British Science Association
The British Science Association is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science. Until 2009 it was known as the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association was founded in 1831 and modelled on the German Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte. The prime mover was Reverend William Vernon Harcourt, following a suggestion by Sir David Brewster, Charles Babbage, William Whewell and J. F. W. Johnston are considered to be founding members. The first meeting was held in York on Tuesday 27 September 1831 with various scientific papers being presented on the following days and it was chaired by Viscount Milton, President of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and upwards of 300 gentlemen attended the meeting. The newspaper published the names of over a hundred of those attending, from that date onwards a meeting was held annually at a place chosen at a previous meeting. In 1832, for example, the meeting was held in Oxford, by this stage the Association had four sections, Chemistry and Natural History.
A very important decision in the Association’s history was made in 1842 when it was resolved to create a “physical observatory”, a building that became well known as the Kew Observatory was taken on for the purpose and Francis Ronalds was chosen as the inaugural Honorary Director. Kew Observatory quickly became one of the most renowned meteorological and geomagnetic observatories in the world, one of the most famous events linked to the Association Meeting was an exchange between Thomas Henry Huxley and Bishop Samuel Wilberforce in 1860. Although a number of newspapers made passing references to the exchange, a need for standards arose with the submarine telegraph industry. The undertaking was suggested to the BA by William Thomson, josiah Latimer Clark and Fleeming Jenkin made preparations. Thomson, with his students, found that copper, contaminated with arsenic. The chemist Augustus Matthiessen contributed an appendix to the final 1873 report that showed temperature-dependence of alloys, the Association introduced the British Association screw threads, a series of screw thread standards in sizes from 0. 25mm up to 6mm, in 1884.
The standards were ahead of their time in that they were based on the metric system and they remained in general use for instruments and small assemblies until metrication in the 1970s. A decision that became notorious in the century was made in 1878 when a committee of the Association recommended against constructing Charles Babbages analytical engine. The Association was parodied by English novelist Charles Dickens as The Mudfog Society for the Advancement of Everything in The Mudfog Papers, the Associations main aim is to improve the perception of science and scientists in the UK. Prof Sir George Porter, on becoming President in September 1985, was scathing against so-called soft sciences such as psychology and he claimed this was damaging the public perception of science. We run the risk of doing neither well, universities are underfunded, and must not be seen simply as a substitute for National Service to keep youngsters off the dole queue. He said scientists have to be careful and consider the implications of what they are seeking to achieve
Aaron Arrowsmith was an English cartographer and publisher and founding member of the Arrowsmith family of geographers. He moved to Soho Square, London from Winston, County Durham when about twenty years of age, and was employed by John Cary and he became Hydrographer to the Prince of Wales c. 1810 and subsequently to the King in 1820. In January 1790 he made famous by his large chart of the world on Mercator projection. Four years he published large map of the world on the globular projection. The maps of North America and Scotland are the most celebrated of his productions. He left two sons and Samuel, the elder of whom was the compiler of the Eton Comparative Atlas, of a Biblical atlas, Aaron Arrowsmith the elder was responsible for organising the volume of maps for Reess Cyclopædia, 1802–19. The business was carried on in company with John Arrowsmith. In 1821, they published a more complete North American map from a combination of a maps obtained from the Hudsons Bay Company, mount Arrowsmith, situated east of Port Alberni on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, is named for Aaron Arrowsmith and his nephew John Arrowsmith.
1810 Map of Countries Round the North Pole,1818 Ogden map,1821 Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Integrated Land Management Bureau, Government of British Columbia, Aaron Arrowsmiths Map of North America and the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Richard Francis Burton
Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS was an English explorer, translator, soldier, cartographer, spy, poet and diplomat. He was famed for his travels and explorations in Asia, according to one count, he spoke 29 European and African languages. Burton defied many aspects of the pervasive British ethnocentrism of his day and his works and letters extensively criticized colonial policies of the British Empire, even to the detriment of his career. A characteristic feature of his books is the copious footnotes and appendices containing remarkable observations, Burton was a captain in the army of the East India Company, serving in India. Following this, he was engaged by the Royal Geographical Society to explore the east coast of Africa, in life, he served as British consul in Fernando Pó, Damascus and, Trieste. He was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and was awarded a knighthood in 1886. Burton was born in Torquay, Devon, at 21,30 on 19 March 1821, in his autobiography and he was baptized on 2 September 1821 at Elstree Church in Borehamwood, Hertfordshire.
His father, Lt. -Colonel Henry Peard Driscoll and Mrs Richard Graves, richards mother, Martha Baker, was the daughter and co-heiress of a wealthy English squire, Richard Baker, of Barham House, for whom he was named. Burton had two siblings, Maria Katherine Elizabeth Burton and Edward Joseph Netterville Burton, born in 1823 and 1824, Burtons family travelled considerably during his childhood. In 1825, they moved to Tours, Burtons early education was provided by various tutors employed by his parents. He first began an education in 1829 at a preparatory school on Richmond Green in Richmond, Surrey. Over the next few years, his family travelled between England and Italy, Burton showed an early gift for languages and quickly learned French, Italian and Latin, as well as several dialects. During his youth, he was rumored to have carried on an affair with a young Roma woman, even learning the rudiments of her language, the peregrinations of his youth may have encouraged Burton to regard himself as an outsider for much of his life.
As he put it, Do what thy manhood bids thee do, from none, Burton matriculated at Trinity College, Oxford, on 19 November 1840. Before getting a room at the college, he lived for a time in the house of Dr. William Alexander Greenhill. Here, he met John Henry Newman, whose churchwarden was Dr. Greenhill, despite his intelligence and ability, Burton was antagonised by his teachers and peers. During his first term, he is said to have challenged another student to a duel after the latter mocked Burtons moustache, Burton continued to gratify his love of languages by studying Arabic, he spent his time learning falconry and fencing. In April 1842, he attended a steeplechase in deliberate violation of college rules and subsequently dared to tell the college authorities that students should be allowed to attend such events
Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy RN was an English officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist. He achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwins famous voyage, FitzRoys second expedition to Tierra del Fuego, FitzRoy was a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate daily weather predictions, which he called by a new name of his own invention, forecasts. In 1854 he established what would be called the Met Office and he was an able surveyor and hydrographer. As Governor of New Zealand, serving from 1843 to 1845, Robert FitzRoy was born at Ampton Hall, Suffolk, into the upper echelons of the British aristocracy and a tradition of public service. Through his father, General Lord Charles FitzRoy, Robert was a fourth great-grandson of Charles II of England, his grandfather was Augustus Henry FitzRoy. His mother, Lady Frances Stewart, was the daughter of the first Marquess of Londonderry and the half-sister of Viscount Castlereagh, from the age of four, Robert FitzRoy lived with his family at Wakefield Lodge, their Palladian mansion in Northamptonshire.
Roberts half-brother Sir Charles FitzRoy served as Governor of New South Wales, Governor of Prince Edward Island, in February 1818 at the age of 12, FitzRoy entered the Royal Naval College, and in the following year he entered the Royal Navy. At the age of 14, he embarked as a voluntary student aboard the frigate HMS Owen Glendower, which sailed to South America in the middle of 1820 and he was promoted to midshipman while on the vessel. FitzRoy served on HMS Hind as a midshipman and he completed his course with distinction and was promoted lieutenant on 7 September 1824, having passed the examination with full numbers, the first to achieve this result. After serving on HMS Thetis, in 1828 he was appointed lieutenant to Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Waller Otway, commander-in-chief of the South American station. At that time Beagle, under Captain Pringle Stokes, was carrying out a survey of Tierra del Fuego. Pringle Stokes became severely depressed and fatally shot himself, under Lieutenant Skyring, the ship sailed to Rio de Janeiro, where Otway appointed FitzRoy as captain of the Beagle on 15 December 1828.
By the ships return to England on 14 October 1830, FitzRoy had established his reputation as a surveyor, during the survey, some of his men were camping onshore when a group of Fuegian natives made off with their boat. His ship gave chase and, after a scuffle, the families were brought on board as hostages. Eventually FitzRoy held two boys, a girl and two men As it was not possible to put them ashore conveniently, he decided to civilise the savages, and the use of common tools before returning them as missionaries. The sailors gave them names, the girl was called Fuegia Basket, the boy Jemmy Button, the second boy was called Boat Memory. FitzRoy brought the four back with the ship to England, Boat Memory died following a smallpox vaccination. In early May 1831 FitzRoy stood as Tory candidate for Ipswich in the General Election and his hopes of obtaining a new posting and organising a missionary project to Tierra del Fuego appeared to be failing
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself, the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast, the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, ends in a large delta, Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, in the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥpī or Iteru, meaning river.
In Coptic, the words piaro or phiaro meaning the river come from the ancient name. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος, beyond that, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning river, the standard English names White Nile and Blue Nile, to refer to the rivers source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. Above Khartoum, the Nile is known as the White Nile, at Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia, both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers, the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border.
Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the water of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda and it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta
British Arctic Expedition
The British Arctic Expedition of 1875-1876, led by Sir George Strong Nares, was sent by the British Admiralty to attempt to reach the North Pole via Smith Sound. Two ships, HMS Alert and HMS Discovery, sailed from Portsmouth on 29 May 1875, although the expedition failed to reach the North Pole, the coasts of Greenland and Ellesmere Island were extensively explored and large amounts of scientific data were collected. On this expedition, Nares became the first explorer to take his ships all the way north through the channel between Greenland and Ellesmere Island to the Lincoln Sea. Up to this time, it had been a theory that this route would lead to the supposed Open Polar Sea, an ice-free region surrounding the pole. A sledging party under Commander Albert Hastings Markham set a new record Farthest North of 83°20 26N, the men suffered badly from scurvy and were hampered by inappropriate clothing and equipment. Realising that his men could not survive another winter in the ice, the expedition included Petty Officer Adam Ayles, after whom both the Ayles Ice Shelf and Mount Ayles are named.
Other features named after the expedition include the Markham Ice Shelf, Nares Strait and Alert, pelham Aldrich was a lieutenant on the expedition and commanded the Western Sledge Party to Ellesmere Island, where Cape Aldrich was named in his honour. Archives are held at Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, the RGS and the British Arctic Expedition, 1875-76. The Geographical Journal 143, pp. 200–210, project Naming, the identification of Inuit portrayed in photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Sir Leslie Stephen KCB was an English author, historian and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. Stephen was born at Kensington Gore in London, and son of Sir James Stephen and his father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen and his family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his fathers house he saw a deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in less formal Sketches from Cambridge. These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, the family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackerays and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863 and his sister Caroline met Thackerays daughters and Minny when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron.
This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephens mother, Lady Stephen and they met at George Murray Smiths house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on December 4,1866 and married on June 19,1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sisters home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, in the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on December 7 gave birth to their daughter, Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens, the couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On November 27 she developed convulsions, and died the day of eclampsia. After Minnys death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, Leslie Stephen and his daughter were cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as Silly Milly and her books as little works.
Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on August 2. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth and his second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth. Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, in 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870. Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on March 26,1878 and they had four children, Vanessa married Clive Bell Thoby Virginia married Leonard Woolf Adrian In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15
The Nile sources, he told a friend, are valuable only as a means of opening my mouth with power among men. It is this power which I hope to remedy an immense evil and his subsequent exploration of the central African watershed was the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of Africa. His meeting with Henry Morton Stanley on 10 November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation Dr. Livingstone and he was the second of seven children born to Neil Livingstone and his wife Agnes. David was employed at the age of 10 in the mill of Henry Monteith & Co. in Blantyre Works. He and his brother John worked twelve-hour days as piecers, tying broken cotton threads on the spinning machines and he was a student at the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School in 1838–40, with his courses covering medical practice and botany. Neil Livingstone was a Sunday school teacher and teetotaller who handed out Christian tracts on his travels as a tea salesman. He extensively read books on theology and missionary enterprises and this rubbed off on the young David, who became an avid reader, but he loved scouring the countryside for animal and geological specimens in local limestone quarries.
Other significant influences in his life were Thomas Burke, a Blantyre evangelist. At age nineteen and his left the Church of Scotland for a local Congregational church, influenced by preachers like Ralph Wardlaw. For Livingstone, this meant a release from the fear of eternal damnation, Livingstones reading of missionary Karl Gützlaffs Appeal to the Churches of Britain and America on behalf of China enabled him to persuade his father that medical study could advance religious ends. Livingstones experiences in H. Monteiths Blantyre cotton mill were important from ages 10 to 26. To enter medical school, he required some knowledge of Latin, a local Roman Catholic named Daniel Gallagher helped him learn Latin to the required level. Later in life, Gallagher became a priest and founded the third oldest Catholic Church in Glasgow, St Simons, a painting of both Gallagher and Livingstone by Roy Petrie hangs in that churchs coffee room. In addition, he attended divinity lectures by Wardlaw, a leader at this time of vigorous anti-slavery campaigning in the city, shortly after, he applied to join the London Missionary Society and was accepted subject to missionary training.
He qualified as a Licentiate of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow on 16 November 1840, Livingstone hoped to go to China as a missionary, but the First Opium War broke out in September 1839 and the LMS suggested the West Indies instead. In 1840, while continuing his studies in London, Livingstone met LMS missionary Robert Moffat, on leave from Kuruman. He was excited by Moffats vision of expanding missionary work northwards, buxtons arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of legitimate trade and the spread of Christianity. Livingstone, focused his ambitions on Southern Africa, during this time, Livingstone was attacked by a lion while staying in an African village, trying to defend the villages sheep from the animal
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply
Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet
Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, 1st Baronet, GCB, FRS was a British East India Company army officer and Orientalist, sometimes described as the Father of Assyriology. Rawlinson was one of the most important figures arguing that Britain must check Russian ambitions in South Asia and he was a strong advocate of the forward policy in Afghanistan, and counselled the retention of Kandahar. He argued that Tsarist Russia would attack and absorb Khokand and Khiva and warned they would invade Persia, Rawlinson was born on 5 April 1810 at the place now known as Chadlington, England. He was the son of Abram Tyack Rawlinson, and elder brother of the historian George Rawlinson. In 1827, having become proficient in the Persian language, he was sent to Persia in company with other British officers to drill, disagreements between the Persian court and the British government ended in the departure of the British officers. Rawlinson began to study Persian inscriptions, more particularly those in the hitherto undeciphered cuneiform character and he was in the vicinity of the great cuneiform inscription at Behistun, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran, for two years.
Rawlinson was appointed agent at Kandahar in 1840. Serendipitously, he became known personally to the governor-general, which resulted in his appointment as agent in Ottoman Arabia. Thus he settled in Baghdad, where he devoted himself to cuneiform studies and he was now able, with considerable difficulty and at no small personal risk, to make a complete transcript of the Behistun inscription, which he was successful in deciphering and interpreting. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1850 on account of being The Discoverer of the key to the Ancient Persian, the Author of various papers on the philology and Geography of Mesopotamia and Central Asia. Rawlinson remained at home for two years, published in 1851 his memoir on the Behistun inscription, and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, during 1851 he returned to Baghdad. Rawlinsons greatest contribution to the deciphering of the scripts was the discovery that individual signs had multiple readings depending on their context.
While at the British Museum, Rawlinson worked with the younger George Smith, an equestrian accident in 1855 hastened his determination to return to England, and in that year he resigned his post in the East India Company. On his return to England the distinction of K. C. B. was conferred upon him, the remaining forty years of his life were full of activity—political and scientific—and were spent mainly in London. In 1858 he was appointed a member of the first India Council, the latter post he held for only a year, owing to his dissatisfaction with circumstances concerning his official position there. Previously he had sat in Parliament as Member of Parliament for Reigate from February to September 1858, he was again MP for Frome and he was appointed to the Council of India again in 1868, and continued to serve upon it until his death. He was an advocate of the forward policy in Afghanistan. Rawlinson was one of the most important figures arguing that Britain must check Russian ambitions in South Asia and he argued that Tsarist Russia would attack and absorb Khokand and Khiva and would invade Persia and Afghanistan as springboards to British India
Robert Laurie (engraver)
Robert Laurie was an Anglo-Scottish mezzotint engraver and publisher. He signed his name as Lowery, Lowrie, Lawrie, born about 1755, his background was the Lauries of Maxwelton, Dumfriesshire. He received from the Society of Arts in 1770 a silver palette for a drawing from a picture, and in 1773,1775 and his earliest portraits in mezzotint are dated 1771. He invented a method of printing mezzotinto engravings in colours, major charts published by this firm were James Cooks Survey of the South Coast of Newfoundland and the Surveys of St. Georges Channel. Laurie gave up the practice of engraving, L. S. De la Rochette and John Purdy were the hydrographers to the firm. Robert Laurie died at Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, on 19 May 1836 and his son died at 53 Fleet Street, on 19 January 1858, at the age of 81, leaving two daughters. Bellamy, as Romeo and Juliet, after Benjamin Wilson Mrs. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Sidney, ed. Laurie