Simonov Monastery in Moscow was established in 1370 by monk Feodor, a nephew and disciple of St Sergius of Radonezh. The monastery land belonged to Simeon Khovrin, a boyar of Greek extraction and progenitor of the great clan of Golovins, he took monastic vows in the cloister under the name Simon. In 1379, the monastery was moved half a mile to the east, its original location, where bodies of the warriors killed in the Battle of Kulikovo had been buried, is still commemorated by the old Simonov church. During the 15th century, the cloister was the richest in Moscow. Among the learned monks who lived and worked there were Maximus the Greek. A white stone cathedral was erected in 1405; as the monastery defended southern approaches to Moscow, it was fortified in the 1640s. The last addition to the complex was a huge multi-storied bell-tower, modelled after Ivan the Great Bell Tower of Moscow Kremlin; the monastery was abolished by the Bolsheviks in 1923, soon thereafter most of its buildings were demolished to make way for an automobile plant.
Surviving structures all date back to the 17th century and include three towers of cannon-like appearance and auxiliary buildings in the Naryshkin baroque style. The Moscow government announced plans for a full-scale reconstruction of the famous cloister. According to several sources, part of the former monastery buildings was transferred in 1990 from the Ministry of Culture of the USSR to Russian Orthodox Church and Orthodox community of deaf people, who began the works on restoration and reconstruction of its facilities; the first service here after the restoration was held in 1992
A metal is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, conducts electricity and heat well. Metals are malleable or ductile. A metal may be an alloy such as stainless steel. In physics, a metal is regarded as any substance capable of conducting electricity at a temperature of absolute zero. Many elements and compounds that are not classified as metals become metallic under high pressures. For example, the nonmetal iodine becomes a metal at a pressure of between 40 and 170 thousand times atmospheric pressure; some materials regarded as metals can become nonmetals. Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure. In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry. Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the number is inexact as the boundaries between metals and metalloids fluctuate due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved.
In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two and helium, not just traditional metals. A star fuses lighter atoms hydrogen and helium, into heavier atoms over its lifetime. Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements. Metals are present in many aspects of modern life; the strength and resilience of some metals has led to their frequent use in, for example, high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many home appliances, tools and railroad tracks. Precious metals were used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements; the history of metals is thought to begin with the use of copper about 11,000 years ago. Gold, iron and brass were in use before the first known appearance of bronze in the 5th millennium BCE. Subsequent developments include the production of early forms of steel.
Metals are lustrous, at least when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured. Sheets of metal thicker than a few micrometres appear opaque; the solid or liquid state of metals originates in the capacity of the metal atoms involved to lose their outer shell electrons. Broadly, the forces holding an individual atom’s outer shell electrons in place are weaker than the attractive forces on the same electrons arising from interactions between the atoms in the solid or liquid metal; the electrons involved become delocalised and the atomic structure of a metal can be visualised as a collection of atoms embedded in a cloud of mobile electrons. This type of interaction is called a metallic bond; the strength of metallic bonds for different elemental metals reaches a maximum around the center of the transition metal series, as these elements have large numbers of delocalized electrons. Although most elemental metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is a wide variation in their densities, lithium being the least dense and osmium the most dense.
Magnesium and titanium are light metals of significant commercial importance. Their respective densities of 1.7, 2.7 and 4.5 g/cm3 can be compared to those of the older structural metals, like iron at 7.9 and copper at 8.9 g/cm3. An iron ball would thus weigh about as much as three aluminium balls. Metals are malleable and ductile, deforming under stress without cleaving; the nondirectional nature of metallic bonding is thought to contribute to the ductility of most metallic solids. In contrast, in an ionic compound like table salt, when the planes of an ionic bond slide past one another, the resultant change in location shifts ions of the same charge into close proximity, resulting in the cleavage of the crystal; such a shift is not observed in a covalently bonded crystal, such as a diamond, where fracture and crystal fragmentation occurs. Reversible elastic deformation in metals can be described by Hooke's Law for restoring forces, where the stress is linearly proportional to the strain. Heat or forces larger than a metal's elastic limit may cause a permanent deformation, known as plastic deformation or plasticity.
An applied force may be a compressive force, or a shear, bending or torsion force. A temperature change may affect the movement or displacement of structural defects in the metal such as grain boundaries, point vacancies and screw dislocations, stacking faults and twins in both crystalline and non-crystalline metals. Internal slip and metal fatigue may ensue; the atoms of metallic substances are arranged in one of three common crystal structures, namely body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed. In bcc, each atom is positioned at the center of a cube of eight others. In fcc and hcp, each atom is surrounded by twelve others; some metals adopt different structures depending on the temperature. The
Valday Iversky Monastery
Valday Iversky Monastery is a Russian Orthodox monastery founded by Patriarch Nikon in 1653. The monastery is located on an island in Lake Valdayskoye in Valdaysky District of Novgorod Oblast, close to the town of Valday. In the 17th century, the Valday Iversky Monastery was one of the most influential monasteries in Russia and a significant cultural center; the monastery derives its name from the Iviron Monastery on Mount Athos. In the Valday Iversky Monastery, a copy of the icon of Theotocos Iverskaya was kept until the 1920s, when it disappeared; the name of the Iveron Monastery, in its turn, originates from an ancient Georgian kingdom. Nikon was elected Patriarch in 1652, in 1653, he asked Tsar Alexey II permission to found a monastery in Valday. By the autumn of 1653, two wooden churches were in use. Nikon ordered to transfer the relic of Saint Iosif of Borovichi to the monastery, done in February, 1654. In the same year, all lands around Lake Valdayskoye, including the selos of Valday and Vyshny Volochyok, were declared the property of the monastery.
The monastery became one of the biggest landowners in Russia. In 1655, all monks from the former Orsha Kutein Monastery, located in the area of the present-day Belarus, moved to the Valday Iversky Monastery. One monk, was appointed a hegumen; this move was related to a difficult situation of the Orthodox Church in Poland. In the second half of the 17th century, the monastery became a center of education. In particular, the monastery started to print books, the second such institution in Russia after the Moscow Print Yard. Production of porcelain tiles, the first one in Russia, started in the monastery. In 1656, the first stone church was completed. Nikon, as well as a number of metropolitans attended the sanctification. For this occasion, a copy of the icon of Theotocos Iverskaya was placed in the monastery. Nikon issued a prohibition to make further copies of the icon. In 1666, Nikon was deposed, all monasteries he supervised, including the Iversky monastery, were abolished; however in 1668 the monastery was re-established, the former monks, including the hegumen, returned.
In the 18th century, the monastery declined. Between 1712 and 1730, it was subordinated to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, located in Saint Petersburg. Much of the treasure kept in the Valday Iversky Monastery was transferred to the Lavra. An attempt to revive the former importance of the monastery was made in the 1850s. After the October Revolution, the monastery was first transformed into a labour cooperative in 1919, in 1927, it was abolished; the monastery buildings housed a museum, a workshop, a hospital, a retirement home, a recreation facility. The icon of the Theotocos Iverskaya was never recovered. In 1991, the monastery was reopened. In the Peter and Paul Cathedral in Valday, a copy of the icon of the Theotocos Iverskaya, dating from 1854, survived; this copy remains there. The construction of the monastery started in the 1650s; the oldest stone church built in the monastery, the Assumption Cathedral, remains intact. Much of the ensemble of the monastery was created in the 1670s by Afanasy Fomin.
From this period, the Cathedral of the Epiphany, the Church of Archangel Michael, the St. Michael Tower, the hegumen's chamber remain; the walls and the remaining towers were built at periods. The years of appointment and retirement/death for some hegumens are approximated. Iakov Ioil Dionisy I Dionisy II Iosif I Filofey Feodosy Yevmeny Iosif II Feognost Antony I Tarasy I Aaron Veniamin I Filaret Serafim Avraamy Trifily Damaskin Askaronsky Pakhomy Dobrynya Viktor Onisimov Tarasy II Verbitsky Dorofey Amvrosy I Andriyevsky Nikolay Kizhdobryansky Innokenty Dubravitsky Antony Znamensky Feofilakt Rusanov Iustin Vishnevsky Amvrosy Protasov Parfeny Pakhomov Flavian Laskin Yevgraf Platonov Muzalevsky Veniamin II Zhukov Amvrosy III Kalos Vladimir Uzhinsky Gedeon Gerasim Gaydukov Arseny Kayzerov: Innokenty II Areshnikov Pyotr Iriney Illarion Lavrenty Makarov Veniamin III Pozdnyakov Amvrosy Klimenko Leonid Ilyashkevich Amvrosy Iosif Stefan Yefrem Barbinyagra Nil Mikhaylov Nikandr Stepanov Yefrem Barbinyagra Antony Bitmayev
The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century. Although the term arquebus was applied to many different forms of firearms from the 15th to 17th centuries, it referred to "a hand-gun with a hook-like projection or lug on its under surface, useful for steadying it against battlements or other objects when firing." These "hook guns" were in their earliest forms defensive weapons mounted on German city walls in the early 1400s, but by the late 1400s had become handheld firearms. The development of the arquebus is somewhat tied to technology developed for the crossbow as without the stock from the crossbow, the arquebus would not have a stable platform to rest one's shoulder on. Priming pans were placed on the arquebus. A matchlock mechanism was added around 1475 and it became the first firearm with a trigger; the heavy arquebus, known as the musket, was developed to better penetrate plate armor and appeared in Europe around 1521.
A standardized arquebus, the caliver, was introduced in the latter half of the 16th century. The name "caliver" is derived from the English corruption of calibre, a reference to the gun's standardized bore; the caliver allowed troops to load bullets faster since they fit their guns more whereas before soldiers had to modify their bullets into suitable fits, or were forced to make their own prior to battle. The smoothbore matchlock arquebus is considered the forerunner to the rifle and other long gun firearms. Heavy arquebuses mounted on wagons were called arquebus à croc; these carried a lead ball of about 3.5 ounces. An infantryman armed with an arquebus is called an arquebusier; the arquebus has at times been known as the harquebus, hackbut, archibugio, schiopo, sclopus, tüfenk, tofak and firelock. In the early 16th century, the term "arquebus" was used to describe an assortment of guns, but by the late 16th century the arquebus and musket had settled down into size categories for firearms. Continental European powers such as the Iberians and French differentiated muskets from arquebuses by size and if they required a fork rest or not.
However, the musket – a large arquebus –, introduced around 1521, fell out of favor in the mid 16th century due to the decline of armor, but the term stuck around and musket became a generic descriptor for all'shoulder arms' fireweapons into the 1800s. At least on one occasion the musket and arquebus have been used interchangeably to refer to the same weapon, referred to as an "arquebus musket". A Habsburg commander in the mid-1560s once referred to muskets as "double arquebuses"; the matchlock firing mechanism became a common term for the arquebus after it was added to the firearm. Flintlock firearms were sometimes called fusils or fuzees. Prior to the appearance of the serpentine lever by around 1411, handguns were fired from the chest, tucked under one arm, while the other arm maneuvered a hot pricker to the touch hole to ignite the gunpowder; the matchlock which appeared around 1475 changed this by adding a firing mechanism consisting of two parts, the match, the lock. The lock mechanism held within a clamp a two to three feet long length of smoldering rope soaked in saltpeter, the match.
Connected to the lock lever was a trigger, which lowered the match into a priming pan when squeezed, igniting the priming powder, causing a flash to travel through the touch hole igniting the gunpowder within the barrel, propelling the bullet out the muzzle. The trigger mechanism of the early arquebus most resembled that of a crossbow: a curved lever pointing backward and parallel to the stock. By the 16th century, gunsmiths in most countries had begun to introduce the short trigger perpendicular to the stock, familiar to modern shooters. However, the majority of French matchlock arquebuses retained the crossbow-style trigger throughout the 17th century. While matchlocks provided a crucial advantage by allowing the user to aim the firearm using both hands, it was awkward to utilize. To avoid accidentally igniting the gunpowder the match had to be detached while loading the gun. In some instances the match would go out, so both ends of the match were kept lit; this proved cumbersome to maneuver as both hands were required to hold the match during removal, one end in each hand.
The procedure was so complex that a 1607 drill manual published by Jacob de Gheyn in the Netherlands listed 28 steps just to fire and load the gun. In 1584 the Ming general Qi Jiguang composed an 11 step song to practice the procedure in rhythm: "One, clean the gun. Two, pour the powder. Three, tamp the powder down. Four, drop the pellet. Five, drive the pellet down. Six, put in paper. Seven, drive the paper down. Eight, open the flashpan cover. Nine, pour in the flash powder. Ten, close the flashpan, clamp the fuse. Eleven, listen for the signal open the flashpan cover. Aiming at the enemy, raise your gun and fire." Reloading a gun during the 16th century took anywhere from 20 seconds to a minute under the most ideal conditions. The development of volley fire – by the Ottomans, the Chinese, the Japanese, the Dutch – made the arquebus more feasible for widespread adoption by the military; the volley fire technique transformed soldiers carrying firearms into organized firing squads with each row of soldiers firing in turn and reloading in a systematic fashion.
Volley fire was implemented with cannons as early as 1388 by Ming artillerists, but volley fire with matchlocks was not implemented until 1526 when the Ottoman Janissaries utilized it during the Battle of Mohács. The matchlock volley fire techn
Pood, is a unit of mass equal to 40 funt. Plural: pudi or pudy. Since 1899 It is set to 16.38 kilograms. It was used in Russia and Ukraine. Pood was first mentioned in a number of 12th-century documents. Unlike funt, which came at least in the 14th century from Middle High German: phunt, Old East Slavic: пудъ pud is a much older borrowing from Old Norse: pund which in turn came through the mediation of Old English: pund from Latin: pondus "weight". Together with other units of weight of the Imperial Russian weight measurement system, the USSR abolished the pood in 1924, but the term remained in widespread use at least until the 1940s. In his 1953 short story "Matryona's Place", Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn presents the pood as still in use amongst the Khrushchev-era Soviet peasants, its usage is preserved in modern Russian in certain specific cases, e.g. in reference to sports weights, such as traditional Russian kettlebells, cast in multiples and fractions of 16 kg. For example, a 24 kg kettlebell is referred to as "one-and-half pood kettlebell".
It is sometimes used when reporting the amounts of bulk agricultural production, such as grains or potatoes. An old Russian proverb reads, "You know a man when you have eaten a pood of salt with him." The expression Сто пудов - "Hundred poods" means "very large amount". In modern colloquial Russian it is used in a generic meanings of "very much" and "very", as well as "most surely". Used in Polish as idiomatic/proverb: "nudy na pudy" Conversion factors from pood to other units of mass
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. All species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition; the different species are pyrope, spessartine, grossular and andradite. The garnets make up two solid solution series: pyrope-almandine-spessartine and uvarovite-grossular-andradite; the word garnet comes from the 14th‑century Middle English word gernet, meaning'dark red'. It is derived from granum; this is a reference to mela granatum or pomum granatum, a plant whose fruits contain abundant and vivid red seed covers, which are similar in shape and color to some garnet crystals. Garnet species are found in many colors including red, yellow, purple, blue, black and colorless, with reddish shades most common. Garnet species' light transmission properties can range from the gemstone-quality transparent specimens to the opaque varieties used for industrial purposes as abrasives.
The mineral's luster is categorized as resinous. Garnets are nesosilicates having the general formula X3Y23; the X site is occupied by divalent cations 2+ and the Y site by trivalent cations 3+ in an octahedral/tetrahedral framework with 4− occupying the tetrahedra. Garnets are most found in the dodecahedral crystal habit, but are commonly found in the trapezohedron habit, they crystallize in the cubic system, having three axes that are all of equal length and perpendicular to each other. Garnets do not show cleavage, so when they fracture under stress, sharp irregular pieces are formed; because the chemical composition of garnet varies, the atomic bonds in some species are stronger than in others. As a result, this mineral group shows a range of hardness on the Mohs scale of about 6.5 to 7.5. The harder species like almandine are used for abrasive purposes. For gem identification purposes, a pick-up response to a strong neodymium magnet separates garnet from all other natural transparent gemstones used in the jewelry trade.
Magnetic susceptibility measurements in conjunction with refractive index can be used to distinguish garnet species and varieties, determine the composition of garnets in terms of percentages of end-member species within an individual gem. Almandine: Fe3Al23 Pyrope: Mg3Al23 Spessartine: Mn3Al23 Almandine, sometimes incorrectly called almandite, is the modern gem known as carbuncle; the term "carbuncle" is derived from burning charcoal. The name Almandine is a corruption of Alabanda, a region in Asia Minor where these stones were cut in ancient times. Chemically, almandine is an iron-aluminium garnet with the formula Fe3Al23. Almandine occurs in metamorphic rocks like mica schists, associated with minerals such as staurolite, kyanite and others. Almandine has nicknames of Oriental garnet, almandine ruby, carbuncle. Pyrope is red in color and chemically an aluminium silicate with the formula Mg3Al23, though the magnesium can be replaced in part by calcium and ferrous iron; the color of pyrope varies from deep red to black.
Pyrope and spessartine gemstones have been recovered from the Sloan diamondiferous kimberlites in Colorado, from the Bishop Conglomerate and in a Tertiary age lamprophyre at Cedar Mountain in Wyoming. A variety of pyrope from Macon County, North Carolina is a violet-red shade and has been called rhodolite, Greek for "rose". In chemical composition it may be considered as an isomorphous mixture of pyrope and almandine, in the proportion of two parts pyrope to one part almandine. Pyrope has tradenames. Another intriguing find is the blue color-changing garnets from Madagascar, a pyrope-spessartine mix; the color of these blue garnets is not like sapphire blue in subdued daylight but more reminiscent of the grayish blues and greenish blues sometimes seen in spinel. However, in white LED light, the color is equal to the best cornflower blue sapphire, or D block tanzanite. Pyrope is an indicator mineral for high-pressure rocks; the garnets from mantle-derived rocks and eclogites contain a pyrope variety.
Spessartine or spessartite is manganese aluminium garnet, Mn3Al23. Its name is derived from Spessart in Bavaria, it occurs most in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low grade metamorphic phyllites. Spessartine of an orange-yellow is found in Madagascar. Violet-red spessartines are found in rhyolites in Maine. Blue pyrope–spessartine garnets were discovered in the late 1990s in Bekily, Madagascar; this type has been found in parts of the United States, Kenya and Turkey. It changes color from blue-green to purple depending on the color temperature of viewing light, as a result of the high amounts of vanadium. Other varieties of color-changing garnets exist. In daylight, their color ranges fro
A sloboda was a kind of settlement in the history of Russia and Ukraine. The name is derived from the early Slavic word for "freedom" and may be loosely translated as "free settlement". In modern Russia, the term is used to denote a type of a rural locality and is used in Kursk, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov, Ryazan and Voronezh Oblasts. A sloboda was a colonization-type settlement in sparsely populated lands by Cossacks in Cossack Hetmanate, see "Sloboda Ukraine"; the settlers of such sloboda were freed from various taxes and levies for various reasons, hence the name. Freedom from taxes was an incentive for colonization. By the first half of the 18th century, this privilege was abolished, slobodas became ordinary villages, townlets, suburbs; some slobodas were suburban settlements, right behind the city wall. Many of them were subsequently incorporated into cities, the corresponding toponyms indicate their origin, such as Ogorodnaya Sloboda Lane, Moscow; the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary writes that by the end of the 19th century a sloboda was a large village with more than one church, a marketplace, volost administration, or a village-type settlement of industrial character, where the peasants have little involvement in agriculture.
The term is preserved in names of various settlements and city quarters. Some settlements were named just thus: "Sloboda", "Slobodka", "Slabodka", "Slobidka". Similar settlements existed in Wallachia and Moldavia, called slobozie or slobozia; the latter term is the name of the capital city of Ialomiţa County in modern Romania, located in the historical region of Wallachia. Wola, a similar concept in Polish history Lhota, a similar concept in Czech history