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Alexander Kazhdan

Alexander Petrovich Kazhdan was a Soviet-American Byzantinist. Born in Moscow, Kazhdan was educated at the Pedagogical Institute of Ufa and the University of Moscow, where he studied with the historian of medieval England, Evgenii Kosminskii. A post-war Soviet initiative to revive Russian-language Byzantine studies led Kazhdan to write a dissertation on the agrarian history of the late Byzantine empire Despite a growing reputation in his field, anti-Semitic prejudice in the Joseph Stalin-era Soviet academy forced Kazhdan to accept a series of positions as a provincial teacher. Following the death of Stalin in 1953, Kazhdan's situation improved, he was hired by a college in Velikie Luki. In 1956 he secured a position in the Institute for History of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, where he remained until leaving the Soviet Union in 1978. Kazhdan was an immensely prolific scholar throughout his Soviet career, publishing well over 500 books and reviews, his publications contributed to the growing international prestige of Soviet Byzantine studies.

His 1954 article, "Vizantiyskie goroda v VII-XI vv." published in the journal Sovetskaya arkheologiya, argued on the basis of archaeological and numismatic evidence that the seventh century constituted a major rupture in the urban society of Byzantium. This thesis has since been accepted and has led to intensive research on discontinuity in Byzantine history and the subsequent rejection of the earlier conception of the medieval Byzantine empire as a frozen relic of late antiquity. Other major studies dating from this first half of Kazhdan's career include Derevnya i gorod v Vizantii IX-X vv. A study of the relationship between city and countryside in the 9th and 10th centuries. Kazhdan contributed to the field of Armenian studies, notably writing about the Armenians who formed the elite ruling classes that governed the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Byzantine Era in his Armiane v sostave gospodstvuyushchego klassa Vizantiyskoy imperii v XI-XII vv.. In 1975, Kazhdan's son, the mathematician David Kazhdan, emigrated to the United States, where he accepted a position at Harvard University.

This produced an immediate change in Kazhdan's situation in the Soviet Union. In October 1978 Alexander and Musja left the Soviet Union, having received a visa for immigration to Israel, coming to the United States three years afterward. In February 1979 they arrived at Dumbarton Oaks, a center for Byzantine studies in Washington, D. C. where Kazhdan held the position of senior research associate until his death. Kazhdan's first major publications in English were collaborative: People and Power in Byzantium, a broad ranging study of Byzantine society, was written with Giles Constable, his greatest English-language project was a massive collaborative effort: the three-volume Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, edited by Kazhdan, was the first reference work of the sort to be published, remains an indispensable point of departure for all areas of Byzantine studies. He wrote 20%, or about 1,000, of the entries in the Dictionary, which are signed with his initials A. K; as Kazhdan became more comfortable with English, his pace of publication once again matched that of his Russian years.

His scholarship is above all marked with a growing concern with Byzantine literature hagiography. Kazhdan died in Washington, D. C. in 1997. His death cut short his work on a monumental History of Byzantine Literature. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. 1. New York: Oxford University Press https://books.google.com/books?id=F9qwtAEACAAJ. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. 2. New York: Oxford University Press https://books.google.com/books?id=xwgAtAEACAAJ. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. 3. New York: Oxford University Press https://books.google.com/books?id=OTxhtAEACAAJ. Cutler, Anthony. "Some talk of Alexander". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 46: 1–4. ISSN 0070-7546. Franklin, Simon. "Bibliography of works by Alexander Kazhdan". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 46: 5–26. ISSN 0070-7546

FMW Independent Heavyweight Championship

The FMW Independent Heavyweight Championship was a professional wrestling world heavyweight championship contested in Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling. It was one of the top two titles in the company, along with the FMW Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Championship; the title belt was created for Atsushi Onita to use in his retirement match at 6th Anniversary Show in 1995 but could not be shipped to FMW at that time and the title was shipped to FMW in 1996 and FMW used it as the alternative top title to the Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Championship. Both titles were unified that year and were collectively referred to as "FMW Double Championship"; the titles were separated in 1999 and deactivated that year in favor of the new WEW Single Championship. FMW requested a new customized FMW Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Championship belt for Atsushi Onita to defend it against Hayabusa in the former's retirement match at 6th Anniversary Show on May 5, 1995 but the title could not be created at that time; the title was shipped a year to FMW in 1996 when Onita had retired from in-ring competition and FMW would have two Brass Knuckles Championship belts.

FMW used the second title belt as a new alternative world heavyweight championship naming it the "FMW Independent Heavyweight Championship" and an eight-man single-elimination tournament was conducted to determine the inaugural champion and the tournament took place during a period of three months. W*ING Kanemura defeated Masato Tanaka in the finals of the tournament to become the inaugural champion at Summer Spectacular on August 1, 1996; the title would be unified with the Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Championship after Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Champion The Gladiator defeated the Independent Heavyweight Champion W*ING Kanemura in a title unification match at Year End Spectacular on December 11. Both titles would be defended collectively as the "Double Titles Championship" or the "Double Championship" for the next two and a half years. On May 18, 1999, the FMW Commissioner Kodo Fuyuki vacated and split the Double Championship and split the Indepdendent Heavyweight Championship from the Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Championship as separate titles, awarding the Independent Heavyweight Championship to Mr. Gannosuke, making him the first two-time champion.

During this time, Fuyuki decided to change the promotion's name from FMW to World Entertainment Wrestling but FMW President Shoichi Arai rejected the request and allowed him to change the name of the FMW titles to WEW titles instead. On August 25, the Independent Heavyweight Championship and the Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Championship were retired at the Goodbye Hayabusa II: Last Match event, where both titles were defended for the final time. Champion Masato Tanaka defeated Yukihiro Kanemura at the event to retain the title in the final defense of the Independent Heavyweight Championship to become the final Independent Heavyweight Champion; the title belts were auctioned and a new WEW World Heavyweight Championship was created instead as the sole world championship of FMW. FMW Brass Knuckles Heavyweight Championship WEW Heavyweight Championship FMW Independent Heavyweight Championship official title history at FMW Wrestling FMW Independent Heavyweight Championship title history at Wrestling-titles.com

Operation Polecharge

Operation Polecharge was an offensive undertaken by United Nations Command forces during the Korean War between 15–19 October 1951, following on from the successful Operation Commando which established the Jamestown Line. Operation Commando involved five UN divisions of US I Corps; the operation was intended to form a line of defense just north of the 38th Parallel and ended on 15 October 1951, having established the Jamestown Line. However, a few hills south of the line remained in the hands of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army and threatened supply lines to Seoul. Operation Polecharge was intended to seize control of these high positions; the 5th Cavalry Regiment of the 1st Cavalry Division, together with the Belgian Battalion attached to the 3rd Infantry Division, was tasked with the capture of Hills 346, 272 and 230. The 8th Cavalry Regiment would provide support; the operation began on 15 October with the seizure of Hill 346 by the 5th Cavalry. On 18 October Hill 230 was captured after initial attacks, supported by the 8th Cavalry, were rebuffed.

Hill 272 was strongly defended by the PVA but fell to UN forces on 19 October, marking the successful conclusion of Operation Polecharge. During Operations Commando and Polecharge, the UN forces inflicted heavy losses on the PVA, in the order of 16,000 men, forced the PVA to retreat north to their next line of defence, Yokkok-chon; the 1st Cavalry Division had suffered 2,900 casualties, including losses incurred during Operation Commando, was withdrawn to Japan the following month. Operation Polecharge saw the Jamestown Line secure as well as the elimination of the threat posed by the PVA to the UN's supply lines to Seoul; the conclusion of Operations Commando and Polecharge marked the beginning of the static phase of the Korean War as well as the resumption of armistice negotiations at Panmunjom

2016–17 video game voice actor strike

The 2016–17 video game voice actor strike was a strike started in October 2016 by the Screen Actors Guild‐American Federation of Television and Radio Artists union against 11 American video game developers and publishers over failed contract renegotiation terms, in discussion since February 2015. Principally, the union sought to have actors and voice and motion capture artists that contribute to video games be better compensated with residuals based on video game sales atop their existing recording payments, while the industry companies asserted that the industry as a whole eschews the use of residuals, by giving the actors these, they would trivialize the efforts of the programmers and artists that are most responsible for the development of the games. In exchange, the companies had offered a fixed increase in rates and a sliding-scale upfront bonus for multiple recording sessions, which the union had rejected. Other issues highlighted by the strike action include better transparency in what roles and conditions actors would perform, more safety precautions and oversight to avoid vocal stress for certain roles, better safety assurances for actors while on set.

Actors within the union used both physical and virtual picketing to make the public aware of their complaints, they have gained support from similar acting unions from Canada, the United Kingdom and New Zealand along with other unions within the entertainment industry. It was the first such unionized strike in the video game industry; because of the long development period for video games, the strike's impact on the industry was expected to be felt for years. A deal between SAG-AFTRA and the companies was reached on September 23, 2017 ending the strike after 340 days; the agreement was ratified by SAG-AFTRA's board of directors and approved by majority vote in November 2017, creating a new three-year contract. Around a quarter of video games use some type of acting, either as live actors for full motion video, voice actors, or stunt actors for motion capture; as the video game industry became more financially successful in the early 2010s, video game hardware became more ubiquitous in households, many video game developers and publishers started to bring in well-recognized actors from other entertainment venue such as film and television for recording lines or footage for video games.

Obtaining recognized actors for games can help to sell the title as well as generate potential promotional leads from non-traditional channels, such as having that actor promote the game while on talk shows. Within the United States, several of these actors are members of the Screen Actors Guild or American Federation of Television and Radio Artists; the merged union has around 165,000 members as of 2016, with about 6,000 members that perform for video games. As early as the 1990s, these unions had developed Interactive Media Agreements with the video game industry to set standard rates for a typical four-hour recording session; these are considered as minimum assured rates, but actors are free to negotiate higher rates with the game's developer or publisher. Alternatively, companies can employ non-union actors. Unlike other entertainment media such as film or television, actors are not paid residuals or secondary compensation based on the success of a game. Part of this is related to the relative age of the video game industry, which only has been seen to be as successful as film or television.

As such, demanding residuals at that time was not seen as a necessary benefit to the actors. Many actors had additional gigs in other entertainment sectors besides video games, receiving residuals was not critical for them to make a living. Video games were rarely promoted to emphasize the actors behind the characters, unlike television and film, as consumers were unlikely to be directed towards purchasing a game based on its selection of actors. Further, the video game industry itself is not as profitable as large growth numbers suggest, as much of the money earned by a sales or title is spent to offset the already-spent costs of having a large team of programmers and artists to develop the title. Since 2005, the video game industry grew with projections that it will reach a $100 billion global industry by 2018; as early as 2008, there was discussion and arguments from the actors' unions that the video game industry should pay residuals on sales to actors, seeking equality with other entertainment industries, with the potential for a strike action if the industry did not agree.

Michael Hollick stated that he had only been paid about $100,000 for his voice work as the principle character in Grand Theft Auto IV, which went on to bring in more than $600 million in sales within its first three weeks of release. Despite this discussion, SAG-AFTRA and the industry negotiated continuations on the Interactive Media Agreement without inclusion of residuals. With the Interactive Media Agreement to expire by the end of 2014, SAG-AFTRA and representatives of the video game industry began negotiati

Capture of the galleon San Joaquin

The Capture of the galleon San Joaquin or the Battle of Cartagena was a naval engagement that took place off the coast near Cartagena. It involved five British ships of the line against the Spanish galleon San Joaquin and a smaller ship. After an action lasting an hour the Spanish ship surrendered; the galleon had fought in the previous encounter during Wager's Action nearly three years earlier but had just escaped capture. In late May 1711, the warships under the command of Jean du Casse arrived and so on 3 August 1711 they sailed from Cartagena which now composed of the Treasure Fleet, to return to Spain; the units of escort composed of the following: San Joaquin of 64 guns under Admiral Miguel Agustin Villanueva, Saint-Michel of 70 guns under Jean du Casse, Hercule of 60 guns under Captain Proglie and the frigate Griffon of 44 guns under Captain Turroble. Meanwhile, Commodore James Littleton arrived with a number of ships which had sailed from Port Royal in Jamaica on 26 July: a fleet which consisted of HMS Salisbury of 50 guns under Captain Francis Hosier and Littleton's flagship, Salisbury Prize of 50 guns under Captain Sir Robert Harland, HMS Jersey of 60 guns under Captain Edward Vernon, HMS Newcastle of 50 guns under Captain Sampson Bourne, HMS Weymouth 50 guns, under Captain Richard Lestock, HMS Anglesea 50 under Captain Thomas Legge, frigate Fowey of 40 guns under Captain Robert Chadwick.

Du Casse had left the frigate Gallarde in Cartagena for its defense and so on the day of leaving, the fleet were soon spotted by Littleton's fleet but a storm prevented any action, both fleets dispersed. Most of the fleet, including du Casse, returned to Cartagena without giving any advice to Admiral Villanueva. On 7 August the galleon San Joaquin was separated along with a smaller vessel and a squadron was sighted. Villaneuva thought the vessels were that of du Casse; when Villanueva realized his error, it was too late to flee, he decided to take on Littleton's squadron. The ensuing engagement lasted less than 20 minutes. San Joaquin was suffered many casualties. Villaneuva, surrounded by the overwhelming British squadron, was mortally wounded when hit by a musket shot and soon struck his flag. Littleton, took the surrender. Vernon in Jersey captured the smaller vessel, attempting to escape; the galleon's prize money was shared amongst the captains and the British sailed back to Port Royal. By order of King Philip V, the treasure was transferred to the French ships.

Three days after the battle, du Casse, knowing that San Joaquin was lost, left Cartagena and sent his forces first towards Martinique to Pensacola, to Spain where they reached safely. Action off Cartagena Royal Geographical Society of South Australia Marley, David. Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflict in the Western Hemisphere ISBN 978-1598841008 Phillips, Carla Rahn El Tesoro de San Jose — Muerte en el mar durante la Guerra Sucesión Española The Treasure of the San José: Death at Sea in the War of the Spanish Succession Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 978-8492820160

1980 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election

The seventh legislative assembly election to Tamil Nadu was held on May 28, 1980. Election was held two years before the end of the term of M. G. Ramachandran administration, as it was dissolved for failure of state machinery by the President of India Neelam Sanjiva Reddy. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam allied with the Indian National Congress and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam with Janata Party. Despite their victory at the 1980 Lok Sabha polls, DMK and Indira Congress failed to win the legislative assembly election. ADMK won the election and its leader and incumbent Chief Minister, M. G. Ramachandran was sworn in as Chief Minister for the second time. Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam allied with Indian National Congress in 1977 parliamentary election. However, when Janata Party won the election and Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister, M. G. Ramachandran extended unconditional support to the Janata party Government, he continued his support to the Charan Singh Government in 1979. After the fall of the Charan Singh government, fresh parliamentary elections were conducted in 1980.

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam struck alliance with INC. ADMK and Janata Party alliance won only 2 seats in Tamil Nadu in that parliamentary election. INC won Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister. Congress-DMK victory in the 1980 parliamentary election emboldened their alliance and made them think that people lost their faith in M. G. Ramachandran government. DMK pressed the central government to dismiss the Tamil Nadu government using similar allegations used by MGR to dismiss DMK government in 1976; the ADMK ministry and the assembly were dismissed by the central government and fresh elections conducted in 1980. After the Lok Sabha election, negotiations in seat allotments between DMK and INC were heated, they agreed on contesting in equal number of seats. This led to the debate on who the will be the Chief Minister if the alliance wins, which led to TNCC general secretary G. K. Moopanar and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi announcing that DMK president M. Karunanidhi will be the CM candidate for the alliance.

After the announcement, party leaders were under the impression that DMK must outperform INC, in order for Karunanidhi to get the chief ministership. ‡: Vote % reflects the percentage of votes the party received compared to the entire electorate that voted in this election. Adjusted Vote %, reflects the % of votes the party received per constituency that they contested. Nedunchezhiyan became the finance minister in MGR's second Cabinet. Elections in Tamil Nadu Legislature of Tamil Nadu Government of Tamil Nadu Election Commission of India