The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Tbilisi State University
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, is a public research university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia. Excluding academies and theological seminaries, which have intermittently functioned in Georgia for centuries, TSU is the oldest university in Georgia and the Caucasus region. Over 18,000 students are enrolled and the total number of faculty and staff is 5,000. According to the U. S. News & World Report university rankings, TSU is ranked 359th in the world, tied with the University of Warsaw; the university has five branches in the regions of Georgia, six faculties, 60 scientific-research laboratories and centers, a scientific library, seven museums, publishing house and printing press. The main founder of the university was academician, Ivane Javakhishvili. Among co-founders were several scientists, including Giorgi Akhvlediani, Shalva Nutsubidze, Dimitri Uznadze, Grigol Tsereteli, Akaki Shanidze, Andrea Razmadze, Korneli Kekelidze, Ioseb Kipshidze, Petre Melikishvili and Ekvtime Takaishvili.
Professor Petre Melikishvili, a Georgian chemist, became the first rector of TSU. The Rector of TSU since September 2016 Giorgi Sharvashidze. TSU has six faculties: Law and Business, Medicine and Political Sciences and Natural Sciences and the International School of Economics at Tbilisi State University as an autonomous graduate school of economics. Tbilisi State University was founded in 1918 owing to the leadership of Georgian historian Ivane Javakhishvili and the group of his followers, it was the only educational body of this type in Caucasus Region by that time. The university is housed in the former building of Georgian Nobility Gymnasium constructed by the architect Simon Kldiashvili from 1899 to 1906. Georgia has a tradition of education, as evidenced by the functioning of the School of Philosophy and Rhetoric of Phazisi in Colchis. After Georgia became independent and declared itself a national democratic state, one of the first achievements of the Georgian people at the beginning of the 20th century was the foundation of the Georgian National University in Tbilisi.
Afterwards, through the Bolshevik and Communist period, in spite of the forced ideology and fierce censorship, Tbilisi State University maintained schools in mathematics, philosophy and historiography. The foundation of the Academy of Science of Georgia and other higher educational institutions was encouraged by the university; the university was opened on 26 January 1918, the day of remembrance of the Georgian King David the Builder. A church in the University garden, named after the King, has been functioning since 5 September 1995. In 1989 the university was named after its founder - Ivane Javakhishvili. Petre Melikishvili, a chemist and professor, was elected as the first rector of the university. At its commencement, the university had one faculty - that of philosophy. Ivane Javakhishvili, a Georgian historian, delivered the first lecture. At the beginning of 1918 the board of professors and lecturers numbered 18, the student body of the university counted 369 students and 89 free listeners.
Today the number of professors involved in tuition and training amounts to 3275, including 55 academicians and corresponding member of the academy, 595 professors and doctors, 1246 assistant professors and candidates of sciences. Over 35 thousand students are studying at its eight regional branches. Important changes at the university began on 25 April 1994, when the scientific council of the University adopted "The Concepts of University Education", according to which since the year 1994 the university has transferred to the two-stage form of study. At the end of the I stage of the reform implemented, at the beginning of 2005, the bodies functioning at TSU were: 22 faculties with 184 chairs, 8 branches with 46 faculties, 3 scientific-research and study-scientific institutes, 81 scientific-research laboratories and centers, 161 study laboratories and rooms, clinical hospitals and diagnostic centers and editorial houses, the library with 3,650,000 items, 5 dormitories. 95 educational programs were used at the bachelor's course, 194 at master's studies, 16 at the single-step tuition.
Schools that came into being at Tbilisi University were: Mathematics, Psychology, Physiology. National Scholarly Schools of Georgian Historiography, History of Literature, Georgian Philosophy, Art Studies and Caucasian Linguistics and Classical Philology (Grigol Tsereteli, S
History of Russia
The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. The traditional beginning of Russian history is the establishment of Kievan Rus', the first united Eastern Slavic state, in 882; the state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Orthodox Slavic culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' disintegrated as a state due to the Mongol invasions in 1237–1240 along with the resulting deaths of about half the population of Rus'. After the 13th century, Moscow became a cultural center, by the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had grown to become the Russian Empire, stretching from eastern Poland to the Pacific Ocean. Peasant revolts were common, all were fiercely suppressed. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants fared poorly and turned to revolutionary pressures. In the following decades, reform efforts such as the Stolypin reforms, the constitution of 1906, the State Duma attempted to open and liberalize the economy and political system, but the tsars refused to relinquish autocratic rule or share their power.
The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown, war-weariness, discontent with the autocratic system of government. It brought to power a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the communist Bolsheviks on 25 October. Between 1922 and 1991, the history of Russia is the history of the Soviet Union an ideologically based state, conterminous with the Russian Empire before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; the approach to the building of socialism, varied over different periods in Soviet history, from the mixed economy and diverse society and culture of the 1920s to the command economy and repressions of the Joseph Stalin era to the "era of stagnation" in the 1980s. From its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves, beginning in March 1918. By the mid-1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute, Mikhail Gorbachev embarked on major reforms, which led to the overthrow of the communist party and the breakup of the USSR, leaving Russia again on its own and marking the start of the history of post-Soviet Russia.
The Russian Federation began in January 1992 as the legal successor to the USSR. Russia lost its superpower status. Scrapping the socialist central planning and state ownership of property of the socialist era, new leaders, led by President Vladimir Putin, took political and economic power after 2000 and engaged in an energetic foreign policy. Russia's recent annexation of the Crimean peninsula has led to severe economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union. In 2006, 1.5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus, demonstrating the presence of early humans in Russia from a early time. The discovery of some of the earliest evidence for the presence of anatomically modern humans found anywhere in Europe was reported in 2007 from the deepest levels of the Kostenki archaeological site near the Don River in Russia, dated to at least 40,000 years ago. Arctic Russia was reached by 40,000 years ago; that Russia was home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals was revealed by the discovery of the partial skeleton of a Neanderthal infant in Mezmaiskaya cave in Adygea, carbon dated to only 29,000 years ago.
In 2008, Russian archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk, working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia, uncovered a 40,000-year-old small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile hominin, which DNA analysis revealed to be a unknown species of human, named the Denisova hominin. During the prehistoric eras the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Remnants of these long gone steppe cultures were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta and Pazyryk. In the part of the 8th century BCE, Greek merchants brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Gelonus was described by Herodotus as a huge earth- and wood-fortified grad inhabited around 500 BC by Heloni and Budini; the Bosporan Kingdom was incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero.
At about the 2nd century AD Goths migrated to the Black Sea, in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia until it was overrun by Huns. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes which would move on to Europe, as was the case with the Huns and Turkish Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas through to the 8th century. Noted for their laws and cosmopolitanism, the Khazars were the main commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad, they were important allies of the Byzantine Empire, waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Caliphates. In the 8th century, the Khazars embraced Judaism; some of the ancestors of the modern Russians were the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes.
The Early East S
Aktobe is a city on the Ilek River in Kazakhstan. It is the administrative center of Aktobe Region. In 2013, it had a population of 371,546 people; the name "Aktobe" comes from Kazakh "ақ" and "төбе". Until 1999 it was known as Aktyubinsk; the former name is still used in the Russian language, by Russians in Kazakhstan. The territory of modern-day Aktobe Region has seen the rise and fall of many Central Asian cultures and empires; the region figured prominently in the history of the Kazakh "Little Horde". The Kazakh warlord, his mausoleum is located 35 kilometres to the south of Aktobe city. Abulkhair Khan was based in this region. In March 1869, a Russian military fort with a garrison of 300 was built at the confluence of the Kargala and Ilek Rivers, along the Orenburg - Kazalinsk caravan route. From that period onward, Slavic settlers began to migrate to the region in order to farm, soon, neighbourhoods were built around the fort. In 1874 the fort was expanded in size, streets were laid out to and from the fort's gate.
In 1891 the settlement was labelled a district city, named Aktyubinsk. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the settlement expanded in size. While the 1889 population was listed as 2,600, by 1909 the population had increased more than four times to 10,716 official residents; the physical characteristics of the city had developed as well, by the turn of the century the city had two churches, a seminary, a Tatar mosque, a Russian-Kyrgyz boys' school and girls' school, a clinic, a bank, a post office, a city park, a cinema and two mills. The Trans-Aral Railway was extended through the city in 1901. In the years leading up to World War I, industry began to develop in the town, including the construction of an electric factory, a brick factory and the establishment of an annual trade fair; the city was affected by the Russian Revolution of 1905, strikes and riots took place between 1905 and 1907. Bolshevik revolutionaries were active in the city, according to official Soviet histories. On January 8, 1918, the Bolsheviks moved to seize control of the local Soviet and by January 21, 1918, the Bolsheviks had secured the city under their control.
With its location on the Trans-Aral Railway, Aktyubinsk was a strategic point, much contested between the Red Army and their White opponents during the Russian Civil War. Kazakh and Russian inhabitants of Aktyubinsk and its environs supported both sides in the conflict. In mid-1918, elements of the Bolshevik First Orenburg and Twenty-eighth Regiments, commanded by Georgy Zinoviev, were besieged in Aktyubinsk by forces commanded by Ataman Dutov. Dutov, commanding 10,000 rifles, 5,000 sabres, 500 jigits of the Alash Orda movement's newly formed Second Kazakh Mounted Regiment, attacked the city in October, 1918; the attack only reached as far as the village of Ak Bulak. In the autumn of 1918, Mikhail Frunze's Fifth Army and Mikhail Tukhachevsky's First Army were ordered to break through and clear the railway, in order to allow Red Army forces to link up with Bolsheviks along the Syr Darya. White pressure on Aktyubinsk was relieved by Frunze's capture of Uralsk and Orsk in early 1919, but by April Dutov and Admiral Kolchak were able to launch a combined counteroffensive.
Aktyubinsk fell to the Whites on April 18, 1919, once again severing Bolshevik rail links to Central Asia. In this offensive, the Whites managed to capture and execute Amangeldy Imanov, a Kazakh military leader, operating in the Aktyubinsk region with the support of Bolsheviks in Moscow. By June 1919, Frunze had moved back on to the offensive. On September 10, Aktyubinsk was secured by the Fifth Army after an eight-day battle. 20,000 of Kolchak's troops were captured, along with the easternmost part of the city. From this point, Bolshevik forces were able to control the railway to Tashkent. An All-Kazakhstan Conference of Soviet Workers was held in the city on March 13, 1920; this was the first of a series of regional organizing conferences held by the Bolsheviks that led to the creation of the Kirgiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic - the entity that would develop into the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan. In 1932, Aktyubinsk was named capital city of Aktyubinsk Region; the city developed extensively during World War II as a result of the evacuation and reconstruction of factories from Ukraine and from Moscow, including a worker's cooperative, a ferroalloy factory, an X-ray factory.
Chromium began to be mined and processed in the region. In the 1960s, an extensive expansion of the city was undertaken by Soviet authorities, resulting in the construction of a city center and a sports stadium; the city's society and economy have changed since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991. Older heavy industries have been replaced in importance with the energy sector; the city has continued to expand with new construction and with many Kazakh immigrants moving to the city from the surrounding countryside. In 1999, the official name was changed from Aktyubinsk to Aktobe by presidential decree, as part of a nationwide effort to support the Kazakh language. On May 17, 2011 Aktobe was the site of one of Kazakhstan's first terrorist attacks, when a suicide bomber blew himself up in the headquarters of the local national security services; some analysts have interpreted this as a sign of increasing instability in the oil-rich, but unequal, region
Alexander Ivanovich Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky ) was a Russian Lieutenant General, military writer and author of the first official history of the War of 1812, written in four volumes on the instructions of Nicholas I. Alexander's father Ivan Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky was a known doctor of Ukrainian origin who studied at the University of Göttingen and worked in 1789 at the Russian Ministry of Finance. Alexander studied German at Saint Peter's School joined the Saint Petersburg militia on 1 August 1812 and was chosen by Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov, an adjutant for correspondence in French, he fought in the Battle of Tarutino where he was critically wounded. After the war, in September 1814 Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky was a member of the Russian delegation at the Congress of Vienna and remained until its end in June 1815. In 1816, he was appointed Aide-de-camp to the Emperor, accompanied on his travels to the south and Russia to the congress in Aachen. In 1829, he participated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29 serving with the rank of major general under the command of Field Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch.
He was critically wounded in the Battle of Olszynka Grochowska on 25 February 1830. On 6 December 1835 he was promoted to Lieutenant general and on 9 December he was appointed chairman of the Military Censorship Committee. In 1839 he became a senator and as such, he was appointed as a member of the council of war, where he tried to end his life to reform the army, he became a member of Emperor's Council of War in 1839 and of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1843. He died in September 1848 in the Saint Petersburg cholera epidemic of 1847–1849, he was buried next to his wife at the Tikhvin Cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, where their tomb is preserved
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights and the rule of law in Europe. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of 500 million euros; the organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union, although it is sometimes confused with it because the EU has adopted the original European Flag, created by the Council of Europe in 1955, as well as the European Anthem. No country has joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe; the Council of Europe is an official United Nations Observer. Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws, but it does have the power to enforce select international agreements reached by European states on various topics; the best known body of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces the European Convention on Human Rights. The Council's two statutory bodies are the Committee of Ministers, comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, the Parliamentary Assembly, composed of members of the national parliaments of each member state.
The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the member states. The Secretary General heads the secretariat of the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and the European Audiovisual Observatory; the headquarters of the Council of Europe are in France. English and French are its two official languages; the Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress use German, Italian and Turkish for some of their work. Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill was the first to suggest the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging. In his own words, he tried to "peer through the mists of the future to the end of the war," once victory had been achieved, think about how to re-build and maintain peace on a shattered continent. Given that Europe had been at the origin of two world wars, the creation of such a body would be, he suggested, "a stupendous business".
He returned to the idea during a well-known speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946, throwing the full weight of his considerable post-war prestige behind it. The future structure of the Council of Europe was discussed at a specific congress of several hundred leading politicians, government representatives and civil society in The Hague, Netherlands, in 1948. There were two schools of thought competing: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were combined through the creation of a Committee of Ministers and a Consultative Assembly, the two main bodies mentioned in the Statute of the Council of Europe; this dual intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary structure was copied for the European Communities, North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London.
The Statute was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom. Three months on 10 August 1949, 100 members of the Council's Consultative Assembly, parliamentarians drawn from twelve nations, met in Strasbourg for its first plenary session, held over 18 sittings and lasting nearly a month, they debated how to reconcile and reconstruct a continent still reeling from war, yet facing a new East-West divide, launched the concept of a trans-national court to protect the basic human rights of every European citizen, took the first steps towards what would in time become the European Union. In August 1949, Paul-Henri Spaak of Belgium was elected president of the first session of the assembly. Spaak helped develop a network of intergovernmental contacts in many fields, such as human rights, local government, culture and youth policy. However, the organization only played an advisory role, was not nearly strong enough to achieve Spaak's long-term goals of European unification.
In 2018 an archive of all speeches made to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe by heads of state or government since the Council of Europe's creation in 1949 appeared online, the fruit of a two-year project entitled "Voices of Europe". At the time of its launch, the archive comprised 263 speeches delivered over a 70-year period by some 216 Presidents, Prime Ministers and religious leaders from 45 countries - though it continues to expand, as new speeches are added every few months; some early speeches by individuals considered to be "founding figures" of the European institutions if they were not heads of state or government at the time, are included. Addresses by eight monarchs appear in the list as well as the speeches given by religious figures and several leaders from countries in the Middle East and North Africa; the full text of the speeches is given in both En
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. Coterminous with the present-day republic of Georgia, it was based on the traditional territory of Georgia, which had existed as a series of independent states in the Caucasus prior to annexation by the Russian Empire in 1801. Independent again as the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918, it was annexed by Soviet forces, who invaded it in 1921; the Georgian SSR was subsequently formed, though from 1922 until 1936 it was a part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, which existed as a union republic within the USSR. From November 18, 1989, the Georgian SSR declared its sovereignty over Soviet laws; the republic was renamed the Republic of Georgia on November 14, 1990, subsequently became independent before the dissolution of the Soviet Union on April 9, 1991, whereupon each former SSR became a sovereign state. Geographically, the Georgian SSR was bordered by Turkey to the south-west and the Black Sea to the west.
Within the Soviet Union it bordered the Russian SFSR to the north, the Armenian SSR to the south and the Azerbaijan SSR to the south-east. On November 28, 1917, after the October Revolution in Russia, there was a Transcaucasian Commissariat established in Tiflis. A moderate, multi-party democratic system led by the Social Democratic Party of Georgia operated in the Democratic Republic of Georgia, which existed from May 1918 to early 1921, but in February 1921, the Red Army invaded Georgia. The Socialist Soviet Republic of Georgia was established on February 25, 1921. On March 2 of the following year the first constitution of Soviet Georgia was accepted. From March 12, 1922, to December 5, 1936, it was part of the Transcaucasian SFSR together with the Armenian SSR and the Azerbaijan SSR. In 1936, the TSFSR was dissolved. During this period the province was led by Lavrentiy Beria, the first secretary of the Georgian Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia; the Soviet Government forced Georgia to cede several areas to Turkey, Azerbaijan and Russia.
In 1936, the TSFSR was dissolved and Georgia became the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. Lavrentiy Beria became head of the Georgian branch of the Joint State Political Directorate and was transferred to Moscow in 1938. Reaching the Caucasus oilfields was one of the main objectives of Adolf Hitler's invasion of the USSR in June 1941, but the armies of the Axis powers never reached as far as Georgia; the country contributed 700,000 fighters to the Red Army, was a vital source of textiles and munitions. During this period Joseph Stalin ordered the deportation of the Chechen, Ingush and the Balkarian peoples from the Northern Caucasus, he abolished their respective autonomous republics. The Georgian SSR was granted some of their territory until 1957. On March 9, 1956, about a hundred Georgian students were killed when they demonstrated against Nikita Khrushchev's policy of de-Stalinization, accompanied by an offhanded remark he made about Georgians at the end of his anti-Stalin speech; the decentralisation program introduced by Khrushchev in the mid-1950s was soon exploited by Georgian Communist Party officials to build their own regional power base.
A thriving pseudo-capitalist shadow economy emerged alongside the official state-owned economy. While the official growth rate of the economy of the Georgia was among the lowest in the USSR, such indicators as savings level, rates of car and house ownership were the highest in the Union, making Georgia one of the most economically successful Soviet republics. Corruption was at a high level. Among all the union republics, Georgia had the highest number of residents with high or special secondary education. Although corruption was hardly unknown in the Soviet Union, it became so widespread and blatant in Georgia that it came to be an embarrassment to the authorities in Moscow. Eduard Shevardnadze, the country's interior minister between 1964 and 1972, gained a reputation as a fighter of corruption and engineered the removal of Vasil Mzhavanadze, the corrupt First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party. Shevardnadze ascended to the post of First Secretary with the blessings of Moscow, he was an effective and able ruler of Georgia from 1972 to 1985, improving the official economy and dismissing hundreds of corrupt officials.
Soviet power and Georgian nationalism clashed in 1978 when Moscow ordered revision of the constitutional status of the Georgian language as Georgia's official state language. Bowing to pressure from mass street demonstrations on April 14, 1978, Moscow approved Shevardnadze's reinstatement of the constitutional guarantee the same year. April 14 was established as a Day of the Georgian Language. Shevardnadze's appointment as Soviet Foreign Minister in 1985 brought his replacement in Georgia by Jumber Patiashvili, a conservative and ineffective Communist who coped poorly with the challenges of perestroika. Towards the end of the late 1980s violent clashes occurred between the Communist authorities, the resurgent Georgian nationalist movement and nationalist movements in Georgia's minority-populated regions. On April 9, 19