Corning Incorporated is an American multinational technology company that specializes in specialty glass and related materials and technologies including advanced optics for industrial and scientific applications. The company was named Corning Glass Works until 1989. Corning divested its consumer product lines in 1998 by selling the Corning Consumer Products Company subsidiary to Borden, but still holds an interest of about 8 percent; as of 2014, Corning had five major business sectors: display technologies, environmental technologies, life sciences, optical communications, specialty materials. Corning is involved in two joint ventures: Pittsburgh Corning. Quest Diagnostics and Covance were spun off from Corning in 1996. Corning is one of the main suppliers to Apple Inc. since working with Steve Jobs in 2007 to develop the iPhone. It is one of the world’s biggest glassmakers. Corning won the National Medal of Technology and Innovation four times for its product and process innovations. Corning Glass Works was founded in 1851 by Amory Houghton, in Somerville, Massachusetts as the Bay State Glass Co.
It moved to Williamsburg, New York, operated as the Brooklyn Flint Glass Works. The company moved again to its ultimate home and namesake, the city of Corning, New York, in 1868 under leadership of the founder's son, Amory Houghton, Jr. Over 147 years Corning continues to maintain its world headquarters at Corning, N. Y; the firm established one of the first industrial research labs there in 1908. It continues to expand the nearby research and development facility, as well as operations associated with catalytic converters and diesel engine filter product lines. Corning has a long history of community development and has assured community leaders that it intends to remain headquartered in its small upstate New York hometown; the California Institute of Technology's 200-inch telescope mirror at Palomar Observatory was cast by Corning during 1934–1936 out of low expansion borosilicate glass. In 1932, George Ellery Hale approached Corning with the challenge of fabricating the required optic for his Palomar project.
A previous effort to fabricate the optic from fused quartz had failed. Corning's first attempt was the cast blank having voids. Using lessons learned, Corning was successful in the casting of the second blank. After a year of cooling, during which it was lost to a flood, in 1935 the blank was completed; the first blank now resides in Corning's Museum of Glass. In 1935, Corning formed a partnership with bottle maker Owens-Illinois, which formed the company known today as Owens Corning. Owens Corning was spun off as a separate company in 1938; the company had a history of science-based innovations following World War II and the strategy by management was research and "disruptive" and "on demand" product innovation. In 1962 Corning developed Chemcor, a new toughened automobile windshield designed to be thinner and lighter than existing windshields, which reduced danger of personal injury by shattering into small granules when smashed; this toughened glass had a chemically hardened outer layer, its manufacture incorporated an ion exchange and a "fusion process" in special furnaces that Corning built in its Blacksburg, Virginia facility.
Corning developed it as an alternative to laminated windshields with the intention of becoming an automotive industry supplier. After being installed as side glass in a limited run of 1968 Plymouth Barracudas and Dodge Darts, Chemcor windshields debuted on the 1970 model year Javelins and AMXs built by American Motors Corporation; as there were no mandatory safety standards for motor vehicle windshields, the larger automakers had no financial incentive to change from the cheaper existing products. Corning terminated its windshield project in 1971, after it turned out to be one of the company's "biggest and most expensive failures." However, like many Corning innovations, the unique process to manufacture this automotive glass was resurrected and is today the basis of their profitable LCD glass business. In the fall of 1970, the company announced that researchers Robert D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter C. Schultz, Frank Zimar had demonstrated an optical fiber with a low optical attenuation of 17 dB per kilometer by doping silica glass with titanium.
A few years they produced a fiber with only 4 dB/km, using germanium oxide as the core dopant. Such low attenuations made fiber optics practical for networking. Corning became the world's leading manufacturer of optical fiber. In 1977, considerable attention was given to Corning's Z Glass project. Z Glass was a product used in television picture tubes. Due to a number of factors, the exact nature of which are subject to dispute, this project was considered a steep loss in profit and productivity; the following year the project made a partial recovery. This incident has been cited as a case study by the Harvard School of Business. Company profits soared in the late 1990s during the dot-com boom, Corning expanded its fiber operations with several new plants; the company entered the photonics market, investing with the intent of becoming the leading provider of complete fiber-optic systems. Failure to succeed in photonics and the collapse in 2000 of the dot-com market had a major impact on the company, Corning stock plummeted to $1 per share.
However, as of 2007 the company had posted five straight years of improving financial performance. The turning point for Corning came whe
Elmira, New York
Elmira is a city in Chemung County, New York, United States. It is the principal city of the Elmira, New York, metropolitan statistical area, which encompasses Chemung County, New York; the population was 29,200 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Chemung County; the City of Elmira is in the south-central part of the county, surrounded on three sides by the Town of Elmira. It is in the Southern Tier of a short distance north of the Pennsylvania state line; this was long an area inhabited by indigenous people. In historic times, it was occupied by the Cayuga nation of the Iroquois Confederacy called the Kanawaholla, they had some relations with Europeans and English over fur trading, but were isolated from the encroaching settlements. During the American Revolutionary War, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 was mounted against the four Iroquois nations who had allied with the British and Loyalist forces, it fought a combined British-Iroquois force at the Battle of Newtown, south of the current city, in which Sullivan and his forces were victorious.
After the conclusion of the war, the Iroquois and the new United States made a treaty at Elmira in 1791 to settle territorial disputes in the region. Most of the Seneca emigrated under pressure with the other Iroquois to Canada, where they resettled on land provided by the British Crown; the first European-American settler in Elmira was captain Abraham Miller of the Continental Army. He built a cabin after resigning just before the Revolutionary War. Miller's Pond and Miller Street are near the location of his house; the New York legislature established the Township of Chemung, now Chemung County, in 1788. The settlement of Newtown was soon established at the intersection of Newtown Creek and the Chemung River. In 1792, the settlement at Newtown joined with the Wisnerburg and DeWittsburg settlements to form the village of Newtown. In 1808, the village changed its name to the Town of Elmira, at a town meeting held at Teal's Tavern, it is said the town was named after tavern owner Nathan Teal's young daughter, but that story has never been confirmed.
In any case, the City of Elmira called "The Queen City", was incorporated in 1864 from part of the town of Elmira and the village of Elmira. The remaining part of the town of Elmira exists still, surrounding the city on the west and east; the city and town share an intricately entwined history. According to Amos B. Carpenter's Family History book printed in 1898, Elmira is named after Major General Matthew Carpenter's daughter; this occurred according to the book in 1821 at the constitutional convention to which Matthew was a delegate. Elmira served as a transportation hub for New York's Southern Tier in the 1800s, connecting commercial centers in Rochester and Buffalo with Albany and New York City, via the canal system and railroads; the city was the southern terminus of the Chemung Canal. In 1849, the New York and Erie Railroad was built through Elmira, giving the area a New York City to Buffalo route. In 1850, the Elmira and Jefferson Railroad gave the area a route north and the Elmira and Williamsport Railroad a route south in 1854.
This made the city a prime location for an Army muster point early in the Civil War. In 1872 the Utica and Elmira Railroad was begun creating a route to Cortland and Syracuse via Horseheads and VanEtten; the Delaware and Western Railroad was completed in 1884, which competed with the Erie's New York City to Buffalo line. A great deal of the 30-acre Union installation, known as Camp Rathbun, fell into disuse as the Civil War progressed, the camp's "Barracks #3" were converted into a Civil War prisoner of war camp in the summer of 1864; the camp, in use from June 6, 1864 until autumn 1865, was dubbed "Hellmira" by its inmates. Towner's history of 1892 and maps from the period indicate the camp occupied a somewhat irregular parallelogram, running about 1,000 feet west and the same distance south of a location several hundred feet west of Hoffman Street and Winsor Avenue, bordered on the south by Foster's Pond, on the north bank of the Chemung River. In the months the site was used as a camp, 12,123 Confederate soldiers were incarcerated.
The camp's dead were prepared for burial and laid to rest by the sexton at Woodlawn National Cemetery, ex-slave John W. Jones. At the end of the war, each prisoner was given a train ticket back home; the camp was closed and converted to farmland. Woodlawn Cemetery, about 2 miles north of the original prison camp site, was designated a "National Cemetery" in 1877; the prison camp site is today a residential area. In 1950, the Elmira's population peaked at about 50,000, which represented 57 percent of Chemung County’s total population at the time. Today, the city has 30,000 residents, which represents 34 percent of Chemung County’s population; this population decline is due to the national decline in railroads and manufacturing as well as a population shift to the outer suburbs around Elmira. The Elmira Metro area has nearly 100,000 people; the population decline began during the recession of the early 1970s during which several large employers
Republican National Convention
The Republican National Convention is a series of presidential nominating conventions of the United States Republican Party since 1856. Administered by the Republican National Committee, the stated purpose of the convocation is to nominate an official candidate in an upcoming U. S. presidential election, to adopt the party platform and rules for the election cycle. Like the Democratic National Convention, it signifies the end of a presidential primary season and the start of campaigning for a general election. In recent years, the nominee has been known well before the convention; some 2,472 delegates have attended the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland, July 18–21 to select the presidential nominee. The winner must carry 1,237—half of the total, plus one. If no single candidate has secured a majority of delegates after the first ballot, a brokered convention results, it has not happened since the 1976 Republican National Convention. The convention was the final determinant of the nomination, contentious as various factions of party insiders maneuvered to advance their candidates.
Since the universal adoption of the primary election for selecting delegates in the last quarter of the 20th century, the convention's significance has diminished. The national party focuses on the convention as a unity point to bring together a party platform and state parties by having delegates vote on issues, which the nominee can incorporate into his presidential campaign. In case of a brokered convention, Rule 40 of the 2016 convention rules states that a candidate must have the support of a majority of the delegates of at least eight delegations in order to get the nomination. On the first ballot, delegates from all states and territories except Colorado, North Dakota, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam and a few from Louisiana must vote for the candidate who won their support on the day of their state's primary or caucus. On the second ballot, 55 percent of the delegates are free to vote for whomever. By the third ballot, 85 percent of the delegates are free; the size of delegations to the Republican National Convention, for each state, territory, or other political subdivision, are determined by Rule 14 of the party's national rules.
The rules use a mix of at-large delegates, delegates based on population, delegates awarded based on the state party's success in electing or supporting Republican candidates at the national and state levels. As of 2012 the size of each state's delegation is calculated as follows: At-large delegates The national committeeman, the national committeewoman and the chairperson of the state Republican Party of each state, American Samoa, the District of Columbia, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, are automatically nominated as delegates to the national convention. In addition, each of the fifty states are allowed ten additional at-large delegates. Congressional delegation delegates Each state is allowed three district delegates for each member of the United States House of Representatives. In lieu of Congressional delegation delegates, non-state political subdivisions are allowed specified numbers of delegates: 16 from D. C. 20 from Puerto Rico, six each from American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.
S. Virgin Islands. Presidential support delegates A state can earn additional delegates if the state voted in the plurality for the GOP candidate. If the state casts at least a majority of its Electoral College votes for the Republican nominee in the preceding presidential election, the state can earn four and one-half delegates at large plus a number of the delegates at large equal to 60 percent of the number of electoral votes of that state. Should Puerto Rico become a state between national conventions, it would earn additional delegates under this provision regardless of whether its voters supported the GOP or Democratic candidate. Should the District of Columbia cast its electoral votes, or a majority thereof, for the Republican nominee for President of the United States in the last preceding presidential election, it shall be permitted four and one half delegates at large plus the number of delegates at large equal to thirty percent of the 16 delegates at large allotted to the District of Columbia, rounding any fraction upward.
Republican state success delegates Each state can earn additional delegates based on how well the state party does in electing candidates to state and national elections. The accomplishments are determined in the year of the last preceding presidential election or at any subsequent election held prior to January 1 of the year in which the next national convention is held; as such, a state is not penalized if it had a Republican Governor voted a Democratic governor into office, but if the state had a Democratic governor voted in a Republican governor it is rewarded for taking the seat. A Republican Governor of a State.
Williams College is a private liberal arts college in Williamstown, United States. It was established in 1793 with funds from the estate of Ephraim Williams, a colonist from the Province of Massachusetts Bay, killed in the French and Indian War in 1755; the college was ranked first in 2017 in the U. S. News & World Report's liberal arts ranking for the 15th consecutive year, first among liberal arts colleges in the 2018 Forbes magazine ranking of America's Top Colleges. Williams is on a 450-acre campus in Williamstown, in the Berkshires in rural northwestern Massachusetts; the campus contains more than 100 academic and residential buildings. There are 349 voting faculty members, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 7:1; as of 2017, the school has an enrollment of 57 graduate students. The college competes in the NCAA Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference, competes in the conference as the Ephs. Following a liberal arts curriculum, Williams College provides undergraduate instruction in 25 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 36 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences.
Williams offers an entirely undergraduate instruction, as there are two graduate programs in development economics and art history. The College maintains affiliations with the nearby Clark Art Institute and Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, has a close relationship with Exeter College, Oxford University. Undergraduate admission is selective, with an acceptance rate of 12.1% for the Class of 2022. The college has produced many prominent alumni, including 8 Pulitzer Prize winners, a Nobel Prize Laureate, a Fields medalist, 3 chairmen of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 10 billionaire alumni, 71 members of the United States Congress, 22 U. S. Governors, 4 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a President of the United States, 3 prime ministers, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, foreign central bankers, scholars in academia and media figures, numerous Emmy and Grammy award winners, professional athletes. Other notable alumni include 39 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholarship winners, numerous Watson Fellows and Fulbright scholarship recipients.
Colonel Ephraim Williams was an officer in the Massachusetts militia and a member of a prominent landowning family. His will included a bequest to support and maintain a free school to be established in the town of West Hoosac, provided the town change its name to Williamstown. Williams was killed at the Battle of Lake George on September 8, 1755. After Shays' Rebellion, the Williamstown Free School opened with 15 students on October 26, 1791; the first president was Ebenezer Fitch. Not long after its founding, the school's trustees petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to convert the free school to a tuition-based college; the legislature agreed and on June 22, 1793, Williams College was chartered. It was the second college to be founded in Massachusetts. At its founding, the college maintained a policy of racial segregation, refusing admission to black applicants; this policy was challenged by Lucy Terry Prince, credited as the first black American poet, when her son Festus was refused admission on account of his race.
Prince, who had established a reputation as a raconteur and rhetorician, delivered a three-hour speech before the college's board of trustees, quoting abundantly from scripture, but was unable to secure her son's admission. More recent scholarship, has highlighted there are no records within the college to confirm this event occurred, Festus Prince may have been refused entry for an insufficient mastery of Latin and French, all of which were necessary for successful completion of the entrance exam at the time, which would most not have been available in the local schools of Guilford, where Festus was raised. In 1806, a student prayer meeting gave rise to the American Foreign Mission Movement. In August of that year, five students met in the maple grove of Sloan's Meadow to pray. A thunderstorm drove them to the shelter of a haystack, the fervor of the ensuing meeting inspired them to take the Gospel abroad; the students went on to build the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the first American organization to send missionaries overseas.
The Haystack Monument near Mission Park on the Williams Campus commemorates the historic "Haystack Prayer Meeting". By 1815, Williams had only two buildings and 58 students and was in financial trouble, so the board voted to move the college to Amherst, Massachusetts. In 1821, the president of the college, Zephaniah Swift Moore, who had accepted his position believing the college would move east, decided to proceed with the move, he took 15 students with him, re-founded the college under the name of Amherst College. Some students and professors decided to stay at Williams and were allowed to keep the land, at the time worthless. According to legend, Moore took portions of the Williams College library. Although plausible, the transfer of books is unsubstantiated. Moore died just two years after founding Amherst, was succeeded by Heman Humphrey, a trustee of Williams College. Edward Dorr Griffin was appointed President of Williams and is credited with saving Williams during his 15-year tenure. A Williams student, Gardner Cotrell Leonard, designed the gowns he and his classmates wore to graduation in 1887.
Seven years he advised the Inter-Collegiate Commission on Academic Costume, which met at Columbia University, established the current system of U. S. academic dress. One reason gowns were adopted in the late nineteent
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro