, Bart. Chief-Justice of Upper Canada. With a pref. by George R. Parkin. 1904, from Internet Archive. The Honourable John Beverley Robinson at The Lieutenant Governor of Ontario John Beverley Robinson family fonds, Archives of Ontario
Parliament of Canada
The Parliament of Canada is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital. The body consists of the Canadian monarch, represented by the Governor General; each element has its own officers and organization. By constitutional convention, the House of Commons is dominant, with the Senate and monarch opposing its will; the Senate reviews legislation from a less partisan standpoint and the monarch or viceroy provides royal assent to make bills into law. The Governor General summons and appoints the 105 senators on the advice of the Prime Minister, while the 338 members of the House of Commons—called members of parliament —each represent an electoral district referred to as a riding, are directly elected by Canadian voters; the Governor General summons Parliament, while either the viceroy or monarch can prorogue or dissolve Parliament, the latter in order to call a general election. Either will read the Throne Speech; the most recent Parliament, summoned by Governor General David Johnston in 2015, is the 42nd since Confederation.
The Parliament of Canada is composed of three parts: the monarch, the Senate, the House of Commons. Each work in conjunction within the legislative process; this format was inherited from the United Kingdom and is a near-identical copy of the parliament at Westminster, the greatest differences stemming from situations unique to Canada, such as the impermanent nature of the monarch's residency in the country and the lack of a peerage to form the upper chamber. Only those who sit in the House of Commons are called members of parliament. Though legislatively less powerful, senators take higher positions in the national order of precedence. No individual may serve in more than one chamber at the same time; the sovereign's place in the legislature, formally called the Queen-in-Parliament, is defined by the Constitution Act, 1867, various conventions. Neither she nor her viceroy, participates in the legislative process, save for signifying the Queen's approval to a bill passed by both houses of parliament, known as the granting of Royal Assent, necessary for a bill to be enacted as law.
All federal bills thus begin with the phrase "Now, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows..." and, as such, the Crown is immune from acts of parliament unless expressed otherwise in the act itself. The governor general will perform the task of granting Royal Assent, though the monarch may do so, at the request of either the Cabinet or the viceroy, who may defer assent to the sovereign as per the constitution; as both the monarch and his or her representatives are traditionally barred from the House of Commons, any parliamentary ceremonies in which they are involved take place in the Senate chamber. The upper and lower houses do, each contain a mace, which indicates the authority of the Queen-in-Parliament and the privilege granted to that body by her, both bearing a crown at their apex; the original mace for the Senate was that used in the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada after 1849, while that of the House of Commons was inherited from the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, first used in 1845.
Following the burning of the Centre Block on 3 February 1916, the City of London, donated a replacement, still used today. The temporary mace, made of wood, used until the new one arrived from the United Kingdom in 1917, is still carried into the Senate each 3 February; the Senate's 1.6-metre-long mace comprises gold. The Senate may not sit. Members of the two houses of parliament must express their loyalty to the sovereign and defer to her authority, as the Oath of Allegiance must be sworn by all new parliamentarians before they may take their seats. Further, the official opposition is formally called Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, to signify that, though they may be opposed to the incumbent Cabinet's policies, they remain dedicated to the apolitical Crown; the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, the Senate, is a group of 105 individuals appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister. Senators served for life until 1965, when a constitutional amendment imposed a mandatory retirement age of 75.
Senators may, resign their seats prior to that mark, can lose their position should they fail to attend two consecutive sessions of parliament. The Senate is divided amongst four geographic regions: 24 for Ontario, 24 for Quebec, 24 for the Maritimes, 24 for the Western provinces. Newfoundland and Labrador, which became a Canadian province in 1949, is represented by six senators, is not part of a senatorial division. Further, Canada's three territories—the Northwest Territories and Nunavut—are allocated one senator each. An additio