Robert Burns (Steell)
Robert Burns is a bronze portrait statue of Robert Burns by John Steell. Four versions exist, in New York City, Dundee and Dunedin; the memorial sculpture in Manhattan's Central Park was cast c. 1880 and dedicated on 2 October 1880. It was the first statue of Burns to be erected outside Scotland and was a gift to the City of New York from Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York and the Scottish-American community. For this sculpture Steell followed the portrait of Burns painted by Alexander Nasmyth in 1787. Seated on a tree stump with a quill pen in one hand, Burns looks up to heaven, he is thinking of his true love Mary Campbell. It was to her; the statue is located at 40°46′12.5″N 73°58′21.0″W. The Dundee statue was unveiled only two weeks after the one in New York in 1880 and the third cast was erected on the Thames Embankment in London in 1884; the Dundee statue is located at 56°27′44.5″N 02°58′19.0″W and the London statue is located at 51°30′30.5″N 00°07′18.5″W. The Dunedin statue was the last of the set to be unveiled on 24 May 1887.
A statue of Burns was deemed relevant to the city, both because of the city's Scottish roots, because one of the city's founding fathers was Rev. Thomas Burns, a nephew of the poet. In likeness, it is closest to the London statue. There had been discussion whether to place the statue in front of the railway station, but an elevated placement in The Octagon, the central plaza of Dunedin, was chosen; the statue was unveiled by a great-grand niece of Robert Burns. Speeches were given by former Governor and Premier of New Zealand Sir George Grey, Richard Henry Leary, the Mayor of Dunedin; because of its placement on what is now known as the McMillan terrace, the statue is the backdrop to many public speeches. On 27 July 1988, the statue was registered by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust as a Category I heritage structure with reference number 2208; the statue is located at 45°52′26.5″S 170°30′11.5″E. List of Robert Burns memorials List of sculptures in Central Park Media related to Robert Burns by John Steell at Wikimedia Commons
The Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary
The Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary are two connected features at the southeastern corner of Central Park in Manhattan, New York City. It is located near Grand Army Plaza, across Central Park Southfrom the Plaza Hotel, west of Fifth Avenue; the Pond is one of seven bodies of water in Central Park. Hallett Nature Sanctuary, the only permanently fenced-off section of Central Park aside from Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir, occupies 3.5 acres of the wooded promontory to the west of the Pond, jutting into the water body. The area had been set apart by Robert Moses as a bird sanctuary in 1934, but decades of neglect were repaired in the 1980s; the Central Park Conservancy offers half-hour tours. The perimeter affords one of the prime bird watching areas of the Park. Deadfalls remained where they lay, to provide for insects that feed birds. However, the experiment ended after an Asian longhorn beetle was discovered in 2002. Another unexpected visitor in the Sanctuary was Hal the Central Park Coyote, who received his nickname from the Hallett Sanctuary and passed through in March 2006.
The simple fieldstone arch of Gapstow Bridge was built in 1896 to replace the original more ambitious but less rustic structure designed by Jacob Wrey Mould. As laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, the Pond was larger. A large piece of its upper reaches, beyond Gapstow Bridge, once spanning a narrow neck of water, was paved over to form the Wollman Memorial Skating Rink, opened in 1949. Nearby, on stone plinths, bronze busts commemorate the poet Thomas Moore and the composer Victor Herbert; the Central Park Conservancy completed a reconstruction of the Pond in 2001, which included new shoreline and perimeter plantings, an island habitat for birds and turtles, beyond Gapstow Bridge, a series of small pools and cascades. Media related to The Pond at Wikimedia Commons
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir
The Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir is a decommissioned reservoir in Central Park in the borough of Manhattan, New York City, stretching from 86th to 96th street. The reservoir was built between 1858 and 1862, to the design for Central Park of Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, who designed its two pumphouses of Manhattan schist with granite facings, it was never a collecting reservoir. It replaced the smaller, it distributed it to Manhattan. The reservoir was decommissioned in 1993, after it was deemed obsolete because of a new main under 79th Street that connected with the Third Water Tunnel, because of growing concerns that it could become contaminated. Though deemed obsolete it remained a part of the NYC water supply and it was intended to be used to supplement the city's upstate water supply in drought emergencies. Papers were signed to allow for the transfer of the reservoir in 1999 from the Department of Environmental Protection to the Department of Parks and Recreation; the year 1999 was chosen because it is the projected completion date for a filtration plant at the Jerome Reservoir in the Bronx, part of the city's Croton water-supply system.
The Jerome Water Filtration Plant was activated in 2015. Concern about the reservoir's future grew in spring 1992: many people worried that the city would put turf over it as was done in the 1920s, when the adjacent Lower Reservoir was deemed obsolete. Today the Great Lawn rests on that reservoir's former site. An 1875 map of Central Park shows the two reservoirs, it was renamed in honor of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis in 1994 to commemorate her contributions to the city and because she enjoyed jogging in the area, which lay beneath the windows of her 1040 Fifth Avenue apartment located on the Upper East Side. The Reservoir holds over 1,000,000,000 US gallons of water. Though no longer used to distribute New York City's water supply, it provides water for the Pool and the Harlem Meer, it is a popular place of interest in Central Park. There is a 1.58-mile jogging track around it and it is encircled by the park's bridle trail. Bill Clinton and Mrs. Onassis have all run the track, it is visited by tourists when its double pink "Yoshino" cherries, followed by Prunus serrulata'Kanzan' cherries, are blooming.
The rhododendrons along the "Rhododendron Mile" were a gift to the city from Mrs Russell Sage in 1909. It is one of the main ecological sanctuaries in the park, housing more than 20 species of waterbirds: aside from the familiar mallards and Canada geese, there may be seen coots, northern shovelers, ruddy ducks, loons, wood ducks, American black ducks, grebes and egrets, along with various species of gulls, making it a popular venue for birdwatchers. Devil's Advocate Hannah and Her Sisters Marathon Man Breakfast at Tiffany's Sex and the City Gossip Girl New York City water supply system Sawkill "Central Park Reservoir - CentralPark.com". July 16, 2007. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2007. "Central Park Conservancy: Reservoir". Retrieved August 21, 2016. Central Park Reservoir
A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword, knife, or other large blade. Scabbards have been made of many materials over the millennia, including leather and metals such as brass or steel. Most scabbards were worn suspended from a sword belt or shoulder belt called a baldric. Wooden scabbards were covered in fabric or leather. Japanese blades have their sharp cutting edge protected by a wooden scabbard called a saya. Many scabbards, such as ones the Greeks and Romans used, were light, they were designed for holding the sword rather than protecting it. All-metal scabbards were popular items for a display of wealth among elites in the European Iron Age, intricately decorated. Little is known about the scabbards of the early Iron Age, due to their wooden construction. However, during the Middle and late Iron Ages, the scabbard became important as a vehicle for decorative elaboration. After 200 BC decorated scabbards became rare. A number of ancient scabbards have been recovered from weapons sacrifices, a few of which had a lining of fur on the inside.
The fur was kept oily, keeping the blade free from rust. The fur would allow a smoother, quicker draw. Metal scabbards became popular in Europe early in the 19th century and superseded most other types. Metal was more durable than leather and could better withstand the rigours of field use among troops mounted on horseback. In addition, metal offered the ability to present a more military appearance, as well as the opportunity to display increased ornamentation. Leather scabbards never lost favour among military users and were used as late as the American Civil War; some military police forces, naval shore patrols, law enforcement and other groups used leather scabbards as a kind of truncheon. Scabbards were albeit worn across the back with the intention of being unsheathed, but only by a handful of Celtic tribes, only with short lengths of sword; this is because it is impossible to draw any true two-handed sword and extraordinarily difficult to draw the majority of one-handed swords from a scabbard on the back.
Common depictions of long swords being drawn from the back are a modern invention, have enjoyed such great popularity in fiction and fantasy, that they are and incorrectly believed to have been common in Medieval times. Some more well-known examples of this include the back scabbard depicted in the film Braveheart and the back scabbard seen in the video game series The Legend of Zelda. There is some limited data from woodcuts and textual fragments that Mongol light horse archers, Chinese soldiers, Japanese Samurai and European Knights wore a slung baldric over the shoulder, allowing longer blades such as greatswords/zweihanders and nodachi/ōdachi to be strapped across the back, though these would have to be removed from the back before the sword could be unsheathed. In "The Ancient Celts" by Barry Cunliffe, page 94, Cunliffe writes, "All these pieces of equipment mentioned in the texts, are reflected in the archaeological record and in the surviving iconography, though it is sometimes possible to detect regional variations.
Among the Parisii of Yorkshire, for example, the sword was sometimes worn across the back and therefore had to be drawn over the shoulder from behind the head." The metal fitting where the blade enters the leather or metal scabbard is called the throat, part of a larger scabbard mount, or locket, that bears a carrying ring or stud to facilitate wearing the sword. The blade's point in leather scabbards is protected by a metal tip, or chape, which, on both leather and metal scabbards, is given further protection from wear by an extension called a drag, or shoe. Holster Media related to Scabbards at Wikimedia Commons
Sheep Meadow is a 15-acre preserve located at the west side of Central Park from 66th to 69th Streets in Manhattan, New York City. It has a long history as a gathering place for political movements, it is a favorite spot for families, picnickers, kite flyers, other visitors to come relax and admire the New York City skyline. The Sheep Meadow is open from April to mid-October dawn to dusk in fair weather; this open area is popular and can draw up to 30,000 people a day, in 2009, Doug Blonsky, president of the Central Park Conservancy, stated that there have been lines to get into the meadow. The Sheep Meadow was the largest open meadow feature in the original plan for Central Park, as it was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux; the open space had been a requirement of the design competition for Central Park, which specified a parade ground for the civic function of militia drills and military exhibitions. Olmsted and Vaux's winning "Greensward", a nineteenth-century term for broad open lawns, offered a reduced parade ground, sited towards the western side of the proposed park.
When the location of the Sheep Meadow was decided, some small communities of poorer New Yorkers were uprooted: including Irish and African-Americans. To produce the 15 acres of "level or but undulating ground" in the specifications, 10 acres of poorly draining ground was filled to a depth of two feet with fill from New Jersey. Additionally, disruptive boulders and a rocky ridge that stood sixteen feet out of the finished grade were blasted out, the reshaped landscape was covered with topsoil. Sheep Meadow was the most costly construction undertaken in the new park. Few sunbathers today realize the effort; this meadow was the largest meadow in Central Park until the old reservoir was emptied in 1929 and made into the Great Lawn in 1935. After the design competition was over and Vaux managed to convince the commissioners that a quiet park landscape was not the best place for military displays. After the expansive open area was created, visitors were not allowed to walk on it. Olmsted and Vaux believed that the introduction of sheep enhanced the romantic English quality of the park and to re-enforce the quiet nature of the "Greensward", 200 sheep were added in 1864.
The flock of pedigree Southdown sheep were used and housed in a fanciful Victorian building or "Sheepfold" created by Jacob Wrey Mould under the direction of Calvert Vaux. The animals served a practical purpose as well—they trimmed the grass and fertilized the lawn. A sheep crossing was built across the drive in 1870 and twice a day a shepherd would hold up carriage traffic, automobiles, as he drove the animals to and from the meadow. Sheep grazed the meadow until 1934, when Robert Moses, the city's parks commissioner, moved them to Prospect Park in Brooklyn. There was fear for the sheep's safety during the Great Depression, when officials were concerned that starving men would kill the sheep for food. After the sheep had been banished to Brooklyn the Sheepfold was converted into what became the Tavern on the Green restaurant. In 1992, a consortium of cheese producers brought a flock of sheep to graze on the meadow as a promotional stunt. Sheep's Meadow had two large-scale restoration efforts: The large events and the lack of maintenance of the 60s and 70s eroded the lawn.
Sheep Meadow was the first area in Central Park to be restored. With the help of James Taylor who held a free concert to help the city's campaign to restore the park's Sheep Meadow in July 1979, Sheep Meadow was resodded in 1980, it reopened in 1981 as a swath of green dedicated to sunbathers and kite flyers. In November 2000, the Central Park Conservancy began the installation of a new irrigation system whose design incorporated the latest technology; the project was funded from a grant by the Marc Haus Foundation. The project was completed in five months, Sheep Meadow reopened in April 2001; the reopening was held on Tuesday, June 13, 2001, with the turn of a spigot to show a display of cascading water through the new sprinkler system in the meadow. In attendance and leading the ceremony were Commissioner Henry J. Stern. A 360-degree panorama of the restoration work results can be seen; as of 2013, Sheep Meadow became the official home field of PEG, a delightful mixture of soccer and golf, favored by David M. Schechter.
Sheep Meadow has held many large-scale events, people have gathered for many uses. In the 1960s and the 1970s Sheep Meadow was used for events of unprecedented scale; the large-scale outdoor concerts, including those of the New York Philharmonic, Vietnam protests, hippie "love-ins", were attended by hundreds of thousands of people, the lush green grass of the Sheep Meadow became damaged by the massive crowds. During this time, the Parks Department, with limited funding, opened the park to any and all activities that would bring people into it—regardless of their impact and without adequate management oversight or maintenance follow-up; some events became important milestones, fondly remembered by participants. However, lacking proper maintenance, they significantly damaged the greensward through erosion and addition of unwanted substances, such as broken glass. In the 21st century the open space of Sheep Meadow is protected from overuse. Signs are posted in many locations warn that the following are not allowed: Team Sports
Giuseppe Ceracchi was an Italian sculptor, active in a Neoclassic style in Italy and the nascent United States, a passionate republican during the American and French revolutions. He is remembered for his portrait busts of prominent American individuals, he trained in Rome with Tommaso Righi and continued his studies at the Accademia di San Luca. He went to London in 1773, armed with a letter of introduction from Matthew Nulty, an English antiquarian and amateur sculptor in Rome, worked under Agostino Carlini, a founding member of the Royal Academy. Ceracchi exhibited busts at the Academy 1776-79 and was proposed for membership but received only four votes, his bust of the Academy's president Sir Joshua Reynolds, is in the collection of the Royal Academy of Art. Living in Carlini's lodgings near Soho Square, Ceracchi modelled architectural ornament and bas-relief panels for Robert Adam, most notably a grand bas-relief of a Sacrifice to Bacchus, fourteen feet long and six feet high, in Adam's patent mastic composition, for the rear façade of Mr. Desenfans' house in Portland Place.
In 1778, Ceracchi sculpted the statues of Temperance and Fortitude cast in Portland stone for the Strand façade of Sir William Chambers' Somerset House, London. As well as the portrait busts he executed in London is a full-length portrait of Anne Seymour Damer, herself a sculptor and to some extent his pupil, in antique robes, with her tools at her feet, he went back to Rome in 1781 but had to leave the city twice due to his links with the Jacobin movements. He befriended Johann Wolfgang von Goethe during the German poet's Grand Tour in Italy in 1786 - 1788, as they dwelled in the same building in Via del Corso where Ceracchi had his atelier/house. Goethe commissioned him a bust of Johann Joachim Winckelmann and they lived together in Ceracchi's studio for a brief period in 1788, he made two visits to the new American republic, in 1790–2, in hopes of being commissioned to erect an elaborate monument to the new republic and George Washington that he was convinced Congress had voted, again in 1794–5, when he was disappointed in raising the funds for his venture by private subscription.
Of this unrealizable project for a bombastic marble allegory James Madison drily remarked that the sculptor "was an enthusiastic worshipper of Liberty and Fame, his whole soul was bent on securing the latter by rearing a monument to the former". Duplicate letters from Ceracchi to Washington and George Clinton describe plans for a national monument to Washington to be built in the newly planned capital city. During his two American visits he executed heroic portrait busts of leaders of the American Revolution, including Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington with a Roman haircut and a toga (Metropolitan Museum of Art, George Clinton, again presented as a noble Roman, Alexander Hamilton. Most of his prominent subjects sat to him to encourage his art, but none could be found to pay for their busts after the fact. Washington politely refused the gift of his Roman bust in plaster, he returned to Florence about 1794. In Rome he entered with fiery vehemence into the projected Italian Republic under revolutionary French auspices, when Joseph Bonaparte arrived in the city in 1797, drawing Jacobin sympathizers to him.
In the Jacobin riots of December 1797, during which brigadier-general Mathurin-Léonard Duphot was killed, Ceracchi was noted as a leader of the rioters. French troops arrived on 10 February 1798 and on the 15th the Republic of Rome was proclaimed. In 1799 Ceracchi moved to Paris, where he sculpted the portrait bust of Pope Pius VI. Having sculpted a bust of Napoleon Bonaparte, he became disillusioned after the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire to the extent that he was embroiled in the paranoid and furious reaction of Napoleon to the plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise, an attempt against Napoleon's life in which a device dubbed the machine infernal was exploded, with loss of innocent life. Ceracchi was arrested for his alleged participation in the "Conspiration des poignards" and guillotined 30 January 1801, "going to the scaffold, it is said, in a triumphal chariot of his own design". Alexander Hamilton George Washington Conspiration des poignards Alvert Ten Eyck. "Fragment of a Lost Monument". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin: 189–197.
Bryant, Julius. "Ceracchi, Giuseppe". In Marter, Joan M; the Grove Encyclopedia of American Art. Oxford University Press. Pp. 426–27. ISBN 978-0-19-533579-8. Art and the empire city: New York, 1825-1861, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Ceracchi
Cedar Hill (Central Park)
Cedar Hill in Central Park, New York City, is an east-facing slope used for reading and sunbathing, sledding in winter and a preferred area for dog owners. The hill indeed is home to many red cedars. Low outcroppings of rock in the mown turf were scarred by the last glacial period; the south slope is called by joggers "Cat Hill" for its statue,'Still Hunt', of a large stalking cat. Eddie Coyle, a sportswriter for the New York Daily News, in his weekly running columns in the late 1970s called it "cat" Hill and the name became popular; the frontage of Fifth Avenue apartment houses provides a backdrop to the east. At its southern perimeter stands the Glade Arch designed by Calvert Vaux, which provided carriage traffic with a conduit to Fifth Avenue. Hidden deep beneath the north end of Cedar Hill runs New York City Water Tunnel No. 3 with its valve chamber, completed in 1993, due to carry some of the city's drinking water in 2020. Central Park Conservancy