The Player (film)
The Player is a 1992 American satirical black comedy film directed by Robert Altman and written by Michael Tolkin, based on his own 1988 novel of the same name. The film stars Tim Robbins, Greta Scacchi, Fred Ward, Whoopi Goldberg, Peter Gallagher, Brion James, Cynthia Stevenson and is the story of a Hollywood film studio executive who murders an aspiring screenwriter he believes is sending him death threats; the Player has many film references and Hollywood in-jokes, with 65 celebrities making cameo appearances in the film. Altman once stated that the film "is a mild satire," offending no one; the film received three nominations at the 65th Academy Awards: Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Editing. The film won two Golden Globes, Best Motion Picture – Comedy or Musical and Best Actor – Comedy or Musical for Robbins. Griffin Mill is a Hollywood studio executive dating story editor Bonnie Sherow, he hears story pitches from screenwriters and decides which have the potential to be made into films, green-lighting only 12 out of 50,000 submissions every year.
His job is threatened. Mill has been receiving death threat postcards, assumed to be from a screenwriter whose pitch he rejected. Mill surmises. Mill is told by June Gudmundsdottir that Kahane is at a theater in Pasadena. Mill pretends to recognize Kahane in the lobby, offers him a scriptwriting deal, hoping this will stop the threats; the two go to a nearby bar where Kahane rebuffs Mill's offer. In the bar's parking lot, the two men fight. Mill goes too far and accidentally drowns Kahane in a shallow pool of water stages the crime to make it look like a botched robbery; the next day, after Mill is late for and distracted at a meeting, Studio chief of security Walter Stuckel confronts him about the murder and says that the police know that he was the last one to see Kahane alive. At the end of their conversation Mill receives a fax from his stalker. Thus, Mill has killed the wrong man, the stalker knows this. Mill gets into conversation with June. Detectives Avery and DeLongpre suspect. Mill receives a postcard from the writer suggesting.
While Mill is waiting, he is cornered by two screenwriters, Tom Oakley and Andy Sivella, who pitch Habeas Corpus, a legal drama featuring no major stars and with a depressing ending. Because Mill is not alone, his stalker does not appear. After leaving the club, Mill receives a fax in his car, he discovers a live rattlesnake in a box and, bludgeons it with his umbrella. Mill tells June. Apprehensive that Larry Levy continues encroaching on his job, Mill invites the two writers to pitch Habeas Corpus to him, convincing Levy that the movie will be an Oscar contender. Mill's plan is to have it flop. Mill will step in at the last moment, suggesting some changes to salvage the film's box office, letting him reclaim his position at the studio. Having persuaded Bonnie to leave for New York on studio business, Mill takes June to a Hollywood awards banquet and their relationship blossoms. After Bonnie confronts Mill about his relationship with June, Mill coldly severs their relationship in front of two writers.
Mill takes June to spa. In the middle of Mill and June making love, Mill confesses his role in Kahane's murder, June responds by saying she loves him. Mill's attorney informs him that studio head Joel Levison has been fired, that the Pasadena police want Mill to participate in a lineup. An eyewitness has come forward. One year studio power players are watching the end of Habeas Corpus with a new, tacked-on, upbeat Hollywood ending and famous actors in the lead roles. Mill's plan to save the movie has worked and he is head of the studio. June is now pregnant with his child. Bonnie is fired by Levy. Mill rebuffs her. Mill receives a pitch over a man who reveals himself as the postcard writer; the man pitches an idea about a studio executive who gets away with murder. Impressed, Mill gives the writer a deal, if he can guarantee a happy ending in which the executive lives with the writer's widow; the writer's title for the film is The Player. Altman had troubles with the Hollywood studio system in the 1970s after a number of studio films lost money or had trouble finding audiences despite the critical praise and cult adulation they received.
Altman continued to work outside the studios in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s doing small budget projects or filmed plays to keep his career alive. Although it was distributed by Fine Line Features rather than a major studio, The Player was a comeback to making films in Hollywood, it ushered in a new period of filmmaking for Altman, who continued on to an adaptation of Raymond Carver's short stories, Short Cuts. The opening sequence shot lasts 47 seconds without an edit. Fifteen takes were required to shoot this scene, according to the slate at the beginning of the shot, the ten
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill known as UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, or Carolina is a public research university in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. It is the flagship of the 17 campuses of the University of North Carolina system. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Among the claimants, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the only one to have held classes and graduated students as a public university in the eighteenth century; the first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and Sciences. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and Sciences from the time they obtain junior status.
Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, has since specialized in cancer care; the school's students and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels". UNC's faculty and alumni include 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 49 Rhodes Scholars. Additional notable alumni include a U. S. President, a U. S. Vice President, 38 Governors of U. S. States, 98 members of the United States Congress, 9 Cabinet members, 39 Henry Luce Scholars, 9 World Cup winners and 3 astronauts as well as founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies; the campus covers 729 acres of Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 recognized student organizations.
The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. In 2018, UNC was ranked amongst the top 30 universities in the United States according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, U. S. News & World Report. Internationally, UNC is ranked 33rd and 34th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities and U. S. News and World Report, respectively. UNC is regarded as a Public Ivy, an institution which provides an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, women's field hockey. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the university's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen because of its central location within the state.
The first public university chartered under the US Constitution, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities that claims to be the oldest public university in the United States and the only such institution to confer degrees in the eighteenth century as a public institution. During the Civil War, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some students from the draft, so the university was one of the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South, when student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction from December 1, 1870 until September 6, 1875. Despite initial skepticism from university President Frank Porter Graham, on March 27, 1931, legislation was passed to group the University of North Carolina with the State College of Agriculture and Engineering and Woman's College of the University of North Carolina to form the Consolidated University of North Carolina.
In 1963, the consolidated university was made coeducational, although most women still attended Woman's College for their first two years, transferring to Chapel Hill as juniors, since freshmen were required to live on campus and there was only one women's residence hall. As a result, Woman's College was renamed the "University of North Carolina at Greensboro", the University of North Carolina became the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." In 1955, UNC Chapel Hill desegregated its undergraduate divisions. During World War II, UNC Chapel Hill was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. During the 1960s, the campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began in Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance; the climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by communists on state campuses in North Carolina.
The law was criticized by university Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and university President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sh
The News & Observer
The News & Observer is an American regional daily newspaper that serves the greater Triangle area based in Raleigh, North Carolina. The paper is the second largest in the state; the paper has been awarded three Pulitzer Prizes. The paper was one of the first in the world to launch an online version of the publication, Nando.net in 1994. The News & Observer traces its roots to The Sentinel, founded by the Rev. William E. Pell in 1865'to help expose corruption in state politics" during the Reconstruction Era. paper's struggles to stay relevant and make money led to new ownership in 1868. With the new owner The Sentinel began to cover the Democrats' push to retake the North Carolina Legislature, along with the impeachment of Gov. William W. Holden in 1871; the Sentinel went bankrupt a little over ten years. The owners of the newly founded Raleigh Observer, Peter M. Hale and William L. Saunders, bought the now-bankrupt paper, ending its publication and focusing on the Raleigh Observer. After about ten years the paper ran out of money, so the two owners sold to the owner of the Raleigh News, Samuel A. Ashe.
Ashe combined the two papers under the new banner The News & Observer in September 1880, making it the sole daily paper in Raleigh. Ashe ran the company until 1894, focusing on politics and the Democratic party. Ashe used connections within the Democratic Party to get an upper leg on upcoming stories; this model worked well for the paper until Ashe lost favor in the Democratic caucus, leading the paper to fall on hard financial times for the fourth time in its history. In 1894 the paper was sold at auction, this time to a Washington, North Carolina native, a strong Democratic supporter. Josephus Daniels, with help from Julian S. Carr and other friends, bought the paper. Daniels refocused the News and Observer to combat rampant corruption and other problems he saw within the state. Put differently by Daniels himself, "The News and Observer was relied upon to carry the Democratic message and to be the militant voice of White Supremacy, it did not fail in what was expected, sometimes going to extremes in its partisanship."
Daniels believed that "the greatest folly and crime" in U. S. history was giving negros the vote. In the Findings of the Wilmington Race Riot Commission, Daniels is the only name mentioned as a cause of the Wilmington insurrection of 1898, According to historian Helen Edmonds, the paper "led in a campaign of prejudice, vilification, misrepresentation, exaggeration to influence the emotions of the whites against the Negro." The result was the only successful coup d'état in American history, the overthrow of an elected government by force. In 1900 he used the paper to support soon-to-be Governor Charles B. Aycock, another white supremacist, during his bid for the office, he used the paper to advocate female suffrage, workers' compensation, state industrialization, better roads and crop rotation. Daniels used the News and Observer to persuade North Carolina citizens to support the disenfranchisement of blacks in the 1910s and 1920s. Daniels renounced the racist policies of the 1910s News and Observer.
In 2006, on occasion of the release of the report of the 1898 Wilmington Race Riot Commission, the newspaper offered "an apology for the acts of someone we continue to salute in a different context…and for the misdeeds of the paper as an institution." The newspaper published a 16-page special report on the events of 1898. Daniels continued to run the paper until his death in the mid-1940s. After his death his four sons assumed management of the company. All four sons contributed to the operation of the paper, but Jonathan Daniels, editor from 1933 to 1941 and from 1948 until 1964, kept the paper in the direction of appealing for school desegregation and a reduction in race related discrimination, it was under Jonathan's leadership that The News and Observer bought out the Raleigh Times and moved to a building on South McDowell St. in downtown Raleigh, where they stayed until the building was sold in 2015. On September 3, 1934, The News and Observer began a column about state politics called "Under the Dome", which started on the back page, moved to the front and now runs in the local section.
In 1968, the Daniels family hired Claude Sitton, a correspondent for The New York Times and an editor there. Serving as the editorial director of the paper, he promoted The News & Observer as a government watchdog and moved the news of the paper away from the personal and partisan stances it had taken under Josephus Daniels. However, its editorials were still aligned with the Democratic Party. A year the Mini Page children's supplement was created and published. Today, it is one of America's most used children's newspaper supplements. In 1971, Sitton became the editor and the paper began buying and publishing smaller local newspapers, starting with The Island Packet in Hilton Head, South Carolina and The Cary News in Cary, North Carolina. On March 16, 1980, a welder's torch started a fire and burned through newsprint threaded through the press, injuring three and causing millions in damage. In 1987, the staffs of The News & Observer and The Raleigh Times merged, on November 30, 1989, the last edition of The Raleigh Times was published.
In 1988, The News & Observer endorsed its first Republican candidate for statewide election, showing a distancing from Democratic partisanship. Throughout the early 1990s, The News & Observer divested itself of various local newspapers in South Carolina and the North Carolina mountains, by Sept
North Carolina Tar Heels men's basketball
The North Carolina Tar Heels men's basketball program is the intercollegiate men's basketball team of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The Tar Heels have won six NCAA men's college national championships. North Carolina's six NCAA Tournament Championships are third-most all-time, behind University of California, Los Angeles and University of Kentucky, they have won 18 Atlantic Coast Conference tournament titles, 32 Atlantic Coast Conference regular season titles, an Atlantic Coast Conference record 20 outright Regular Season Championships. The program has produced many notable players who went on to play in the NBA, including three of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History: Billy Cunningham, Michael Jordan and James Worthy. Many Tar Heel assistant coaches have gone on to become head coaches elsewhere. From the Tar Heels' first season in 1910–11 through the 2017–18 season, the program has amassed a.738 all-time winning percentage, winning 2,232 games and losing 792 games in 108 seasons.
The Tar Heels have the most consecutive 20-win seasons with 31 seasons from the 1970–71 season through the 2000–2001 season. On March 2, 2010, North Carolina became the second college basketball program to reach 2,000 wins in its history; the Tar Heels are ranked 3rd all time in wins trailing Kentucky by 31 games and Kansas by 16 games. The Tar Heels are one of only four Division I Men's Basketball programs to have achieved 2,000 victories. Kentucky and Duke are the other three. North Carolina has averaged more wins per season played than any other program in college basketball. Carolina has played 160 games in the NCAA tournament; the Tar Heels have appeared in the NCAA Tournament Championship Game 11 times, have been in a record 20 NCAA Tournament Final Fours. The Tar Heels have made it into the NCAA tournament 50 times, have amassed 123 victories. North Carolina won the National Invitation Tournament in 1971, appeared in two NIT Finals with six appearances in the NIT Tournament. Additionally, the team has been the number one seed in the NCAA Tournament 17 times, the latest being in 2019.
North Carolina has been ranked in the Top 25 in the AP Poll an all-time record 908 weeks, has beaten #1 ranked teams a record 14 times, has the most consecutive 20-win seasons with 31, the most consecutive top-3 ACC regular season finishes with 37. North Carolina has ended the season ranked in the Top-25 of the AP Poll 50 times and in the Top-25 of the Coaches' Poll 52 times. Further, the Tar Heels have finished the season ranked #1 in the AP Poll 5 times and ranked #1 in Coaches' Poll 6 times. In 2008, the Tar Heels received the first unanimous preseason #1 ranking in the history of either the Coaches' Poll or the AP Poll. In 2012, ESPN ranked North Carolina #1 on its list of the 50 most successful programs of the past 50 years. North Carolina played its first basketball game on January 27, 1910, beating Virginia Christian 42-21. In 1921, the school joined the Southern Conference; the 1924 Tar Heels squad went 26–0, was retroactively awarded a'national championship' by the Helms Athletic Foundation in 1943 and by the Premo-Porretta Power Poll.
Overall, the Tar Heels played 32 seasons in the Southern Conference from 1921 to 1953. During that period they won 304 games and lost 111 for a winning percentage of 73.3%. The Tar Heels won the Southern Conference regular season 9 times and the Southern Conference Tournament Championship 8 times. In 1953, North Carolina split from the Southern Conference and became a founding member of the Atlantic Coast Conference; the Tar Heels won their first NCAA Championship in 1957 under fifth year head coach Frank McGuire, who led an undefeated 32-0 squad dominated by Lennie Rosenbluth and several other transplants from the New York City area to a 54-53 triple overtime victory over Wilt Chamberlain's Kansas Jayhawks. C. D. Chesley, a Washington, D. C. television producer, piped the 1957 championship game in Kansas City to a hastily created network of five stations across North Carolina—the ancestor to the current syndicated ACC football and basketball package from Raycom Sports—which helped prove pivotal in basketball becoming a craze in the state.
The title game was the only triple overtime final game in championship history, which followed a triple overtime North Carolina defeat of Michigan State 74-70 the previous night. In 1960, the Tar Heels were placed on NCAA probation for "improper recruiting entertainment" of basketball prospects; as a result, they were barred from the 1961 NCAA tournament and withdrew from the 1961 ACC Tournament. Following the season, Chancellor William Aycock forced McGuire to resign; as a replacement, Aycock selected one of Kansas alumnus Dean Smith. Smith's early teams were not nearly as successful, his first team went only 8–9–as it turned out, the last losing season UNC would suffer for 41 years. His first five teams never won more than 16 games; this grated on a fan base used to winning. However, Smith would go on to take the Tar Heels to a reign of national dominance; when he retired in 1997, Smith's 879 wins were the most for any NCAA Division I men's basketball coach, his 77.61% winning percentage ninth best.
During his tenure, North Carolina won or shared 17 ACC regular season titles and won 13 ACC Tournaments. They went to the NCAA tournament 27 times–including 23 in a row from 1975 to 1997–appeared in 11 Final Fours, won NCAA national tournament titles in 1982 and 1993, they won the NIT in 1971. The 1982 National Championship team was led by James Worthy, Sam Perkins, a young Michael J
The Charlotte Knights are a professional Minor League Baseball team in Charlotte, North Carolina. The team, which plays in the International League, is the Triple-A affiliate of the Chicago White Sox of the American League; the Knights play at BB&T Ballpark located in Uptown Charlotte. Professional baseball in Charlotte dates with the formation of the Charlotte Hornets; the 1892 Hornets only lasted one season. A new team, the Charlotte "Presbyterians" played in 1900, but just a year a new "Charlotte Hornets" baseball team formed, they were an independent team until 1935, when they became the Class B Piedmont League affiliate of the Boston Red Sox during that year only. In 1937, the Washington Senators, now the Minnesota Twins, purchased the team; the Hornets would remain affiliated with the Senators/Twins for 35 years. In 1940, Calvin Griffith, the son of Senators owner Clark Griffith and future owner of the Senators/Twins, built a 3,200-seat park in Charlotte's Dilworth neighborhood, Calvin Griffith Park.
It would be the home of Charlotte baseball for the next half-century. After several years on the lower rungs of the minor league totem pole, the Hornets joined the Class A South Atlantic League in 1954, they had been members of the South Atlantic League in the 1920s while they were still independent. The South Atlantic League became a Double-A league in 1963 and renamed itself the Southern League in 1964. In 1972, the Twins placed their Single-A affiliate in the Western Carolinas League as the Charlotte Twins. After a lackluster season, they were moved to Orlando as the Orlando Twins; the Hornets disbanded. There was talk that Charlotte might get baseball again, but a new team to be called the "Charlotte Pines" never came to fruition. Charlotte wouldn't see baseball again until 1976, when wrestling promoter Jim Crockett, Jr. bought the Asheville Orioles, the Double-A affiliate of the Baltimore Orioles, renamed them the Charlotte Orioles. Griffith Park was fixed up, in 1977 it was renamed Jim Crockett, Sr. Memorial Park.
The team, popularly known as the O's, won Southern League titles in 1980 and 1984. Eventual major-league superstars Eddie Murray and Cal Ripken played for the O's. In March 1985, Crockett Park was destroyed by a massive fire after a high school baseball game. An investigation revealed; the Crockett family built a 3,000-seat makeshift stadium afterward, which served as the O's home for two years. However, unlike its predecessor, it was exposed to the elements, causing a steep decline in attendance. In 1987, George Shinn, founder of the NBA Charlotte Hornets, bought the team from the Crockett family and committed to building a permanent home for the team. In 1988, the team was renamed the Charlotte Knights out of a naming contest, Crockett Park was renamed "Knights Park"; the following season, 1989, the organization's 12-year affiliation with the Orioles ended when Shinn switched the team's affiliation to the Chicago Cubs. The team moved to Knights Castle, a temporary 8,000 seat stadium located on Deerfield Drive in Fort Mill, South Carolina near the construction site of their permanent home, Knights Stadium.
The stadium was built for the 1989 season and was demolished following the final game that year to make room for Knights Stadium. In 1993, Charlotte won an expansion team in the International League, which secured an affiliation with the Cleveland Indians; this expansion team took the Charlotte Knights name, as well as the heritage of the old Double-A team. It was the first time a team from the Carolinas had played at the highest level of minor league baseball; the former Double-A Knights of the Southern League relocated to Nashville and Mobile, Alabama to become the current Mobile Bay Bears. The new Triple-A Knights, led by future major-league stars Jim Thome and Manny Ramírez, won the International League title in 1993. Much of the core of that team, including manager Charlie Manuel, played a role in the Indians' World Series teams of 1995 and 1997. For the 1995–1998 seasons, the Knights were the Triple-A affiliate of the Florida Marlins. Before the 1997 season, Shinn sold the Knights to North Carolina businessman Don Beaver, who negotiated a Triple-A affiliation agreement with the Chicago White Sox, a relationship that still continues today.
The Knights won another International League title in 1999 as the White Sox' top affiliate. Notable former Knights under the White Sox affiliation include pitcher Jon Garland and former third baseman Joe Crede, both of whom played on the White Sox' World Series championship team in 2005. Beaver and the White Sox extended their affiliation agreement, ensuring that professional baseball would remain in the Charlotte area for many years to come. On October 8, 2009 the Charlotte Knights and York County agreed in principle on a four-year lease for the team to play at Knights Stadium in Fort Mill; the agreement was to add fan related upgrades to the facility. In 2011, the Charlotte City Council and Mecklenburg County Commission approved a land-swap agreement which opened the door for the construction of a new Triple-A-sized stadium in downtown Charlotte; the $54-million BB&T Ballpark opened in time for the 2014 season. It is located one block from Bank of home of the Carolina Panthers; the team's attendance had sagged since the start of the new millennium, it was hoped that bringing the Knights back to the city would increase attendance.
To go along with the move, the Knights dropped the navy blue and dark green color scheme, as well as the old horse head and othe
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti