Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology departments traditionally belong to the humanities, although music research is more scientific in focus. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist. Historical musicology and systematic musicology are equal in size. Ethnomusicology is the study of music in its cultural context. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of acoustical musical instruments, the musical implications of physiology, sociology and computing. Cognitive musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the computational modeling of music; when musicologists carry out research using computers, their research falls under the field of computational musicology. In some countries, music education is a prominent sub-field of musicology, while in others it is regarded as a distinct academic field, or one more affiliated with teacher education, educational research, related fields. Like music education, music therapy is a specialized form of applied musicology, sometimes considered more affiliated with health fields, other times regarded as part of musicology proper.
The parent disciplines of musicology include: General history Cultural studies Philosophy Ethnology and cultural anthropology Archeology and prehistory Psychology and sociology Physiology and neuroscience Acoustics and psychoacoustics Computer/information sciences and mathematicsMusicology has two central oriented sub-disciplines with no parent discipline: performance practice and research, the theory and composition of music. The disciplinary neighbors of musicology address other forms of art, performance and communication, including the history and theory of the visual and plastic arts and of architecture. Musical knowledge is applied in medicine and music therapy—which are parent disciplines of applied musicology. Music history or historical musicology is concerned with the composition, performance and criticism of music over time. Historical studies of music are for example concerned with a composer's life and works, the developments of styles and genres, e.g. baroque concertos, the social function of music for a particular group of people, e.g. court music, or modes of performance at a particular place and time, e.g. Johann Sebastian Bach's choir in Leipzig.
Like the comparable field of art history, different branches and schools of historical musicology emphasize different types of musical works and approaches to music. There are national differences in various definitions of historical musicology. In theory, "music history" could refer to the study of the history of any type or genre of music, e.g. the history of Indian music or the history of rock. In practice, these research topics are more considered within ethnomusicology and "historical musicology" is assumed to imply Western Art music of the European tradition; the methods of historical musicology include source studies, philology, style criticism, musical analysis, iconography. The application of musical analysis to further these goals is a part of music history, though pure analysis or the development of new tools of music analysis is more to be seen in the field of music theory. Music historians create a number of written products, ranging from journal articles describing their current research, new editions of musical works, biographies of composers and other musicians, book-length studies or university textbook chapters or entire textbooks.
Music historians may examine issues in a close focus, as in the case of scholars who examine the relationship between words and music for a given composer's art songs. On the other hand, some scholars take a broader view, assess the place of a given type of music, such as the symphony in society using techniques drawn from other fields, such as economics, sociology, or philosophy. New musicology is a term applied since the late 1980s to a wide body of work emphasizing cultural study and criticism of music; such work may be based on feminist, gender studies, queer theory, or postcolonial theory, or the work of Theodor W. Adorno. Although New Musicology emerged from within historical musicology, the emphasis on cultural study within the Western art music tradition places New Musicology at the junction between historical and sociological research in music. New musicology was a reaction against traditional historical musicology, which according to Susan McClary, "fastidiously declares issues of musical signification off-limits to those engaged in legitimate scholarship."
Charles Rosen, retorts that McClary, "sets up, like so many of the'new musicologists', a straw man to knock down, the dogma that music has no meaning, no political or social significance." Today, many musicologists no longer distinguish between musicology and new musicology, since many of the scholarly concerns once associated with new musicology have now become mainstream, they feel the term "new" no longer applies. Ethnomusicology comparative musicology, is the study of music in its cultural context, it is considered the anthropology or ethnography of music. Jeff Todd T
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activity reflecting praise, supplication or repentance, it forms a basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Technically liturgy forms a subset of ritual; the word liturgy, sometimes equated in English as "service", refers to a formal ritual, which may or may not be elaborate, enacted by those who understand themselves to be participating in a action with the divine. Not every religious ritual is a liturgy. A daily activity such as the Muslim salah and Jewish synagogue services would be ritual but not liturgy; the word liturgy, derived from the technical term in ancient Greek, which means "work of the people" is a literal translation of the two words "litos ergos" or "public service". In origin it signified the expensive offerings wealthy Greeks made in service to the people, thus to the polis and the state.
Through the leitourgia, the rich carried a financial burden and were correspondingly rewarded with honours and prestige. The leitourgia were assigned by the polis, the State and Roman Empire and became obligatory in the course of the 3rd century A. D; the performance of such supported the patron's standing among the popular at large. The holder of a Hellenic leitourgia was not taxed a specific sum, but was entrusted with a particular ritual, which could be performed with greater or lesser magnificence; the chief sphere remained that of civic religion, embodied in the festivals: M. I. Finley notes "in Demosthenes' day there were at least 97 liturgical appointments in Athens for the festivals, rising to 118 in a Panathenaic year." However groups of rich citizens were assigned to pay for expenses such as civic amenities and payment of warships. Under the Roman Empire, such obligations, known as munera, devolved into a competitive and ruinously expensive burden, avoided when possible; these included a wide range of expenses having to do with civic infrastructure and amenities.
Buddhist liturgy is a formalized service of veneration and worship performed within a Buddhist Sangha community in nearly every traditional denomination and sect in the Buddhist world. It is done once or more times a day and can vary among the Theravada and Vajrayana sects; the liturgy consists of chanting or reciting a sutra or passages from a sutras, a mantra, several gathas. Depending on what practice the practitioner wishes to undertake, it can be done at a temple or at home; the liturgy is always performed in front of an object or objects of veneration and accompanied by offerings of light, incense and food. Jewish liturgy are the prayer recitations; these prayers with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. In general, Jewish men are obligated to pray three times a day within specific time ranges. While, according to the Talmud, women are only required to pray once daily, as they are exempted from obligations that are time dependent. Traditionally, three prayer services are recited daily: Shacharit or Shaharit, from the Hebrew shachar or shahar "morning light", Mincha or Minha, the afternoon prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, Arvit or Maariv, from "nightfall".
Additional prayers: Musaf are recited by Orthodox and Conservative congregations on Shabbat, major Jewish holidays, Rosh Chodesh. A fifth prayer service, Ne'ila, is recited only on the Day of Atonement. In Christianity, a distinction is made between "liturgical" and "non-liturgical" churches based on how elaborate or antiquated the worship. Others object to this usage, arguing that this terminology obscures the universality of public worship as a religious phenomenon, thus the open or waiting worship of Quakers is liturgical, since the waiting itself until the Holy Spirit moves individuals to speak is a prescribed form of Quaker worship, sometimes referred to as "the liturgy of silence". In Christianity, the term "the liturgy" refers to a standardised order of events observed during a religious service, be it a sacramental service or a service of public prayer. In the Catholic tradition, liturgy is the participation of the people in the work of God, the saving work of Jesus Christ. In the liturgy, Christ continues the work of redemption.
The term "liturgy" in Greek means "work for the people", but a better translation is "public service" or "public work", as made clear from the origin of the term as described above. The early Christians adopted the word to describe their principal act of worship, the Sunday service; this service, liturgy, or ministry is a duty for Christians as a priestly people by their baptism into Christ and participation
Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)
The Ukrainian Orthodox Church referred to as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate is a member of the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is one of two major Eastern Orthodox ecclesiastical bodies in modern Ukraine, it is a constituent part of the Russian Orthodox Church. The current statutes of the ROC define it as a "self-governing with the rights of wide autonomy"; as of 2014 the status of the UOC-MP within the Moscow Patriarchate meant that it enjoyed full administrative independence from the ROC's Holy Synod, whereas the Primate of the UOC-MP was the most senior permanent member of the ROC's Holy Synod and thus had a say in its decision-making in respect of the rest of the ROC, including its administration in the Russian Federation. Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014 notwithstanding, the UOC-MP's eparchies in Crimea continue under the administration of the UOC-MP; the Ukrainian Orthodox Church insists on its name being just the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, stating that it is the sole canonical body of Orthodox Christians in the country, a Ukrainian "local church".
It is the name that it is registered under in the State Committee of Ukraine in Religious Affairs. In pro-Moscow mass media and in biased academic literature it is referred to, as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church or UOC in order to distinguish between the two rival churches contesting the name of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Following the creation of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, on December 20, 2018, the Ukrainian parliament voted to force the UOC-MP to rename itself in its mandatory state registration, its new name must have "the full name of the church to which it is subordinated"; this was protested by UOC-MP adherents. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church considers itself the sole descendant in modern Ukraine of the metropolis of Kiev and all Rus' within the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople established in Kiev in the 10th century. Due to invasion of the Mongols in the 13th century the metropolitan seat was moved to Vladimir and to Moscow, while in the Duchy of Halych and Volhynia was created a separate Metropolis of Halych with own Metropolitan.
In the 14th century, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas who established his control over the former territories of Kievan Rus attempted to move the metropolitan seat back to Kiev. In 1596, the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus' Michael Rohoza accepted the Union of Brest transforming dioceses of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople into the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church under the Holy See's jurisdiction. In 1620, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople Cyril Lucaris reestablished Orthodox dioceses for the Orthodox population of what was the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth — under the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia Job Boretsky as the Patriarchal Exarch. Following the transfer of the Cossack Hetmanate under the sovereignty of the Tsardom of Russia in 1654, the Kievan metropolis in 1686 was transferred by the Patriarch Dionysius IV under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate, following the election of Gedeon Svyatopolk-Chetvertynsky as the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia with the help of the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Ivan Samoylovych.
In late 2018, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople indicated that information about that it transferred jurisdiction over Ukraine to Moscow Patriarchate is inaccurate as Constantinople temporarily provided Moscow with stewardship over the Ukrainian church. The Russian Orthodox Church retorted by stating that the Constantinople's statement is false and further discussion and revision of historical archives needs to be conducted. Soon, Gedeon lost control of the dioceses, under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Kiev. In January 1688, Gedeon's title was changed by Moscow to the ″Metropolitan of Kiev and Little Russia″. Gedeon's successors were mere diocesan bishops under the Moscow Patriarchate and Russia's Most Holy Synod. Before the Battle of Poltava when Ivan Mazepa sided with Carl XII, the new Metropolitan Ioasaf along with bishops of Chernigov and Pereyaslav was summoned by Peter the Great to Glukhov where they were ordered to declare an anathema onto Mazepa. After the battle of Poltava, in 1709 Metropolitan Ioasaf was exiled to Tver and in 1710 a church censorship was introduced to the Kiev metropolia.
In 1718 Metropolitan Ioasaf was arrested and dispatched to Saint Petersburg for interrogation where he died. From 1718 to 1722 the Metropolitan see in Kiev was vacant and ruled by the Kiev Spiritual Consistory. In 1730, Archbishop Varlaam with all members of the Kiev Spiritual Consistory were put on trial by the Privy Chancellery. After being convicted, Varlaam as a simple monk was exiled to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery in Vologda region where he served a sentence of imprisonment of 10 years. After the death of the Russian Empress Anna in 1740, Varlaam was allowed to return and recovered all his Archiereus titles, he however refused to accept back those titles and, after asked to be left in peace, moved to the Tikhvin Assumption Monastery. In 1750 Varlaam accepted the G
Kuban Cossacks or Kubanians, are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia. Most of the Kuban Cossacks are descendants of different major groups of Cossacks who were re-settled to the western Northern Caucasus in the late 18th century; the western part of the host was settled by the Black Sea Cossack Host who were the Zaporozhian Cossacks of Ukraine, from 1792. The eastern and southeastern part of the host was administered by the Khopyour and Kuban regiments of the Caucasus Line Cossack Host and Don Cossacks, who were re-settled from the Don from 1777; the Kuban Cossack Host, the administrative and military unit composed of Kuban Cossacks, formed in 1860 and existed until 1918. During the Russian Civil War, the Kuban Cossacks proclaimed a Kuban People's Republic, played a key role in the southern theatre of the conflict; the Kuban Cossacks suffered heavy losses during the Holodomor and the subsequent Soviet extermination of Russians and Ukrainians and their culture in the Kuban region.
Hence, during the Second World War, Cossacks fought both for both the Red Army and against them with the German Wehrmacht. The modern Kuban Cossack Host was re-established in 1990 at the fall of the Soviet Union. Although Cossacks lived in the region prior to the late 18th century, the landscape prevented permanent habitation. Modern Kuban Cossacks claim 1696 as their foundation year, when the Don Cossacks from the Khopyor took part in Peter's Azov Campaigns. Sporadic raids reached out into the land, populated by the Nogay, though territorially part of the Crimean khanate. In 1784 the lower Kuban passed to Russia, after which its colonisation became an important step in the Empire's expansion. In a different part of southeastern Europe, on the middle Dnieper in what is now Ukraine, lived the Zaporozhian Cossacks. By the late 18th century, their combat ability was reduced. With their traditional adversaries, the Crimean Khanate and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth now all but defunct, the Russian administration saw little military use for them.
The Zaporozhian Sich, represented a safe haven for runaway serfs, where the state authority did not extend, took part in rebellions which were breaking out in Ukraine. Another problem for the imperial Russian government was the Cossacks' resistance to colonization of lands the government considered theirs. In 1775, after numerous attacks on Serbian colonisers, the Russian Empress Catherine the Great had Grigory Potemkin destroy the Zaporozhian Host; the operation was carried out by General Pyotr Tekeli. The Zaporozhians scattered. Others joined the Imperial Russian Husar and Dragoon regiments, while most turned to local farming and trade. A decade the Russian administration was forced to reconsider its decision, with the escalation of tension with the Ottoman Empire. In 1778 the Turkish sultan offered the exiled Zaporozhians the chance to build a new Danubian Sich. Potemkin suggested that the former commanders Antin Holovaty, Zakhary Chepiha and Sydir Bily round the former Cossacks into a Host of the loyal Zaporozhians in 1787.
The new host played a crucial role in the Russo-Turkish War, for their loyalty and service the Russian Empress rewarded them with eternal use of the Kuban inhabited by Nogai remnants, in the cause of the Caucasus War a crucial progress in further pushing the Russian line into Circassia. Renamed the Black Sea Cossack Host, a total of 25,000 men made the migration in 1792-93. During the Russo-Turkish War, the Don Cossacks on the Khopyor River took part in the campaign, in 1770 - numbering four settlements - requested to form a regiment. Owing to their service in the war, on 6 October 1774 Catherine the Great issued a manifesto granting their request; the end of the war and the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca brought Russia's frontiers south from the Kuban River's entry into the Azov Sea along its right bank and right to the bend of the Terek River. This created a 500-verst undefended border, in the summer of 1777 the Khopyor regiment - in addition to the remnants of the Volga Cossacks and a Vladimir Dragoon regiment - were re-settled in the Northern Caucasus to build the Azov-Mozdok defence line.
This marked the start of the Caucasus War, which would continue for 90 years. The Khopyor regiment was responsible for the western flank of the line. In 1778-1782, Khopyor Cossacks founded four stanitsas: Stavropolskaya, Moskovskaya and Severnaya – with 140 Cossack families in each. In 1779, the Khopyor regiment was given its own district; the conditions were desperate as the Circassians would mount daily raids on the Russian positions. In 1825-1826 the regiment began its first expansions, pushing westwards to the bend of the Kuban River and founding five new stanitsas (the so-called new-Kuban line: Barsukovskaya, Belomechetskaya, Batalpashinskaya and Karantynnaya. In 1828 the Khopyor Cossacks participated in the conquest of Karachay and became part of the first Russian expedition to reach the summit of Elbrus in 1829. However, the Russian position in the Caucasus was desperate, to ease administration in 1832 military reform united ten regiments from the mouth of the Terek River
Petro Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine
Petro Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine or Kiev Conservatory is a Ukrainian state institution of higher music education. Its courses include postgraduate education; the Kiev Conservatory was founded on 3 November 1913 at the Kiev campus of the Music College of the Russian Musical Society. The organization of the conservatory was spearheaded by Alexander Glazunov; the first directors were Reinhold Glière. In 1925, the junior classes were separated from the conservatory to form a Music College, while the senior classes were merged into the private Music and Drama Institute of Mykola Lysenko. Viktor Kosenko taught at both institutions; the conservatory was revived when Kiev once again became the capital of Ukraine in 1934. The Music and Drama Institute of Mykola Lysenko was dissolved and its music department was merged back with the Music College, while the drama department served as the basis for creation of the Kiev State Theater Institute of Les Kurbas. In 1938, the conservatory received the Order of Lenin award.
In 1940, the conservatory was named after Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. In 1995, the President of Ukraine elevated the conservatory's status, renamed it the Petro Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine; the conservatory occupies a building built in the 1890s as the Hotel Continental. The building was destroyed during World War II, but was rebuilt in 1955, at which point a concert hall was added, it is located on Horodetsky street 1/3. 1913–1914 Vladimir Pukhalskiy 1914–1920 Reinhold Glière 1920–1922 Felix Blumenfeld 1922–1926 Kostiantyn Mykhailov 1926–1934 unknown 1934–1948 Abram Lufer 1948–1954 Oleksandr Klymov 1954–1968 Andriy Shtoharenko 1968–1974 Ivan Lyashenko 1974–1983 Mykola Kondratyuk 1983–2004 Oleg Tymoshenko 2004– 2018 Volodymyr Rozhok 2018– Maksym Tymoshenko Official site of the conservatory
Ukrainian Cultural and Educational Centre
The Ukrainian Cultural and Educational Centre, is a museum and library in Winnipeg, Canada. Oseredok was founded in 1944 by the Ukrainian National Federation of Canada as a museum, archives and art gallery, it is the largest Ukrainian cultural institution of its kind in Canada. The museum collects and preserves materials and artifacts including documents, ancient maps, rare books, photographs, items of folk art, pioneers' tools, musical instruments, regional folk costumes; the gallery exhibits work of international Ukrainian artists. The library holds over 40,000 books and periodicals in Ukrainian and English including collections of children’s books, music and sciences, a rare book collection and reference materials; the museum is affiliated with the CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada