Shlisselburg is a town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 35 kilometers east of St. Petersburg. From 1944 to 1992, it was known as Petrokrepost. Population: 13,170 ; the fortress and the town center are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A wooden fortress named Oreshek or Orekhov was built by Grand Prince Yury of Moscow on behalf of the Novgorod Republic in 1323. After a series of conflicts, a peace treaty was signed at Oreshek on August 12, 1323 between Sweden and Grand Prince Yury and the Novgorod Republic. In 1348 king Magnus Eriksson attacked and took the fortress during his crusade in the region in 1348–1352, it was ruined by the time the Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1351. In 1478 the Novgorod Republic was absorbed by the Muscovy who started to strengthen their border with Sweden; the existing small citadel was demolished and a new stone fortress with seven towers was constructed, which occupied the complete island. In 1554-1555, during the Russo-Swedish war, The Swedes laid siege with no success.
In response, Muscovites besieged Vyborg, with no success either. During the Livonian war, in 1582 Swedish troops led by Pontus De La Gardie captured the fortress. After a row of artillery fire they managed to break into one of the towers, but were repelled by Muscovites; the fort was captured by Sweden in 1611 during the Ingrian War after nine months of siege, when the defenders lost every 9 men of 10. During the Ingrian Campaign of tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in June 1656 the fortress came under a siege by voevoda Potyomkin which lasted until November 1656 with no success. In 1702, during the Great Northern War, the fortress was taken by Russians under Peter the Great in an amphibious assault: 440 Swedish soldiers defended the fort for ten days before surrendering.. Peter renamed the fortress to Shlisselburg, a transliteration into the Cyrillic alphabet of Schlüsselburg; the name, meaning "Key-fortress" in German, which refers to Peter's perception of the fortress as the "key to Ingria". During Imperial times the fortress lost its military role and was used as a notorious political prison.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the prisoners, both political and criminal, were released, set the prison on fire. Shortly before Shlisselburg was occupied by the German troops, a garrison of 350 Red Army soldiers was sent to the fortress on Orekhovets island to bring supplies and munition to the frontline; the garrison held the abandoned castle for 500 days preventing the Germans from landing there and cutting the last transit route from Leningrad to the mainland. Heavy artillery fire by the Germans destroyed all the buildings inside the fortress and part of the outer towers and walls, but despite numerous attempts the fortress was not captured. During Operation Iskra the siege of the fortress was lifted; the war devastated the fortress. Out of original ten towers, the fortress retains only six. Renovation of the walls and towers is slow, although still underway. A stone monument in memory of the first Russo-Swedish peace treaty was placed inside the fortress. Tourists can reach the island from May to October via Shlisselburg or from the Northern bank of Neva, via Petrokrepost' railway station with regular ferries that run every 10-15 minutes.
A predecessor of the town was posad that first appeared around the citadel on the island, in late XV-early XVI century shifted to both banks of Neva. Once muscovites rebuilt old citadel into a powerful stronghold leaving no place for residential purposes and merchants were only allowed to the island to seek a shelter from advancing Swedish troops. Posad on the southern bank was more convenient, as for its population, unlike for those living on the Northern coast, was easier to flee the enemies to the Southeast, into the Russian mainland. Southern posad of Oreshek was turned into town in 1702 by Peter the Great. In the course of Peter's administrative reform, Shlisselburg was included into Ingermanland Governorate. In 1727, it became a part of Sankt-Petersburgsky Uyezd, in 1755 Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was established. In 1914, Sankt-Peterburgsky Uyezd was renamed Petrogradsky Uyezd. Old Ladoga Channel that divides the town into two parts was constructed during 1719-1731 to ensure the safety of the vessel traffic along the Southern coast of the dangerously turbulent lake Ladoga.
The plan of the channel was worked out by the Emperor Peter I himself. In 1826 the channel became too shallow, so numerous locks, including those in the town, were built to maintain the depth of the channel. In 1861 construction of the new channel was commenced, that run between the old one and the lake; the old channel was abandoned in 1940, what remains of it may still be seen in Shlisselburg. One of the most notorious political prisoners of Shlisselburg fortress was Iustin Zhuk, anarcho-syndicalist rebel from the Kiev Governorate. During the Russian Revolution he was released from prison and found a job on the Gunpowder works of Shlisselburg, where he joined and headed a commune of pro-Bolshevik workers. Zhuk supported the revolutionary forces in Petrograd and arranged day care for the children of workers as well as sourced food from Ukraine, where he was born, he led a group of Red Guards from Shlisselburg that were dispatched to the Russian-Finnish borderland to halt an intrusion of White Finns towards
Penza is a city and the administrative center of Penza Oblast, located on the Sura River, 625 kilometers southeast of Moscow. Population: 517,311 . Penza was founded as a Russian frontier fortress-city, to this day, remnants of the Lomovskaya sentry line built in 1640 have been preserved at the western edge of the city, remains of earth ramparts dating from the mid-16th century are preserved in the city center; until 1663, Penza was a wooden stockade with only a small settlement. In May 1663, the architect Yuri Kontransky arrived in Penza on the Tsar's orders to direct the construction of a fortress city, as part of a wider fortress building program to protect Russia from attacks by Crimean Tatars; the initial construction consisted of a wooden Kremlin, a village, quarters for the nobility, small tradesmen, merchants. The Muscovite government placed the Ukrainian Cossacks here, who constructed a fortress and called it "Cherkassy Ostroh", from which the regional city of Penza has developed, thanks to the arrival of new settlers Russians.
The Ukrainian roots of the city and its first settlers are now remembered in the names of Cherkasskaya street, along with the "Cherkassy" historical district. In 1774, the insurgent army led by Yemelyan Pugachev occupied Penza after the citizens of the city welcomed the rebellious Cossacks; the first stone houses started to appear after 1801, by 1809 Penza's population had grown to more than 13,000 people. In 1918, Vladimir Lenin sent a telegram to communists in the Penza area, complaining about the "insurrection of five kulak districts", he urged the public hanging of 100 "landlords, bloodsuckers", grain seizure, hostage taking. This telegram has been used on Lenin. During the Russian Civil War, the Czechoslovak Legions launched an anti-Bolshevik uprising in Penza. During the Soviet period, the city developed as a regional industrial center; the Ural mainframe was made here between 1959 and 1964. Penza is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Penza—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Penza is incorporated as Penza Urban Okrug. Penza lies on the M5 highway linking Moscow and Chelyabinsk. Penza Airport serves domestic flights. Local public transport includes buses and marshrutkas; the city of Penza is seen as a regional center for higher education. It has 13 colleges and 77 public schools. Besides this, Penza is home to three theatres, four museums, three art galleries including The Museum of One Painting named after G. V. Myasnikov. Facilities of higher education include: Penza State University Penza State Pedagogical University Penza State University of Architecture and Construction Penza Artillery Engineering Institute Penza State Technological Academy Penza State Agricultural Academy Penza branch of the Moscow's Institute of Economics and Law Penza branch of the Russian State University of Innovative Technologies and Entrepreneurship Penza has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and warm summers.
A heat wave in the months of June and August 2010, raised temperatures from previous norms by 15 °C in Penza. Some of the higher fluctuations in temperatures were recorded with seven straight days of temperatures +40 °C and higher compared to the previous year where the higher temperatures for the same period were, on average, 20 °C lower. Penza first hosted the Russian Sidecarcross Grand Prix in 2009, did so again in 2010, on August 15. Dizel Penza is Penza's professional hockey team, playing in the VHL. Dizelist Penza is a junior club playing in the NMHL; the city football team FC Zenit Penza was established in 1918 but now plays in the Russian Amateur League. Penza has a professional rugby union club, Imperia-Dynamo Penza, from Russia's Professional Rugby League. A minor planet, 3189 Penza, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh in 1978, is named after the city. Penza is twinned with: Békéscsaba, Hungary Busan, South Korea Gansu, China Ramat Gan, Israel Ternopil, Ukraine Center of Theatrical Arts «House of Meyerhold» Penza Planetarium List of largest cuckoo clocks Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области.
Закон №774-ЗПО от 9 марта 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2484-ЗПО от 28 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 15 Закона Пензенской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пензенской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №6, стр. 49, 18 марта 2005 г.. Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №690-ЗПО от 2 ноября 2004 г. «О границах муниципальных образований Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №2681-ЗПО от 4 марта 2015 г. «О внес
The Skoptsy were a heretical sect, within the larger Spiritual Christianity movement in the Russian Empire, best known for practicing castration of men and the mastectomy of women in accordance with their teachings against sexual lust. The term is a descriptive one used by the official Russian Orthodox Church; the movement emerged in the late 18th century. It reached the peak of its popularity in the early 20th century, with as many as 100,000 members, in spite of persecution by the imperial government. Despite severe repression under the Soviet Union some members still lived at the start of the 21st century. Skoptsy is a plural of skopets, at the time the Russian term for "castrate"; the Skoptsy referred to themselves as the "White Doves" белые голуби. Their aim was the perfection of the individual, by eradicating Original Sin, which they believed had come into the world by the first coitus between Adam and Eve, they believed that human genitals were the true mark of Cain, that the true message of Jesus Christ included the practice of castration, that Jesus himself had been a castrate, that his example had been followed by the apostles and the early Christian saints.
They believed that human genitals were a mark of Original Sin, more that after the expulsion from the Garden of Eden and Eve had the halves of the forbidden fruit grafted onto their bodies forming testicles and breasts. Thus, the removal of these sexual organs restored the Skoptsy to the pristine state before the Original Sin. In this the Skoptsy maintained that they were fulfilling Christ's counsel of perfection in Matthew 19:12 and 18:8–9. There were two kinds of castration: the "lesser" and "greater seal". For men, "lesser" castration was the removal of the testicles only, while "greater" castration was the removal of the penis as well. Men who did the "greater seal" used a cow-horn; the castrations and emasculations were made with primitive tools such as a shaving knife without using any anesthetic. The earliest records of mastectomy date from 1815. Only the breasts were amputated; the Skoptsy movement emerged in ca. the 1760s from the flagellant sect of the Khlysty. Its founder was a peasant known by the name of Kondratiy Ivanovich Selivanov, a former adherent of a Khlysty sect of one Akulina Ivanovna in the Oryol Governorate.
Selivanov had started his own sect in village of Sosnovka near Morshansk, styling himself "Son of God" and "Redeemer": The community of Selivanov's followers, numbered at 246 people, were put on trial in 1772. Selivanov was convicted of having persuaded thirteen other peasants to castrate themselves, he at first managed to escape. His followers organized to help him escape, he was found to live in Irkutsk, managed to escape and move to Moscow in ca. 1795. In 1797, he moved to Saint Petersburg where, according to Skoptsy accounts he was interviewed by Tsar Paul I, to whom he revealed himself as his father, Peter III, following which Paul I had him confined to the madhouse at Obukhov hospital, he was released in 1802, for eighteen years, until 1820, he lived in Saint Petersburg, in the house of one of his disciples, receiving double homage as Christ and tsar, as he identified himself as both Tsar Peter III and as Christ Returned. Peter had been popular among the Raskolniks because he granted them liberty of conscience, among the peasants because when pillaging the convents he divided their lands among the labourers.
Selivanov claimed the title "God of Gods and King of Kings", announced his accomplishment of the salvation of believers through castration. Selivanov succeeded in gaining followers among the upper classes of Saint Petersburg; when the Governor General of Saint Petersburg, Mikhail Miloradovich, learned that two of his nephews, as well as several members of the guards regiments and sailors, were members of the sect, he asked the imperial government to intervene. In June 1820, it was decided to once again arrest Selivanov, confine him to Evfimiev monastery in Suzdal, where he remained until his death in 1832 his hundredth year. During his stay in Suzdal, his followers continued to plead for his release. Although this was denied, Selivanov was free to receive visitors in the monastery, his followers worshipped him there, he left writings, known under the title The Message and Harvest, as well as nine letters addressed to the priest Sergeyev. Despite the furious investigations of the Third Department, Skoptsism did not disappear after Selivanov's death, scandals continued to arise.
The sect established a presence in Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Odessa, in Bukarest and Iași in Romania, where members of the sect had fled to due to the persecution by authorities. By 1866, the sect was reported as having 5,444 members. Although Skoptisism prescribed castration as a precondition for entering paradise, only a minority of members had undergone bodily mutilation. Alexandre Dumas, père, writes about the sect, calling them scopsis, towards the end of his account of his journey through Caucasia, "Le Caucase, Memoires d'un Voyage", 1858, where he met them in Georgia. In the book The Idiot, Fyodor Dostoevsky mentions Skoptsy tenants in a boarding house. Dostoevsky also
Peter III of Russia
Peter III was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. He was born in Kiel as Charles Peter Ulrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, the only child of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Anna Petrovna; the German Peter could hardly speak Russian and pursued a pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. He was deposed and assassinated as a result of a conspiracy led by his German wife, Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, who succeeded him to the throne as Catherine II. Despite his poor reputation, Peter made some progressive reforms. During his short reign, he proclaimed religious freedom, encouraged education, sought to modernize the Russian army, abolished the secret police, infamous for its extreme violence, made it illegal for landowners to kill their serfs without going to court, it has been debated whether Peter was a great tsar, overthrown by the military and aristocrats to keep their control over the monarchy or an idiotic, weak tyrant. What is certain, though, is that his ambitious wife, Catherine the Great and tarnished his reign.
Peter was born in the duchy of Holstein-Gottorp. His parents were Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Anna Petrovna, his mother died shortly after his birth. In 1739, Peter's father died, he became Duke of Holstein-Gottorp as Charles Peter Ulrich at the age of 11; when Elizabeth, his mother's younger sister, became Empress of Russia, she brought Peter from Germany to Russia and proclaimed him her heir presumptive in the autumn of 1742. In 1742, the 14-year-old Peter was proclaimed King of Finland during the Russo-Swedish War, when Russian troops held Finland; this proclamation was based on his succession rights to territories held by his childless great-uncle, the late Charles XII of Sweden, Grand Duke of Finland. About the same time, in October 1742, he was chosen by the Swedish parliament to become heir presumptive to the Swedish throne. However, the Swedish parliament was unaware of the fact that he had been proclaimed heir presumptive to the throne of Russia, when their envoy arrived in Saint Petersburg in November, it was too late.
It has been reported that the succession rights to Sweden of the underage Peter were renounced on his behalf. In November, Karl Peter Ulrich converted to Eastern Orthodoxy under the name of Pyotr Feodorovich. Empress Elizabeth arranged for Peter to marry his second cousin, Sophia Augusta Frederica, daughter of Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp; the young princess formally took the name Ekaterina Alexeievna. They married on 21 August 1745; the marriage was not a happy one but produced one son, the future Emperor Paul, one daughter, Anna Petrovna. Catherine claimed that Paul was not fathered by Peter: that, in fact, they had never consummated the marriage. During the sixteen years of their residence in Oranienbaum, Catherine took numerous lovers, while her husband did the same in the beginning; the classical view of Peter's character is drawn out of the memoirs of his wife and successor. She described him as an "idiot", "drunkard from Holstein", "good-for-nothing", etc.
This portrait of Peter can be found in most history books, including 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica: Nature had made him mean, the smallpox had made him hideous, his degraded habits made him loathsome. And Peter had all the sentiments of the worst kind of small German prince of the time, he had the conviction that his princeship entitled him to disregard decency and the feelings of others. He planned brutal practical jokes, his most manly taste did not rise above the kind of military interest, defined as "corporal's mania," the passion for uniforms, buttons, the "tricks of parade and the froth of discipline." He detested the Russians, surrounded himself with Holsteiners. There have been many attempts to revise the traditional characterisation of his policies; the Russian historian A. S. Mylnikov views Peter III differently: Many contradictory qualities existed in him: keen observation and sharp wit in his arguments and actions and lack of perspicuity in conversation, goodness, sarcasm, a hot temper, wrathfulness.
The German historian Elena Palmer goes further, portraying Peter III as a cultured, open-minded emperor who tried to introduce various courageous democratic reforms in 18th century Russia. A monument for Peter III stands in the city of his birth. After Peter succeeded to the Russian throne, he withdrew Russian forces from the Seven Years' War and concluded a peace treaty with Prussia, he gave up Russian conquests in Prussia and offered 12,000 troops to make an alliance with Frederick II of Prussia. Russia thus switched from an enemy of
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 637,827 inhabitants, it is the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population; the city lies at the mouth of the Daugava river. Riga's territory lies 1 -- 10 m above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain. Riga is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture. Riga was the European Capital of Culture along with Umeå in Sweden. Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the 2006 IIHF Men's World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women's Curling Championship, it is home to the European Union's office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications. In 2016, Riga received over 1.4 million visitors. It is served by the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities, the Union of the Baltic Cities and Union of Capitals of the European Union.
One theory about the origin of the name Riga is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River. The other is that Riga owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West, as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the "j" becoming a "g" in German — notably, Riga is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt, German historian Dionysius Fabricius confirms the origin of Riga from rija. Another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava. Another theory is that Riga's name is introduced by the bishop Albert, initiator of christening and conquest of Livonian and Baltic people, he introduced an explanation of city name as derived from Latin rigata that symbolizes an "irrigation of dry pagan souls by Christianity". The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings' Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium.
A sheltered natural harbour 15 km upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today's Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century. It was settled by an ancient Finnic tribe. Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages. Riga's inhabitants occupied themselves with fishing, animal husbandry, trading developing crafts; the Livonian Chronicle of Henry testifies to Riga having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus, describes dwellings and warehouses used to store flax, hides. German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158. Along with German traders the monk Meinhard of Segeberg arrived to convert the Livonian pagans to Christianity. Catholic and Orthodox Christianity had arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, many Latvians baptised. Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, established his bishopric there.
The Livs, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile in 1196, having failed in his mission. In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization. Berthold died soon afterwards and his forces defeated; the Church mobilised to avenge the issuance of a bull by Pope Innocent III declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200 with 500 Westphalian crusaders. In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile to Riga, extorting agreement to do this from the elders of Riga by force; the year 1201 marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina. To defend territory and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, open to nobles and merchants; the Christianization of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started to fortify the town.
Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third; until it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and return home. Albert had ensured Riga's commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga. In 1211, Riga minted its first coinage, Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga Dom. Riga was not yet secure. In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk to grant German merchants free river passage. Polotsk conceded Kukenois and Jersika to Albert ending the Livs' tribute to Polotsk. Riga's merchant citizenry sought greater autonomy from the Church. In 1221, they acquired the right to independently self-administer Riga and adopted a city constitution; that same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia and Livonia.
Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark to protect Riga and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not