In the United Kingdom, representative peers were those peers elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the British House of Lords. Until 1999, all members of the Peerage of England held the right to sit in the House of Lords. All peers who were created after 1707 as Peers of Great Britain and after 1801 as Peers of the United Kingdom held the same right to sit in the House of Lords. Representative peers were introduced in 1707, when the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were united into the Kingdom of Great Britain. At the time there were 168 English and 154 Scottish peers; the English peers feared that the House of Lords would be swamped by the Scottish element, the election of a small number of representative peers to represent Scotland was negotiated. A similar arrangement was adopted when the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1801. Scotland was allowed to elect sixteen representative peers.
Those chosen by Scotland sat for the life of one Parliament, following each dissolution new Scottish peers were elected. In contrast, Irish representative peers sat for life. Elections for Irish peers ceased when the Irish Free State came into existence as a Dominion in December 1922. However, already-elected Irish peers continued to be entitled to sit until their death. Elections for Scottish peers ended in 1963, when all Scottish peers obtained the right to sit in the House of Lords. Under the House of Lords Act 1999, a new form of representative peer was introduced to allow some hereditary peers to stay in the House of Lords. Under articles XXII and XXIII of the Act of Union 1707, Scottish peers were entitled to elect sixteen representative peers to the House of Lords; each served for one Parliament or a maximum of seven years, but could be re-elected during future Parliaments. Upon the summons of a new Parliament, the Sovereign would issue a proclamation summoning Scottish peers to the Palace of Holyroodhouse.
The elections were held in the Great Gallery, a large room decorated by eighty-nine of Jacob de Wet's portraits of Scottish monarchs, from Fergus Mór to Charles II. The Lord Clerk Register would read out the Peerage Roll; the Roll was re–read, with each peer responding by publicly announcing his votes and the return being sent to the clerk of the crown at London. The same procedure was used; the block voting system was used, with each peer casting as many votes as there were seats to be filled. The system, permitted the party with the greatest number of peers the Conservatives, to procure a disproportionate number of seats, with opposing parties sometimes being left unrepresented; the Lord Clerk Register was responsible for tallying the votes. The return issued by the Lord Clerk Register was sufficient evidence to admit the representative peers to Parliament; the position and rights of Scottish peers in relation to the House of Lords remained unclear during most of the eighteenth century. In 1711, The 4th Duke of Hamilton, a peer of Scotland, was made Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain.
When he sought to sit in the House of Lords, he was denied admittance, the Lords ruling that a peer of Scotland could not sit in the House of Lords unless he was a representative peer if he held a British peerage dignity. They reasoned that the Act of Union 1707 had established the number of Scots peers in the House of Lords at no more and no less than sixteen. In 1782, the House of Lords reversed the decision, holding that the Crown could admit anyone it pleases to the House of Lords, whether a Scottish peer or not, subject only to qualifications such as being of full age. Under the Peerage Act 1963, all Scottish peers procured the right to sit in the House of Lords, the system of electing representative peers was abolished. Scottish as well as British and English hereditary peers lost their automatic right to sit in the Upper House with the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999. During the debate on the House of Lords Bill, a question arose as to whether the proposal would violate the Treaty of Union.
In suggesting that the Bill did indeed violate the Articles of Union, it was submitted that, prior to Union, the Estates of Parliament, Scotland's old, pre-Union parliament, was entitled to impose conditions, that one fundamental condition was a guarantee of representation of Scotland in both Houses of Parliament at Westminster. It was implied, that the Peerage Act 1963 did not violate the requirement of Scottish representation, set out in the Article XXII of the Treaty of Union, by allowing all Scottish peers to sit in the House of Lords: as long as a minimum of sixteen seats were reserved for Scotland, the principles of the Article would be upheld, it was further argued that the only way to rescind the requirement of Article XXII would be to dissolve the Union between England and Scotland, which the House of Lords Bill did not seek to do. Counsel for the Government held a different view, it was noted that the Peerage Act 1963 explicitly repealed the portions of the Articles of Union relating to elections of representative peers, that no parliamentary commentators had raised doubts as to the validity of those repeals.
As Article XXII had been, or at least purportedly, there was nothing specific in the Treaty that the bill transgressed. It was further asserted by the Government that Article XXII could be repealed because it had not been entrenched. Examples of entrenched provisions are numerous: Englan
Duke of Gordon
The title Duke of Gordon has been created once in the Peerage of Scotland and again in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The Dukedom, named after the Clan Gordon, was first created for the 4th Marquess of Huntly, who on 3 November 1684 was created Duke of Gordon, Marquess of Huntly, Earl of Huntly and Enzie, Viscount of Inverness, Lord Strathaven, Auchindoun and Kincardine. On 2 July 1784, the 4th Duke was created Earl of Norwich, in the County of Norfolk, Baron Gordon, of Huntley in the County of Gloucester, in the Peerage of Great Britain; the principal family seat was Gordon Castle. The Dukedom became extinct in 1836, along with all the titles created in 1684 and 1784. Most of the Gordon estates passed to the son of the 5th Duke's eldest sister, the 5th Duke of Richmond, whose main seat was Goodwood House in Sussex. In 1876 his son, the 6th Duke, was created Duke of Gordon, of Gordon Castle in Scotland, Earl of Kinrara, in the County of Inverness. Thus, the Duke holds more than any other person in the realm.
Aubigny is in the defunct Peerage of France and the central arms of the Duke are based on the original Jacobean ones for the Union of the Crowns, with the inherited but inactive English claims to the French throne represented prominently. Other titles: Marquess of Huntly, Marquess of Huntly, Earl of Huntly, Earl of Enzie, Earl of Huntly and Enzie and Viscount of Inverness, Lord Gordon of Badenoch and Lord Badenoch, Strathavon, Auchidon and Kincardine George Gordon, 1st Duke of Gordon was until 1684 Marquess of Huntly Alexander Gordon, 2nd Duke of Gordon, only son of the 1st Duke Cosmo George Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon, eldest son of the 2nd DukeOther title: Earl of Norwich and Baron Gordon of Huntly, in the county of Gloucester and Baron Mordaunt Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon, eldest son of the 3rd Duke George Duncan Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon, elder son of the 4th Duke Other titles: Duke of Richmond, Duke of Lennox, Earl of March, Earl of Darnley, Earl of Kinrara, in the county of Inverness, Baron of Settrington, in the county of York and Lord of Torboulton Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox, 1st Duke of Gordon, eldest son of the 5th Duke of Richmond, himself nephew of the above 5th Duke of Gordon Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 7th Duke of Richmond, 7th Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Gordon, eldest son of the 6th Duke Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 8th Duke of Richmond, 8th Duke of Lennox, 3rd Duke of Gordon, eldest son of the 7th Duke Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Lord Settrington, eldest son of the 8th Duke, died without issue Frederick Charles Gordon-Lennox, 9th Duke of Richmond, 9th Duke of Lennox, 4th Duke of Gordon, second son of the 8th Duke Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 10th Duke of Richmond, 10th Duke of Lennox, 5th Duke of Gordon, eldest son of the 9th Duke Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond, 11th Duke of Lennox, 6th Duke of Gordon, only son of the 10th Dukethe duke's heir apparent: Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, the 11th Duke's eldest son Gordon Highlanders Gordon Riots Duke of Richmond Duke of Lennox Duke of Gordon Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Lord George Gordon
Lord George Gordon was a British politician best known for lending his name to the Gordon Riots of 1780. A colourful personality, he was born into the Scottish nobility and sat in the House of Commons from 1774 to 1780, his life ended after a number of controversies, notably one surrounding his conversion to Judaism for which he was ostracised. He died in Newgate Prison. George Gordon was born in London, England and youngest son of Cosmo George Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon, his wife and the brother of Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon. After completing his education at Eton, he entered the Royal Navy in 1763 at the age of 12, he received promotion to the rank of Lieutenant, but his career stagnated and he received no further promotions. His behaviour in raising the poor living conditions of his sailors led to him being mistrusted by his fellow officers, although it contributed to his popularity amongst ordinary seamen. Lord Sandwich at the head of the Admiralty, refused to promise him immediate command of a ship, he resigned his commission in 1772, shortly before the beginning of the American War of Independence.
At the 1774 general election Gordon was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament for Ludgershall. The pocket borough had been bought for him by General Fraser, to fend off Gordon's threat to oppose him in Inverness-shire. Gordon was considered flighty, was not looked upon as being of any importance. From the moment he entered parliament he was a strong critic of the government's colonial policy in regard to America, he became a supporter of American independence and spoke out in favour of the colonies. His chances of building a political following in parliament were damaged by his inconsistency and his tendency to criticise all the major political factions, he was just as to attack the radical opposition spokesman Charles James Fox in a speech as he was to challenge Lord North, the Tory Prime Minister. His chances of being returned at the 1780 general election were overtaken by events, he remained close to political life, after being acquitted at his trial in 1781, he declared his intention of standing for the City of London, but withdrew.
In 1779 he organised, made himself head of, the Protestant Association, formed to secure the repeal of the Papists Act 1778, which had restored limited civil rights to Roman Catholics willing to swear certain oaths of loyalty to the Crown. On 2 June 1780 he headed a crowd of around 50,000 people that marched in procession from St George's Fields just south of London to the Houses of Parliament in order to present a huge petition against Catholic Emancipation. After the mob reached Westminster the "Gordon Riots" began; the mob dispersed after threatening to force their way into the House of Commons, but reassembled soon afterwards and, over several days, destroyed several Roman Catholic chapels, pillaged the private dwellings of Catholics, set fire to Newgate Prison, broke open all the other prisons, attacked the Bank of England and several other public buildings. The army was brought in to quell the unrest and killed or wounded around 450 people before they restored order. For his role in instigating the riots, Lord George was charged with high treason.
He was comfortably imprisoned in the Tower of London and permitted to receive visitors, including the Methodist leader Rev. John Wesley on Tuesday 19 December 1780. Thanks to a strong defence by his cousin, Lord Erskine, he was acquitted on the grounds that he had no treasonable intent. In 1786 he was excommunicated by the archbishop of Canterbury for refusing to bear witness in an ecclesiastical suit, he was, permitted to withdraw from the court without bail, made his escape to the Netherlands. On account of representations from the court of Versailles he was commanded to leave that country, returning to England, was apprehended, in January 1788 was sentenced to five years' imprisonment in Newgate and some harsh additional conditions. In 1787, at the age of 36, Lord George Gordon converted to Judaism in Birmingham, underwent brit milah at the synagogue in Severn Street now next door to Singers Hill Synagogue. Circumcision was rare in the England of his day, he took the name of Yisrael bar Avraham Gordon.
Gordon thus became what Judaism regards as, Jews call, a "Ger Tsedek"—a righteous convert. Not much is known about his life as a Jew in Birmingham, but the Bristol Journal of 15 December 1787 reported that Gordon had been living in Birmingham since August 1786: He lived with a Jewish woman in the Froggery, a marshy area now under New Street station. While in prison, Gordon lived the life of an Orthodox Jew, he adjusted his prison life to his circumstances, he put on his tefillin daily. He fasted when the halakha prescribed it, celebrated the Jewish holidays, he was supplied kosher meat and wine, Shabbat challos by prison authorities. The prison authorities permitted him to have a minyan on the Jewish Sabbath and to affix a mezuza on the door of his cell; the Ten Commandments were hung on his wall for Shabbat to transform the room into a synagogue. Lord George Gordon associated only with pious Jews. Although any non-Jew who desired to visit Gordon in prison was welcome, he requested that the prison guards admit Jews only if they had beards and wore head coverings.
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, the entire Forest of Dean; the county town is the city of Gloucester, other principal towns include Cheltenham, Tewkesbury and Dursley. Gloucestershire borders Herefordshire to the north west, Wiltshire to the south and Somerset to the south west, Worcestershire to the north, Oxfordshire to the east, Warwickshire to the north east, the Welsh county of Monmouthshire to the west. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe and the Forest of Dean were not added until the late 11th century. Gloucestershire included Bristol a small town; the local rural community moved to the port city, Bristol's population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and Somerset in 1373, it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996.
Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the region north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was "Glos.", rather than the used but erroneous "Gloucs." or "Glouc". In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, with tens of thousands of residents affected; the RAF conducted the largest peacetime domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas. The damage was estimated at over £2 billion. Gloucestershire has three main landscape areas, a large part of the Cotswolds, the Royal Forest of Dean and the Severn Vale; the Cotswolds take up a large portion of the east and south of the county, The Forest of Dean taking up the west, with the Severn and its valley running between these features. The Daffodil Way in the Leadon Valley, on the border of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire surrounding the village of Dymock, is known for its many spring flowers and woodland, which attracts many walkers.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. The following is a chart of Gloucestershire's gross value added total in thousands of British Pounds Sterling from 1997-2009 based upon the Office for National Statistics figures The 2009 estimation of £11,452 million GVA can be compared to the South West regional average of £7,927 million. Gloucestershire has comprehensive schools with seven selective schools. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, 12 independent schools, including the renowned Cheltenham Ladies' College, Cheltenham College and Dean Close School. All but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms. Gloucestershire has two universities, the University of Gloucestershire and the Royal Agricultural University, four higher and further education colleges, Gloucestershire College, Cirencester College, South Gloucestershire and Stroud College and the Royal Forest of Dean College.
Each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. The University of the West of England has three locations in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire has one city and 33 towns: Gloucester The towns in Gloucestershire are: Town in Monmouthshire with suburbs in Gloucestershire: Chepstow The county has two green belt areas, the first covers the southern area in the South Gloucestershire district, to protect outlying villages and towns between Thornbury and Chipping Sodbury from the urban sprawl of the Bristol conurbation; the second belt lies around Gloucester and Bishop's Cleeve, to afford those areas and villages in between a protection from urban sprawl and further convergence. Both belts intersect with the boundaries of the Cotswolds AONB. There are a variety of religious buildings across the county, notably the cathedral of Gloucester, the abbey church of Tewkesbury, the church of Cirencester. Of the abbey of Hailes near Winchcombe, founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1246, little more than the foundations are left, but these have been excavated and fragments have been brought to light.
Most of the old market towns have parish churches. At Deerhurst near Tewkesbury and Bishop's Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain. There is a Perpendicular church in Lechlade, that at Fairford was built, according to tradition, to contain a series of stained-glass windows which are said to have been brought from the Netherlands; these are, adjudged to be of English workmanship. Other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensio
Jane Gordon, Duchess of Gordon
Jane Gordon, Duchess of Gordon was a Scottish Tory political hostess. Together with her husband Alexander, 4th Duke of Gordon, son George, Marquess of Huntly, she founded the Gordon Highlanders, a British Army infantry regiment which existed until 1994. Jane was the fourth child of Sir William Maxwell, 3rd Baronet of Monreith, his wife Magdalene Blair, she was born at Myrton Castle, the now ruined castle a short distance from Monreith House, the present seat of the family, not built until 50 years later. The Monreith Maxwells were related to the Maxwells at Caerlaverock, Earls of Nithsdale who in the 17th century had been considered one of the most powerful families in Scotland. Additionally, their grandmother was the daughter of the 9th Earl of Eglinton, head of the great Ayrshire landowning family and distinguished Member of Parliament. In 1760, Sir William sold much of his 30,000-acre estate. In Edinburgh Jane lived together with her mother and her two sisters in a rented second-floor flat in Hyndford's Close near Royal Mile.
Titled Scottish landowning families rented apartments in Edinburgh so their girls could receive further education, be launched on Edinburgh Society, attend balls. Lady Maxwell moved there, separate from her husband's household, in 1760 with her three daughters: Catherine, 13. Sir William continued to live with his sons at Monreith. Jane's family lived in humble circumstances in Edinburgh; this was. She somehow got a finger of her right hand jammed in the wheel of a cart which moved away and tore off the finger. There is at Monreith House a letter written by her after the accident, left-handed, explaining how it happened. After this she wore gloves whenever possible. One of these wooden fingers is still at Monreith House. In life she used to explain the loss of the finger by saying it was a coaching accident; when Jane reached 16 she was so strikingly beautiful that a song was written about her: "Bonnie Jennie of Monreith, the Flower of Galloway". That was when she fell in love for the first and only time.
The object of her affections was a young officer, a Fraser, a relative of Lord Lovat. Soon after they met, he left with his regiment to go to America, word reached her that he had died. On 18 October 1767 Jane married the 24-year-old Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon; the young Duke lived in the Gordon townhouse opposite the Maxwells, he had inherited a considerable fortune and the title at the age of nine. It was while they were on honeymoon at the Fordyce’s country seat, Ayton in Berwickshire, that she received a note from her former love, the young Fraser much alive, asking her to marry him, she is said to have fainted. However, she kept in touch with the young Fraser. For the next 20 years, the Duke and Duchess lived at Gordon Castle in Morayshire which Jane’s husband enlarged to be one of the largest homes in Scotland—with a facade 600 feet long and an 84 foot high central tower. Part of the town of Fochabers had to be demolished and rebuilt elsewhere to make room for the extensions. However, years most of the enlargements were dismantled again.
At Gordon Castle, Jane organised parties, planted trees, took a keen interest in farming. She was a great enthusiast for fiddle and pipe music, she is credited with establishing the Strathspey as a dance form. The couple had seven children, her first son, Marquess of Huntly, the George Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon was born in 1770. The Duke had an illegitimate son at about the same time called George, by a Mrs. Christie. Jane used to refer to “my George and the Duke’s George”. Jane entertained on an lavish scale, with as many as 100 sitting down to dinner and guests staying for three months in the Castle, and in the 1780s, the Duchess started entertaining in Edinburgh becoming the leading hostess. Jane was the sole arbitress of fashion in Edinburgh. Horace Walpole called her the “Empress of fashion”, she gave soirée evenings where up and coming artists were asked to entertain. It was in her drawing room that Robert Burns first read his poetry to Edinburgh society, she became his chief sponsor, purchasing all his early published works.
In 1787 the Duke and the Duchess of Gordon moved to London. They first rented a house on Downing Street from Lord Sheffield one in Pall Mall from the Marquess of Buckingham, one in St. James's Square, and Jane with a distinctly Scottish flavour. She made everyone dance Scottish dances. King George III adored her, she supported the King, so she was allowed to promote her Scottish heritage more than others would have dared, she gave a ball at which she and the Duchess of York dressed in tartan when it was banned, she arranged for the King to inspect troops dressed in tartan in Hyde Park. It was in the Pall Mall house. Close to Parliament in Westminster, she kept open house for the Tories. Pitt, the Prime Minister, Dundas, the Lord Advocate, were frequent visitors, and it was during this time that she arranged a truce between the King and his eldest son, the Prince of Wales, whose had run up enormous debts. She arranged for his debts to be met, this enabled the construction of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton to be continued.
In 1793, the French Revolutionary Government declared war on Great Britain. At that time the British army was short of recruits, since
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland