Bare-knuckle boxing is the original form of boxing, closely related to ancient combat sports. It involves two individuals fighting without boxing gloves or other padding on their hands, the difference between a streetfight and a bare-knuckle boxing match is that the latter has an accepted set of rules, such as not striking a downed opponent. The first bare-knuckle champion of England was James Figg, who claimed the title in 1719, before Jack Broughton, the first idea of current boxing originated from James Figg, who is viewed as the organizer of cutting edge boxing. In 1719, he set up a foundation and charged himself as a professional in the Noble Science of Defense to instruct boxers on the utilization of clench hands, sword. Noted champions were Jack Broughton, Daniel Mendoza, Jem Belcher, Hen Pearce, John Gully, Tom Cribb, Tom Spring, Jem Ward, James Burke, William Bendigo Thompson, Ben Caunt, Tom Sayers and Jem Mace. The bare-knuckle fighter Jem Mace is listed as having the longest professional career of any fighter in history and he fought for more than 35 years into his 60s, and recorded his last exhibition bout in 1909 at the age of 79.
The last sanctioned fight in 1889 was between John L. Sullivan and Jake Kilrain, with Sullivan emerging as the victor, noted champions were Tom Hyer, Yankee Sullivan, Nonpareil Dempsey, Tom Sharkey, James J. Corbett, Bob Fitzsimmons and John Morrissey. While boxing has always included punching, historically it included grappling techniques like throws, arm locks and these techniques were banned during the several rule changes which turned classical pugilism, or bare knuckle boxing, into the modern sport of boxing. Irish stand down is a type of bare knuckle fighting where the aspect of maneuvering around the ring is removed. The Irish stand down is known as strap fighting or toe to toe. Professional bouts are now held and managed by the World Bareknuckle Boxing Association which itself is not recognized as a sports organization anywhere outside of the United States, the sport is still practiced on a small scale all over the world. There are a few countries that bare knuckle is actually illegal, in the British Isles the sports are still very popular there are efforts for the sport to be brought out of the underground and into the mainstream
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Simon Byrne, nicknamed The Emerald Gem, was an Irish bare-knuckle prize fighter. The heavyweight boxing champion of Ireland, he was drawn to England by the larger sums of money on offer. He became one of six fighters ever to have been involved in fatal fights as both survivor and deceased since records began in 1741. Byrne fought in an era when English boxing, although illegal, was patronised by many powerful individuals and its patronage and popularity did not, free it from corruption, heavy betting, and staged fights. The injuries McKay received in his fight with Byrne resulted in his death the following day, Byrne went on to lose his next match against Jem Ward, which some commentators believed he was not sufficiently in condition to fight. His final contest in May 1833 was a gruelling 99 rounds against James Burke that lasted for 3 hours and 6 minutes, Byrne died three days as the result of damage to his brain caused by the beating he had received. Burke was arrested and tried for manslaughter but was acquitted, during the first half of the 19th century pugilism, better known as prize-fighting, held a curious position in British society.
The sport enjoyed a surge in popularity during the Regency period when it was openly patronised by the Prince Regent. Championship boxing matches acquired a reputation as the places to be seen by the wealthy upper classes. Thus a match would often be attended by thousands of people, the Duke of Cumberland was reported to have bet thousands of pounds on Jack Broughton, who was the English champion for 18 years. Boxing had become a nest of gambling related corruption by the 1820s, the epitome of this era was the championship reign of Jem Ward, a fighter who on one occasion admitted taking £100, equivalent to several thousand pounds today, to lose a contest. By 1830 the sport had become known for its corruption. It was against this background that Simon Byrne earned his living, very little is known of Byrnes early life beyond the fact that he was born in Ireland in 1806. His second fight was a draw against Jack Manning in 1826, next was Byrnes first match against the Scottish boxer Alexander McKay, which Byrne won easily in five rounds, earning him a further £100.
This match was McKays first ever prize-fight and this victory was soon followed by a win against Bob Avery, earning a further £50, another win over Phil Samson in 1829, earning him £200. As of 2008 that would be the equivalent of about £13,600, the fight against Alexander McKay was Byrnes first brush with notoriety. On 2 June 1830, billed as Champion of Ireland, fought McKay, the Champion of Scotland, for the right to challenge Jem Ward, the match had been organized at Tom Springs Castle Tavern, in Holborn. The former champion boxer Tom Spring, as treasurer of the Fair Play Club – the organization which oversaw boxing – was immensely influential in the boxing world, along with two other well-known boxers, Gentleman Jackson and Tom Cribb, he was Byrnes sponsor for the match
An epitaph is a short text honouring a deceased person. Strictly speaking, it refers to text that is inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, some epitaphs are specified by the person themselves before their death, while others are chosen by those responsible for the burial. An epitaph may be written in prose or in verse, poets have been known to compose their own epitaphs prior to their death. Most epitaphs are brief records of the family, and perhaps the career, of the deceased, often with an expression of love or respect—for example. Notably, the Laudatio Turiae, the longest known Ancient Roman epitaph, exceeds almost all of these at 180 lines, it celebrates the virtues of an honored wife, some are quotes from holy texts, or aphorisms. One approach of many epitaphs is to speak to the reader, a wry trick of others is to request the reader to get off their resting place, inasmuch as the reader would have to be standing on the ground above the coffin to read the inscription. Nearly all note name, year or date of birth, many list family members and the relationship of the deceased to them.
Heroes and Kings your distance keep, In peace let one poor poet sleep, Who never flattered folks like you, Let Horace blush, — Alexander Pope Wir müssen wissen. — David Hilbert He never killed a man that did not need killing, — Clay Allison Here lies One whose Name was writ in Water — John Keats Undefeated — Hans-Joachim Marseille And the beat goes on. — Sonny Bono Sleep after toyle, port after stormie seas, Ease after warre, death after life, — Joseph Conrad Thats all folks. — Mel Blanc Ive finally stopped getting dumber, — Paul Erdős Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by that here, obedient to their law, we lie. — Simonidess epigram at Thermopylae I told you I was ill, — Spike Milligan Here sleeps at peace a Hampshire Grenadier Who caught his early death by drinking cold small beer. Soldiers, be wise at his fall, And when youre hot. — Thomas Thetcher tombstone epitaph in Winchester Cathedral To save your world you asked this man to die, Would this man, could he see you now, ask why. — Epitaph for the Unknown Soldier, written by W. H.
Auden There is borne an empty hearsecovered over for such as appear not. Heroes have the earth for their tomb. — Unknown Soldiers epitaph, passages taken from Pericles Funeral Oration Against you I will fling myself and unyielding, O Death. — Virginia Woolf Good frend for Iesvs sake forebeare, To digg the dvst encloased heare. Bleste be man spares thes stones, Good friend for Jesus sake forbear, To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones, And cursed be he moves my bones
Hanslope is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Milton Keynes and ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire, England. The village is about 4 miles west northwest of Newport Pagnell, the northern parish boundary is part of the county boundary with Northamptonshire. The West Coast Main Line between London Euston and Glasgow passes through the part of the parish, just over 1 mile west of the village. The name of the village has evolved over the centuries, in the 11th century, it was variously spelt Hammescle, Hanslepe or Anslepe. In the 13th century, it was Hameslepe or Hamslape, and it was Hanslopp in the 15th century and Hanslap or Anslope in the 16th century. Anslap and Hanslapp were used early in the 18th century, the toponyms etymology is from the Old English for a muddy place or slope belonging to a man called Hama. On 28 November 1215, the castle was captured after William Maudit had started a rebellion against King John and was defeated in battle by the kings men, the castle building has been lost but the grassy mounds of the motte and bailey earthworks survive.
After King Johns death, Maudit reclaimed his seat and founded a great park in the parish, isabel Mauduit was the mother of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. From 1293 the Earl was chartered to have a market in Hanslope on Thursdays. In 1316, Crown official and judge Adam de Harvington was given the living of Hanslope and he would go on to become Englands Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1327. In the middle ages the parish was part of Salcey Forest, much later, the park was landscaped by Humphry Repton before 1794. In 1697 the distinguished clockmaker Joseph Knibb retired from London to Hanslope, despite his retirement, he continued at Hanslope to make clocks, some of which survive. His will, proved in 1712 left his Hanslope property to his younger brother John Knibb, John kept his business in Oxford and only one clock marked John Knibb Hanslapp is known. On his death on 22 May 1715, the barony ceased to be, Green End Farmhouse predated the Knibbs ownership of the farm and was a scheduled monument under the Town and Country Planning Act 1947.
Despite this protection its last owner demolished the house in 1954. Hanslope was a centre of Buckinghamshire lacemaking in the 19th century, early in the 19th century, Hanslope lace was noted as being particularly fine, and in 1862 about 500 women and children in the parish were employed making pillow lace. Walter Drawbridge Crick was born in Hanslope on 15 December 1857 and he was an English businessman, amateur geologist and palaeontologist who published with Charles Darwin. He was the grandfather of Francis Crick, the molecular geneticist, although Hanslope remains in the ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire, it has since 1997 been part of the unitary authority area of the Borough of Milton Keynes