Alexander II of Scotland
Alexander II was King of Scotland from 1214 until his death in 1249. He was born at Haddington, East Lothian, the only son of the Scottish king William the Lion and Ermengarde of Beaumont, he spent time in England before succeeding to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214, being crowned at Scone on 6 December the same year. In 1215, the year after his accession, the clans Meic Uilleim and MacHeths, inveterate enemies of the Scottish crown, broke into revolt. In the same year Alexander joined the English barons in their struggle against John of England, led an army into the Kingdom of England in support of their cause; this action led to the sacking of Berwick-upon-Tweed as John's forces ravaged the north. The Scottish forces reached the south coast of England at the port of Dover where in September 1216, Alexander paid homage to the pretender Prince Louis of France for his lands in England, chosen by the barons to replace King John, but John having died, the Pope and the English aristocracy changed their allegiance to his nine-year-old son, forcing the French and the Scots armies to return home.
Peace between Henry III, Louis of France, Alexander followed on 12 September 1217 with the treaty of Kingston. Diplomacy further strengthened the reconciliation by the marriage of Alexander to Henry's sister Joan of England on 18 June or 25 June 1221; the next year marked the subjection of the hitherto semi-independent district of Argyll. Royal forces crushed a revolt in Galloway in 1235 without difficulty. Soon afterwards a claim for homage from Henry of England drew forth from Alexander a counter-claim to the northern English counties; the two kingdoms, settled this dispute by a compromise in 1237. This was the Treaty of York which defined the boundary between the two kingdoms as running between the Solway Firth and the mouth of the River Tweed. Joan died in March 1238 in Essex. Alexander married his second wife, Marie de Coucy, the following year on 15 May 1239. Together they had one son, the future Alexander III, born in 1241. A threat of invasion by Henry in 1243 for a time interrupted the friendly relations between the two countries.
Alexander now turned his attention to securing the Western Isles, which were still part of the Norwegian domain of Suðreyjar. He attempted negotiations and purchase, but without success. Alexander set out to conquer these islands but died on the way in 1249; this dispute over the Western Isles known as the Hebrides, was not resolved until 1266 when Magnus VI of Norway ceded them to Scotland along with the Isle of Man. The English chronicler Matthew Paris in his Chronica Majora described Alexander as red-haired: " taunted King Alexander, because he was red-headed, sent word to him, saying,'so shall we hunt the red fox-cub from his lairs." Alexander attempted to persuade Ewen, the son of Duncan, Lord of Argyll, to sever his allegiance to Haakon IV of Norway. When Ewen rejected these attempts, Alexander sailed forth to compel him, but on the way he suffered a fever at the Isle of Kerrera in the Inner Hebrides, he died there in 1249 and was buried at Melrose Abbey 1. Joan of England, was the eldest legitimate daughter and third child of John of England and Isabella of Angoulême.
She and Alexander II married on 21 June 1221, at York Minster. Alexander was 23. Joan was 11, they had no children. Joan was Alexander's 3rd cousin. Joan died in Essex in 1238, was buried at Tarant Crawford Abbey in Dorset. 2. Marie de Coucy, who became mother of Alexander III of Scotland, she was Alexander's third cousin once removed by their common ancestor Hugh, Count of Vermandois. Alexander II has been depicted in historical novels: Sword of State by Nigel Tranter; the novel depicts Patrick II, Earl of Dunbar. "Their friendship withstands treachery and rivalry". Child of the Phoenix by Barbara Erskine. "Alexander II". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Chambers, Robert. "Alexander II.". A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. 1. Glasgow: Blackie and Son. Pp. 47–49 – via Wikisource. Worcester Annals Rotuli Litterarum Patencium Oram, Richard. Alexander II: King of Scots 1214-1249. Edinburgh. Pollock, M. A.. Scotland and France after the Loss of Normandy, 1204-1296. Woodbridge
Pope Alexander II
Pope Alexander II, born Anselm of Baggio, was pope from 30 September 1061 to his death in 1073. Born in Milan, Anselm was involved in the Pataria reform movement. Elected according to the terms of his predecessor's bull, In nomine Domini, Anselm's was the first election by the cardinals without the participation of the people and minor clergy of Rome. Anselm was born in a town near Milan from 1923 district of the city, of a noble family. Contemporary sources do not provide any information, it was traditionally believed that Anselm de Baggio studied under Lanfranc at Bec Abbey, modern historiography rejects such possibility. He was one of the founders of the Pataria, a movement in the Archdiocese of Milan, aimed at reforming the clergy and ecclesiastic government in the province and supportive of Papal sanctions against simony and clerical marriage, they contested the ancient rights of the cathedral clergy of Milan and supported the Gregorian reforms. Anselm was one of four "upright and honest" priests suggested to succeed Ariberto da Intimiano as prince bishop of Milan.
When Emperor Henry III chose instead the more worldly Guido da Velate, protests followed. In order to silence a vocal critic, Bishop Guido sent Anselm to the Imperial Court; the emperor named Anselm bishop of Lucca. As bishop, he was an energetic coadjutor with Hildebrand of Sovana in endeavouring to suppress simony and enforce clerical celibacy. So bad was the state of things at Milan, that benefices were bought and sold, the clergy publicly married the women with whom they lived. With the increased prestige of his office, he reappeared twice in Milan as legate of the Holy See, in 1057 in the company of Hildebrand, in 1059 with Peter Damian. In the papal election of 1061 following the death of Pope Nicholas II, Anselmo de Baggio of Lucca was elected as Pope Alexander II. Unlike previous papal elections, the assent of the Holy Roman Emperor to the election was not sought, cardinal bishops were the sole electors of the pope for the first time in the history of the Catholic Church; the bull removed the control held by the Roman metropolitan church over the election of the pontiff.
The new Pope Alexander II was crowned at nightfall on October 1, 1061 in San Pietro in Vincoli Basilica, because opposition to the election made a coronation in St. Peter's Basilica impossible, the German court nominated another candidate, bishop of Parma, proclaimed Pope at the council of Basel under the name of Honorius II, he marched for a long time threatened his rival's position. At length, Honorius was deposed by a council held at Mantua. In 1065, Pope Alexander II wrote to Béranger, Viscount of Narbonne, to Guifred, bishop of the city, praising them for having prevented the massacre of the Jews in their district, reminding them that God does not approve of the shedding of innocent blood; that same year, he admonished Landulf VI of Benevento "that the conversion of Jews is not to be obtained by force." In the same year, Alexander called for the Crusade of Barbastro against the Moors in Spain. Alexander II issued orders to the Bishops of Narbonne, instructing crusaders en route "that you protect the Jews who live among you, so that they may not be killed by those who are setting out for Spain against the Saracens... for the situation of the Jews is different from that of the Saracens.
One may justly fight against those who persecute Christians and drive them from their towns and their own homes." In 1066, he entertained an embassy from William, Duke of Normandy, after his successful invasion of Brittany. The embassy had been sent to obtain his blessing for William's prospective invasion of Anglo-Saxon England. Alexander gave it, along with a papal ring, the Standard of St. George, an edict to the autonomous Old English clergy guiding them to submit to the new regime; these favors were instrumental in the submission of the English church following the Battle of Hastings. Count Eustace carried his papal insignia, a gonfanon with three tails charged with a cross, which William of Poitiers says was given to William I to signify the pope's blessing of his invasion to secure a submission to Rome. Alexander elevated his former teacher, Lanfranc of Bec, to the See of Canterbury and appointed him Primate of England. In 1068, Emperor Henry IV attempted to divorce Bertha of Savoy; the Papal legate Peter Damian hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the Pope to deny his coronation.
Henry obeyed and his wife, who had retired to Lorsch Abbey returned to Court. In 1072 Alexander commanded the reluctant Polish priest Stanislaus of Szczepanów to accept appointment as Bishop of Kraków - becoming one of the earliest native Polish bishops; this turned out to be a significant decision for the Polish Church: once appointed, Stanislaus was a assertive bishop who got into conflict with Polish king Bolesław II the Bold, was assassinated by him and was canonized and venerated as a major Polish saint. Alexander II oversaw the suppression of the "Alleluia" during the Latin Church's celebration of Lent; this is followed to this day. List of Catholic saints List of papal elections List of popes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Alexander II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Ro
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland. Alexander's most significant reform as Emperor was emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator; the tsar was responsible for other reforms, including reorganising the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing corporal punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some privileges of the nobility, promoting university education. After an assassination attempt in 1866, Alexander adopted a somewhat more reactionary stance until his death. Alexander pivoted towards foreign policy and sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, fearing the remote colony would fall into British hands if there were another war, he sought peace, moved away from bellicose France when Napoleon III fell in 1871, in 1872 joined with Germany and Austria in the League of the Three Emperors that stabilized the European situation.
Despite his otherwise pacifist foreign policy, he fought a brief war with the Ottoman Empire in 1877–78, pursued further expansion into Siberia and the Caucasus, conquered Turkestan. Although disappointed by the results of the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Alexander abided by that agreement. Among his greatest domestic challenges was an uprising in Poland in 1863, to which he responded by stripping that land of its separate constitution and incorporating it directly into Russia. Alexander was proposing additional parliamentary reforms to counter the rise of nascent revolutionary and anarchistic movements when he was assassinated in 1881. Born in Moscow, Alexander Nikolaevich was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, his early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential. In the period of his life as heir apparent, the intellectual atmosphere of Saint Petersburg did not favour any kind of change: freedom of thought and all forms of private initiative were suppressed vigorously by the order of his father.
Personal and official censorship was rife. The education of the Tsesarevich as future emperor took place under the supervision of the liberal romantic poet and gifted translator Vasily Zhukovsky, grasping a smattering of a great many subjects and becoming familiar with the chief modern European languages. Alexander's alleged lack of interest in military affairs resulted from his reaction to the effects of the unsavoury Crimean War of 1853–1856 on his own family and on the whole country. Unusually for the time, the young Alexander was taken on a six-month tour of Russia, visiting 20 provinces in the country, he visited many prominent Western European countries in 1838 and 1839. As Tsesarevich, Alexander became the first Romanov heir to visit Siberia. While touring Russia, he befriended the exiled poet Alexander Herzen & pardoned him, it was through Herzen's influence that the tsarevich abolished serfdom in Russia. In 1839, when his parents sent him on a tour of Europe, he met twenty-year-old Queen Victoria and both were enamored of each other.
Simon Sebag Montefiore speculates. Such a marriage, would not work, as Alexander was not a minor prince of Europe and was in line to inherit a throne himself. Alexander II succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855, he inherited a large mess, wrought by his father's fear of progress during his reign. Many of the other royal families of Europe had disliked Nicholas I, which extended to distrust of the Romanov dynasty itself. So, there was no one more prepared to bring the country around than Alexander II; the first year of his reign was devoted to the prosecution of the Crimean War and, after the fall of Sevastopol, to negotiations for peace led by his trusted counsellor, Prince Alexander Gorchakov. The country had been humiliated by the war. Bribe-taking and corruption were rampant. Encouraged by public opinion, Alexander began a period of radical reforms, including an attempt not to depend on landed aristocracy controlling the poor, an effort to develop Russia's natural resources, to reform all branches of the administration.
In 1867 he sold Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million after recognising the great difficulty of defending it against the United Kingdom or the former British colony of Canada. After Alexander became emperor in 1855, he maintained a liberal course. Despite this, he was a target for numerous assassination attempts. On 13 March 1881, members of the Narodnaya Volya party killed him with a bomb; the Emperor had earlier in the day signed the Loris-Melikov constitution, which would have created two legislative commissions made up of indirectly elected representatives, had it not been repealed by his reactionary successor Alexander III. The Emancipation Reform of 1861 abolished serfdom on private estates throughout the Russian Empire. Serfs gained the full rights of free citizens, including rights to marry without having to gain con
Alexander II Zabinas
Alexander II Zabinas, who claimed the epithets "Manifest God and Bearer of Victory", was a pretender to the throne of the Seleucid Empire who controlled parts of Syria between 128 and 123 BC. Amid the dynastic wars between the branches of the family of Alexander the Great's general Seleucus, Alexander II was able to defeat Demetrius II but was defeated and executed by Demetrius's son Antiochus VIII. Alexander was regarded as a puppet of the Egyptian king Ptolemy VIII. Alexander was born c. 150 BC. He seems to have been the son of a hellenized Egyptian merchant named Protarchus but, in the chaos following the Seleucids' loss of Mesopotamia to the Parthians, he claimed to be an adopted son of Antiochus VII; the Seleucid emperor Demetrius II had launched a failed invasion of Egypt in support of Cleopatra II against her brother Ptolemy VIII. Demetrius's own harsh rule further caused several Seleucid cities, including the capital Antioch and Apamea on the Euphrates, to support Alexander of their own free will.
Alexander and his Egyptian allies were able to defeat Demetrius, who fled to his wife Cleopatra in Ptolemais. When Cleopatra refused to receive him, he went to Tyre on the Phoenician coast, where he was tortured and killed at his wife's behest. Alexander II was thereafter able to control parts of Syria between 128 and 123 BC. Diodorus reported that he "was kindly and forgiving and moreover gentle in both speech and manner, wherefore he was beloved by the common people", he successfully put down a revolt by "Antipater and Aeropus" in Laodicea. Josephus states that he allied with the Hasmoneans under John Hyrcanus, who had taken the opportunity of Demetrius's captivity and death to expand Judea. Once Ptolemy VIII withdrew his military support, Demetrius II's son Antiochus VIII was able to defeat Alexander. Alexander II began plundering the treasures of its temples, he was said to have sardonically joked, while melting down a golden statue of Nike located in the hand of an idol of Zeus, that "Zeus lends me victory".
Justin claims that the jest underscored that the gold was needed to pay his troops and the action was accepted by the Antiochenes. A few days however, his men were discovered in the act of removing a great golden statue of Zeus himself for Alexander's own enrichment. Diodorus, records that Alexander had lost all hope of being able to defeat Antiochus and planned to pilfer the entire city before fleeing to Greece under cover of darkness. Justin states that a storm drove Alexander's ship to shore, where he was abandoned by his men and captured by robbers. Diodorus traces his path along the coast, stating that news of his impiety outran him, causing Seleucia to refuse him entry. Eusebius has Alexander killing himself with poison, where other sources state he was brought to Antiochus's camp and executed in 122 BC, two days after his desecration of Antioch's Temple of Zeus. Several of his coins are extant. A single gold stater bears his full list of epithets. List of Seleucid rulers List of Syrian monarchs Timeline of Syrian history
Alexander II of Epirus
Alexander II was a king of Epirus, the son of Pyrrhus and Lanassa, the daughter of the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles. He succeeded his father as king in 272 BC, continued the war which his father had begun with Antigonus II Gonatas, whom he succeeded in driving from the kingdom of Macedon, he was, dispossessed of both Macedon and Epirus by Demetrius II of Macedon, the son of Antigonus II. By their assistance and that of his own subjects, who entertained a great attachment for him, he recovered Epirus, it appears. Alexander married his paternal half-sister Olympias, by whom he had two sons, Ptolemy and a daughter, Phthia. On the death of Alexander, around 242 BC, Olympias assumed the regency on behalf of her sons, married Phthia to Demetrius. There are extant copper coins of this king; the former bear a youthful head covered with the skin of an elephant's head. The reverse represents Pallas holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other, before her stands an eagle on a thunderbolt. Connop Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol. viii Johann Gustav Droysen, Hellenismus Benediktus Niese, Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten Karl Julius Beloch, Griechische Geschichte vol. iii
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia claiming the crowned royal title of Alexander II Karađorđević, is the last heir-apparent or heir-presumptive to the defunct throne of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and claimant to the abolished throne of the precursor Kingdom of Serbia. He is the head of the House of Karađorđević. Alexander is his wife, Alexandra of Greece and Denmark, he held the position of crown prince in the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia for the first four-and-a-half months of his life, from his birth until the declaration of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945. Born and raised in the United Kingdom, he enjoys close relationships with his relatives in the British royal family, his godparents were King George VI of the United Kingdom and his daughter, the then-Princess Elizabeth. Alexander is known for his support of his humanitarian work; as with many other European monarchs during World War II, King Peter II left his country to establish a government-in-exile. He left Yugoslavia in April 1941 and arrived in London in June 1941.
The Royal Yugoslav Armed Forces capitulated April 18. After the Tehran Conference, the Allies shifted support from royalist Chetniks to communist Partisans. Commenting on the event and what happened to his father, Crown Prince Alexander said, “He was too straight, he could not believe that his allies –- the mighty American democracy and his relatives and friends in London –- could do him in. But that's what happened.” In June 1944 Ivan Šubašić, the Royalist prime minister, Josip Broz Tito, the Partisan leader, signed an agreement, an attempt to merge the royal government and communist movement. On 29 November 1943, AVNOJ declared themselves the sovereign communist government of Yugoslavia and announced that they would take away all legal rights from the Royal government. On 10 August 1945, less than a month after Alexander's birth, AVNOJ named the country Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. On 29 November 1945, the country was declared a communist republic and changed its name to People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
In 1947, all members of Alexander's family except for his grand-uncle Prince George were deprived of their Yugoslavian citizenship and their property was confiscated. As of 8 July 2015 the High Court in Belgrade found that decree 392, issued by the Presidency of the Presidium of the National Assembly on 3 August 1947, which deprived King Peter II and other members of the House of Karađorđević of their citizenship, was null and void from the moment of its adoption, in the parts pertaining to Crown Prince Alexander, that all of its legal consequences are thus null and void. Alexander was born in Suite 212 of Claridge's Hotel in London; the British Government is said to have temporarily ceded sovereignty over the suite in which the birth occurred to Yugoslavia so that the crown prince would be born on Yugoslav territory, though the story may be apocryphal, as there exists no documentary record of this. He was christened at Westminster Abbey, his godparents were King George VI and Princess Elizabeth, now Queen Elizabeth II.
He was the only child of King Peter II and Queen Alexandra and the only grandchild of King Alexander of Greece by his wife Aspasia Manos. His parents were unable to take care of him, due to their various health and financial problems, so Alexander was raised by his maternal grandmother, he was educated at Trinity School, Institut Le Rosey, Culver Military Academy, Gordonstoun and Mons Officer Cadet School and pursued a career in the British military. Alexander graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1966 and was commissioned as an officer into the British Army's 16th/5th The Queen’s Royal Lancers regiment, rising to the rank of captain, his tours of duty included West Germany, the Middle East, Northern Ireland. After leaving the army in 1972, who speaks several languages, pursued a career in international business. On 1 July 1972 at Villamanrique de la Condesa, near Seville, Spain, he married Princess Maria da Gloria of Orléans-Braganza, from the Brazilian imperial family, they had three sons: Peter, fraternal twins: Philip and Alexander.
By marrying a Roman Catholic, Alexander lost his place in line of succession to the British throne, which he had held as a descendant of Queen Victoria through her second son Alfred, although forfeiture of succession rights on the basis of marriage to a Roman Catholic was retroactively rescinded in 2015. Alexander is descended from Queen Victoria's eldest daughter Victoria, his sons remain in the line of succession to the British throne. Alexander and Maria da Gloria divorced in 1985. Crown Prince Alexander married for the second time, Katherine Clairy Batis, the daughter of Robert Batis and his wife, Anna Dosti, civilly on 20 September 1985, religiously the following day, at St. Sava Serbian Orthodox Church, Notting Hill, London. Since their marriage, she is known as Princess Katherine, as per the royal family's website. Alexander first came to Yugoslavia in 1991, he worked with the opposition to Slobodan Milošević and moved to Yugoslavia after Milošević had been deposed in 2000. On 27 February 2001, the parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia passed legislation conferring citizenship on members of the Karađorđević family.
The legislation may have annulled a decree stripping the family of its citizenship of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1947. The annulment was the topic of some debate. Notably, the FRY was not the
Alexander II of Kakheti
Alexander II of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1574 to 1605. In spite of a precarious international situation, he managed to retain relative economic stability in his kingdom and tried to establish contacts with the Tsardom of Russia. Alexander fell victim to the Iran-sponsored coup led by his own son, Constantine I. Alexander was a son of King Levan of Kakheti by his first wife Tinatin Gurieli. Upon Levan’s death in 1574, Alexander secured his succession in a power struggle with his half-brothers – El-Mirza and Kaikhosro – and their party, he was aided by his kinsman and western neighbor, Daud Khan of Kartli, who sent auxiliary troops under the princes Bardzim Amilakhvari and Elizbar of the Ksani, helped Alexander crush the opponents at the Battle of Torgi. Alexander II continued a traditional policy of his predecessors aimed at keeping peace with the neighbors of Kakheti. This, for the time being, secured the economic prosperity in the kingdom. However, he faced a difficult task of maneuvering between the Ottomans and Safavid Iran as both empires vied for the hegemony in the Caucasus.
Although Alexander was a vassal, at least nominally, of the Safavids, he repudiated his allegiance to the Shah of Iran and accepted the Ottoman suzerainty when the latter empire gained the upper hand in 1578. The move did not prevent, Kakheti from being attacked by the mountainous subjects of the Shamkhal of Tarki, instigated by the Ottoman agents. Alexander decided to resume his father’s efforts to establish alliance with the Tsardom of Russia. After exchanging ambassadors in 1586–1587, Alexander received the protection of Tsar Feodor I of Russia, signing the Book of Pledge in 1589. Russian troops were sent against the shamkhal in a brief campaign of 1592. Little else came of the Russian promises, leading to a series of complaints by Alexander to the tsar’s ambassadors. Between 1596 and 1597, envoys of Alexander II, Simon I of Kartli, Manuchehr of Samtshke arrived at the Safavid court, including slave boys and girls, who were entertained by Prince Constantine, the son of Alexander II himself, brought up at the Safavid court.
In October 1601, Alexander’s son, revolted from the royal authority and seized the crown, forcing his father to retire to a monastery. David died a year on October 2, 1602, Alexander was able to resume the throne. Meanwhile, Iran started to regain; the energetic Shah Abbas I laid a siege to the Ottoman-held fortress of Erivan in November 1603 and summoned Alexander to his headquarters. After months of hesitation, Alexander acceded, massacred the Ottoman garrison in Tiflis, arrived at Erivan in April 1604. Early in 1605, Shah Abbas sent him back with orders to raid Shirvan, he was accompanied by his son, raised at the Safavid court as a convert to Islam. Back in Kakheti, Alexander found a new Russian embassy requesting his support in a projected campaign against the shamkhal; the Russian envoys had been favorably received by Alexander’s son, who ran the kingdom in his father’s absence. Dissatisfied by this maneuver, Constantine demanded the loyal execution of the shah’s orders. On March 12, 1605, Alexander summoned a council at Zagem.
Within hours, Constantine led his Qizilbash entourage into a bloody coup against his own father. Constantine was made by the shah king of Kakheti, the Safavid suzerainty was, for the time being, reasserted in the kingdom. Alexander II was married to Tinatin, daughter of Prince Bardzim Amilakhvari, who bore him five or six sons and two daughters: Erekle David I of Kakheti George Constantine I Rostom Anton, not mentioned in Cyril Toumanoff's traditional genealogy Anna. Blow, David. Shah Abbas: The Ruthless King Who became an Iranian Legend. London, UK: I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-1845119898. LCCN 2009464064