The Residence Act of 1790 titled An Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States, was a United States federal statute adopted during the second session of the First United States Congress, signed into law by President George Washington on July 16, 1790. The Act provided for a national capital and permanent seat of government to be established at a site along the Potomac River and empowered President Washington to appoint commissioners to oversee the project, it set a deadline of December 1800 for the capital to be ready, designated Philadelphia as the nation's temporary capital while the new seat of government was being built. At the time, the federal government was operating out of New York City. Congress passed the Residence Act as part of a compromise brokered among James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton. Madison and Jefferson favored a southerly site for the capital on the Potomac River, but they lacked a majority to pass the measure through Congress.
Meanwhile, Hamilton was pushing for Congress to pass the Assumption Bill, to allow the Federal government to assume debts accumulated by the states during the American Revolutionary War. With the compromise, Hamilton was able to muster support from the New York State congressional delegation for the Potomac site, while four delegates switched from opposition to support for the Assumption Bill. At the outset of the Revolutionary War, the Second Continental Congress was meeting in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania State House. On account of British military actions, the Congress was forced to relocate to Baltimore, Lancaster and York, Pennsylvania for a time before returning to Philadelphia. Upon gaining independence, the Congress of the Confederation was formed, Philadelphia became the new nation's first seat of government. Congress did not remain in the city long however, for in June 1783, a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall demanding payment for their service during the war.
Congress requested that John Dickinson, the governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, before ending up in New York. During the mid-1780s, numerous locations were offered by the states to serve as the nation's capital, but the Continental Congress could never agree on a site due to regional loyalties and tensions. Proposed sites included: Kingston, New York; the Southern states refused to accept a capital in the North, vice versa. Another suggestion was for there to be one in the North and one in the South; the United States Congress was established in 1789, after ratification of the United States Constitution, New York City remained the temporary capital. The new Constitution—through Article I, Section 8, Clause 17—authorized Congress to create a federal district outside of the state structure as the nation's permanent seat of government, granted Congress exclusive governing jurisdiction over it.
The choice of a site was left for the new Congress to decide. During the debate, two sites became serious contenders: one site on the Potomac River near Georgetown; the Susquehanna River site was approved by the House in September 1789, while the Senate bill specified a site on the Delaware River near Germantown, Pennsylvania. The House and Senate were not able to reconcile their two bills; the selection of a location for the capital resurfaced in the summer of 1790. At the same time, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton was pushing for Congress to pass a financial plan. A key provision of Hamilton's plan involved the Federal government assuming states' debts incurred during the American Revolutionary War. Northern states had accumulated a huge amount of debt during the war, amounting to 21.5 million dollars, wanted the federal government to assume their burden. The Southern states, whose citizens would be forced to pay a portion of this debt if the Federal Government assumed it, balked at this proposal.
Some states, including Virginia, had paid half of their debts, felt that their taxpayers should not be assessed again to bail out the less provident. Further, they argued. James Madison a representative from Virginia, led a group of legislators from the south in blocking the provision and preventing the plan from gaining approval; when Jefferson ran into Hamilton at President Washington's residence in New York City in late June 1790, Jefferson offered to host a dinner to bring Madison and Hamilton together. Subsequently, a compromise was reached, in which the northern delegates would agree to the southerly Potomac River site, in return, the federal government would assume debts accumulated by the states during the American Revolutionary War. Jefferson wrote a letter to James Monroe explaining the compromise. Congress agreed to the compromise. Jefferson was able to get the Virginia delegates to support the bill, with the debt provisions, while Hamilton convinced the New York delegates to agree to the Potomac site for the capital.
The bill was approved by the Senate by a vote of 14 t
George Washington (Trumbull)
George Washington is a 1780 portrait of George Washington by American artist John Trumbull, in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The oil on canvas painting measures 36 inches x 28 inches, it depicts Washington standing near the Hudson River with his servant Billy Lee behind him. West Point can be seen in the distance. Trumbull painted the picture from memory some five years after serving on Washington's staff during the American War of Independence; the work is on view in the Metropolitan Museum's Gallery 753. 1780 in art
The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776
The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776 is the title of an oil painting by the American artist John Trumbull depicting the capture of the Hessian soldiers at the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War. The focus is on General George Washington aiding the mortally wounded Hessian Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rall. Nearly 900 Hessians were captured at the battle, it is one of Trumbull's series of historical paintings on the war, which includes the Declaration of Independence and The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777. The painting is on view at the Yale University Art Gallery in Connecticut; the artist intended to show the compassion of General George Washington in this painting, as he wrote in the catalogue for his exhibited works at Yale University in 1835: The magnanimous kindness displayed by Washington, on this occasion, offers a sublime example of true heroism, well deserves to be imitated by all military men.
The artist chose this subject, composed the picture, for the express purpose of giving a lesson to all living and future soldiers in the service of his country, to show mercy and kindness to a fallen enemy,–their enemy no longer when wounded and in their power. Starting in 1775, Trumbull himself served in the war, having been appointed second aide-de-camp to Washington, he resigned from the army in 1777. The study for this painting was begun in London in November, 1786. In the study, Washington enters from the left to order that Rall, upheld by two officers, be cared for respectfully. Trumbull returned to New York on November 26, 1789, to continue work on the painting by making portraits of Washington, he continued making changes on the painting until its completion in 1828. In the center of the painting, American General George Washington is focusing his attention on the needs of the mortally wounded Hessian Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rall. Rall is being helped by American Major William Stephens Smith, aide-de-camp to General John Sullivan.
Washington orders Smith to "call our best surgeons to his assistance, let us save his life if possible." During the battle, Rall had been shot twice and needed to be carried into his headquarters, where he died that night. Behind Washington, on horseback, are his aides, Colonel Robert Hanson Harrison and Captain Tench Tilghman. To the left and behind Rall wounded American Lieutenant James Monroe is attended to by Dr. John Riker, he saved Monroe's life by clamping the damaged artery to stop the heavy bleeding. On the far left, dressed in white, is American Colonel Josiah Parker, he had the honor to receive Rall's sword of surrender and he alone holds a sword in the painting. Next to him are William Shepard. American Major General Nathanael Greene is shown on the right on a light-colored horse, facing Washington. Behind Greene are American Generals John Sullivan, Henry Knox, Philemon Dickinson, John Glover, George Weedon. Standing to the right of Greene is Captain William Washington, wounded in his hand during the battle.
In the foreground, a fallen Hessian flag is shown. Washington was presented one as a war trophy. A large scale version, finished in 1831, is owned by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut. Trumbull did not use the prelude to the capture, namely the crossing of the Delaware River, as a subject. Artists did not paint that until 1819 by Thomas Sully and notably by Emanuel Leutze. Trumbull's work drew criticism from historian and painter William Dunlap after he viewed it in the Trumbull Gallery at Yale in 1834: All, good in this picture was painted in 1789 and shortly after. What is good is good, but the artist undertook, in after life, to finish it, every touch is a blot. General George Washington at Trenton – Portrait after the Second Battle of Trenton and before the Battle of Princeton Battle of Princeton "The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776". Yale University Art Gallery. "The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776". Inventory of American Sculpture, Smithsonian Institution Research Information System.
Smithsonian American Art Museum. IAP 07261656. Owner: Yale University Art Gallery "Romania, 1976, The Capture of the Hessians, by John Trumbull". Depositphotos. Archived from the original on 2017-03-08. – Romania Postage Stamp, for the American Bicentennial
Founding Fathers of the United States
The Founding Fathers of the United States, or the Founding Fathers, were a group of philosophers and writers who led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain. Most were descendants of colonists settled in the Thirteen Colonies in North America. Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison. Adams and Franklin were members of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton and Jay were authors of The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution; the constitutions drafted by Jay and Adams for their respective states of New York and Massachusetts were relied upon when creating language for the U. S. Constitution. Jay and Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris that would end the American Revolutionary War. Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and was President of the Constitutional Convention.
All held additional important roles in the early government of the United States, with Washington, Adams and Madison serving as President. Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice, Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, Franklin was America's most senior diplomat, the governmental leader of Pennsylvania; the term Founding Fathers is sometimes used to refer to the Signers of the embossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Signers should not be confused with the term Framers. Of the 55 Framers, only 39 were signers of the Constitution. Two further groupings of Founding Fathers include: 1) those who signed the Continental Association, a trade ban and one of the colonists' first collective volleys protesting British control and the Intolerable Acts in 1774, or 2) those who signed the Articles of Confederation, the first U. S. constitutional document. The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a 20th-century appellation, coined by Warren G. Harding in 1916. Prior to, during the 19th century, they were referred to as the "Fathers".
The term has been used to describe first settlers of the original royal colonies. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774, consisting of 56 delegates from all thirteen American colonies except Georgia. Among them was George Washington, who would soon be drawn out of military retirement to command the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. In attendance was Patrick Henry, John Adams, who like all delegates were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay; this congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association to administer boycott actions against Britain. When the Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775, it reconstituted the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock of Massachusetts, John Witherspoon of New Jersey.
Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph was recalled to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson replaced Randolph in the Virginia congressional delegation; the second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon was the only active clergyman to sign the Declaration, he signed the Articles of Confederation and attended the New Jersey convention that ratified the Federal Constitution. The newly founded country of the United States had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament; the U. S. adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government with a one-house legislature. Its ratification by all thirteen colonies gave the second Congress a new name: the Congress of the Confederation, which met from 1781 to 1789; the Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset for some including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton was to create a new frame of government rather than amending the existing one.
The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution and the replacement of the Continental Congress with the United States Congress; the Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century U. S. leadership. According to a study of the biographies by Caroline Robbins: The Signers came for the most part from an educated elite, were residents of older settlements, belonged with a few exceptions to a moderately well-to-do class representing only a fraction of the population. Native or born overseas, they were of the Protestant faith. All of them were leaders in their communities. Many were prominent in national affairs; every one had taken part in the American Revolution. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution. Many of the Founding Fathers attended or held degrees from the colonial colleges, most notably Columbia known at the time as "King's College", Princeton or
The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777
The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777 is the title of an oil painting by the American artist John Trumbull depicting the death of the American General Hugh Mercer at the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777 during the American Revolutionary War. The painting was Trumbull’s first depiction of an American victory, it is one of a series of historical paintings on the war, which includes the Declaration of Independence and The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776. The artist expressed his great admiration for General George Washington in this painting as he wrote in the catalogue for his exhibited works at Yale University in 1835: Thus, in the short space of nine days, an extensive country, an entire State, was wrested from the hands of a victorious enemy, superior in numbers, in arms and in discipline, by the wisdom and energy of one great mind, it was a personal favorite of Trumbull himself. When asked by Benjamin Silliman which paintings he would save from destruction in the Trumbull Gallery at Yale, he said this one.
Trumbull used Hugh Jr. as a model for the painting. The picture displays several different events of the battle. At the center, American General Hugh Mercer, with his dead horse beneath him, is shown mortally wounded. Mercer was commanding the leading division of the Continental Army when attacked by British Colonel Charles Mawhood near Princeton, New Jersey. Mercer's horse was killed and he was attacked by two grenadiers; the British were in control of the battle at this moment. Mercer would be treated for his wounds by Dr. Benjamin Rush the next day, January 4, but died on January 12 as a result, Dr. Rush believed, of a concussion caused by a musket butt to the headAt the left, American Daniel Neil is shown bayoneted against a cannon. At the right, British Captain William Leslie is shown mortally wounded. Leslie died during the battle and was put on a wagon by the British, taken by the Americans. Rush learned of his death on January 4, he would be buried at Pluckemin, New Jersey the next day, January 5.
In the background, American General George Washington and Dr. Benjamin Rush enter the scene. After Mercer became a casualty, Washington needed to lead the charge to overtake Mawhood's troops and win the battle. On the far left, American General Thomas Mifflin is shown leading a cavalry charge. American Colonel John Cadwalader and British Colonel Edmund Eyre are depicted. Trumbull worked on this painting for many years and created several sketches and final oil paintings. A collection of sketches is located at the Princeton University Library. A large scale version, painted in 1831, is owned by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Connecticut; the Yale University Art Gallery owns an unfinished version dated c. 1786–c. 1788. Battle of Trenton "The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777". Yale University Art Gallery. "The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777,". Inventory of American Sculpture, Smithsonian Institution Research Information System. Smithsonian American Art Museum.
IAP 07260646. Owner: Yale University Art Gallery Sizer, Theodore. "Trumbull's The Battle of Princeton". The Princeton University Library Chronicle. XII: 1–5
United States Secretary of the Treasury
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with financial and monetary matters, until 2003 included several federal law enforcement agencies. This position in the federal government of the United States is analogous to the Minister of Finance in many other countries; the Secretary of the Treasury is a member of the President's Cabinet, is nominated by the President of the United States. Nominees for Secretary of the Treasury undergo a confirmation hearing before the United States Senate Committee on Finance before being voted on by the United States Senate; the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the importance of their departments. The Secretary of the Treasury is a non-statutory member of the U. S. National Security Council and fifth in the United States presidential line of succession; the Secretary of the Treasury is the principal economic advisor to the President and plays a critical role in policy-making by bringing an economic and government financial policy perspective to issues facing the government.
The Secretary is responsible for formulating and recommending domestic and international financial and tax policy, participating in the formulation of broad fiscal policies that have general significance for the economy, managing the public debt. The Secretary oversees the activities of the Department in carrying out its major law enforcement responsibilities; the Chief Financial Officer of the government, the Secretary serves as Chairman Pro Tempore of the President's Economic Policy Council, Chairman of the Boards and Managing Trustee of the Social Security and Medicare Trust Funds, as U. S. Governor of the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Secretary along with the Treasurer of the United States must sign Federal Reserve notes before they can become legal tender. The Secretary manages the United States Emergency Economic Stabilization fund.
Most of the Department's law enforcement agencies such as the U. S. Customs Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the U. S. Secret Service were reassigned to other departments in 2003 in conjunction with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security; the salary of the Secretary of the Treasury is $205,700 annually. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status 1 William Jones served as acting secretary between the resignation of Alexander J. Dallas and appointment of William H. Crawford. 2 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury M. Peter McPherson served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from August 17, 1988, to September 15, 1988. 3 Because of the resignation of Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Roger Altman in August 1994, Under Secretary of Treasury for Domestic Finance Frank N. Newman served from December 22, 1994, to January 11, 1995 as Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 4 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Kenneth W. Dam served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from December 31, 2002, to February 3, 2003.
5 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Robert M. Kimmitt served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from June 30, 2006, to July 9, 2006. 6 Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence Stuart A. Levey served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 20, 2009, until the confirmation of Timothy Geithner, which occurred January 26, 2009. 7 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Neal Wolin served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 25, 2013, until the confirmation of Jack Lew which occurred February 28, 2013. 8 Acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence Adam J. Szubin served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 20, 2017, until the confirmation of Steven Mnuchin which occurred February 13, 2017. If both the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury are unable to carry out the duties of the office of Secretary of the Treasury whichever Treasury official of Under Secretary rank sworn in earliest assumes the role of Acting Secretary. Positions listed on the Department of the Treasury website include the Under Secretary for Domestic Finance, the Under Secretary for International Affairs, the Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence.
As of April 2019, there are eleven living former Secretaries of the Treasury, the oldest being George P. Shultz; the most recent Secretary of the Treasury to die, as well as the most serving Secretary to die, was Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr. on May 23, 2006. "Secretaries of the Treasury". History of the Treasury. United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved April 9, 2006. Official website
Commanding General of the United States Army
Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the Army in 1903, there was recognized to be a single senior-most officer in the United States Army though there was not a statutory office as such. During the American Revolutionary War, the title was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. In 1783, the title was simplified to Senior Officer of the United States Army. In 1821, the title was changed to Commanding General of the United States Army; the office was referred to by various other titles, such as "Major General Commanding the Army" or "General-in-Chief." From 1789 until its abolition in 1903, the position of Commanding General was subordinate to the Secretary of War, although this was at times contested. The position was abolished with the creation of the statutory Chief of Staff of the Army in 1903. † denotes people who died in office. United States military seniority Historical Resources Branch. Eicher, John H.. Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
Bell, William Gardner. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005: Portraits and Biographical Sketches. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. King, Archibald. Command of the Army. Military Affairs. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Judge Advocate General's School, U. S. Army