Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark)
Maria Feodorovna, christened Dagmar, was a Danish princess and Empress of Russia as spouse of Tsar Alexander III. She was the daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Cassel, her siblings included Alexandra, King Frederick VIII of Denmark. Her eldest son became the last Russian monarch, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar was born at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen. Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a member of a relatively impoverished princely cadet line and her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. She was baptised into the Lutheran faith and named after her kinswoman Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel, Queen Dowager of Denmark as well as the medieval Danish queen, growing up, she was known by the name Dagmar. Most of her life, she was known as Maria Feodorovna and she was known within her family as Minnie. In 1852 Dagmars father became heir-presumptive to the throne of Denmark, in 1853, he was given the title Prince of Denmark and he and his family were given an official summer residence, Bernstorff Palace.
Dagmars father became King of Denmark in 1863 upon the death of King Frederick VII, due to the brilliant marital alliances of his children, he became known as the Father-in-law of Europe. Dagmars eldest brother would succeed his father as King Frederick VIII of Denmark and her elder, and favourite, Alexandra married Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales in March 1863. Within months of Alexandras marriage, Dagmars second older brother, was elected as King George I of the Hellenes and her younger sister was Thyra, Duchess of Cumberland. She had younger brother, Valdemar. In 1864, Nicholas, or Nixa as he was known in his family, on 22 April 1865 he died from meningitis. His last wish was that Dagmar would marry his younger brother, Dagmar was distraught after her young fiancés death. She was so heartbroken when she returned to her homeland that her relatives were seriously worried about her health and she had already become emotionally attached to Russia and often thought of the huge, remote country that was to have been her home.
The disaster had brought her close to Nixas parents. He told Dagmar in very affectionate terms that he hoped she would still consider herself a member of their family, in June 1866, while on a visit to Copenhagen, the Tsarevich Alexander asked Dagmar for her hand. They had been in her room looking over photographs together, Dagmar left Copenhagen on 1 September 1866. Hans Christian Andersen, who had occasionally been invited to tell stories to Dagmar, the writer remarked in his diary, Yesterday, at the quay, while passing me by, she stopped and took me by the hand
Church of Holmen
The Church of Holmen is a Parish church in central Copenhagen in Denmark, on the street called Holmens Kanal. First built as a forge in 1563, it was converted into a naval church by Christian IV. It is famous for having hosted the wedding between Margrethe II of Denmark, current queen of Denmark, and Prince Henrik in 1967, the appearance of the Church of Holmen today closely resembles that of the renovation in 1872, except for the colour. The windows are in glass and predominantly set in iron. The spire is dressed in copper just like small spire on the confessionals roof, the church is of Lutheran denomination. The churchs pipe organ was made by Lambert Daniel Kastens and installed in 1738. The actual organ, however, is from 1956, the current pulpit was installed in 1662 and was carved by Abel Schrøder and stands in the natural colour of its oak, except for the kings monogram which is gilded. It is the oldest preserved pulpit in Copenhagen, and the most richly decorated and it stands from floor to ceiling, and depicts Christian history from Moses holding the basket up to Jesus Christ.
The oldest baptismal font in the church is in wrought iron, a white marble font was installed in 1756, created by Carl Frederik Stanley in classicist style, but is no longer in the church. The new baptismal font from 1872 was made by the sculptor Evens by Ludvig Fengers design, in black marble, a model of Niels Juels ship Christianus Quintus hangs from the ceiling in the church. In medieval Copenhagen, Holmen was an actual island, however, in the 16th century, city restructuring made it less of an island and more of a peninsula surrounded by Holmens Canal. On this peninsula, Christian III of Denmark founded a shipyard which became synonymous with the name Holmen, when the shipyard moved to Nyholm on Christianshavn, the name Holmen followed, and Bremerholm became Gammelholm, a name which is rarely used today. Holmens Canal was filled in the 1860s, but the lives on as a street. In 1562–63, Frederick II of Denmark built a forge for Holmen. The building was shaped, as special consideration was given not to spoil the view from the kings castle.
The actual forge was hidden behind a building, called the tower, which was given a handsome front in Italian style facing the castle. In 1617, Christian IV of Denmark has built houses for the navys personnel between the Church of Saint Nikolaj and Holmen and this created an influx in population which made it necessary to build a larger church, which the king had set up in the former anchor forge. At first, the reconstruction into a church caused no redesign of the buildings blueprints, the church was consecrated on September 5,1619, but craftsmen were still working on the church during 1620
Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen. It is situated on Frue Plads and next to the building of the University of Copenhagen. The present day version of the church was designed by the architect Christian Frederik Hansen in the style and was completed in 1829. Construction of the original Collegiate Church of St. Mary, began no than 1187 under Bishop Absalon, the church was located on the highest point near the new town of Havn, Copenhagen. Bishop Absalon was Bishop of Roskilde, Denmarks capital of that era and he built many churches and monasteries, while founding Copenhagen as Denmarks Baltic port city. Named Archbishop of Lund in 1178, Absalon accepted only under threat of excommunication, the church was built in Romanesque style with its half-rounded arches inside and out. In 1314, a fire destroyed the church so completely that it was rebuilt in the popular new building material of the day. The style of building was Gothic, with its pointed arches. The rebuilding of the church with a long nave and choir continued until 1388.
Due to a lack of money, the tower was not built until the reign of Christian II. It was as high as the church was long, and from artwork of the day, a school was established early on. In 1479, parts of the school received a charter. Professors were brought from Cologne, the international faculty widened Denmarks exposure to the great ideas and philosophies of the day. The university challenged the growth of the Protestant movement, but was eventually closed, by 1537 it reopened as a centre for Lutheran studies. The Protestant Reformation was hard on St Marys, citizens of Copenhagen had elected to follow Luther, but Catholic officials at St Marys tried to maintain the church as a centre of Catholic resistance to change in Copenhagen. By royal decree both Catholic priests and Lutheran preachers were commanded to use the church jointly, which incensed the majority of Copenhagens population, on 27 December 1530 hundreds of citizens stormed St Marys, destroying every statue and dismantling the choir stalls.
The 17 richly gilt altars were stripped of jewels and gold and smashed, as were reliquaries, even the name St Marys became Vor Frue Kirke, keeping the historic reference to Mary without the use of the un-Lutheran Saint appellation. Just a year Our Lady Church celebrated the acceptance of the Lutheran Order presided over by Johan Bugenhagen,1539 saw the installation of the first Lutheran superintendents, bishops, of Denmark
St. Peter's Church, Copenhagen
St. Peters Church is the parish church of the German-speaking community in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated at the corner of Nørregade and Sankt Peders Stræde in the citys Latin Quarter, built as a single-nave church in the mid-15th century, it is the oldest building in central Copenhagen. It is notable for its complex of sepulchral chapels. St. Peters Church was in the Middle Ages one out of four Catholic parish churches in Copenhagen and it is first mentioned in 1304 but was most likely founded in the 12th century. The first church burnt down in 1380 but was shortly thereafter. After the Reformation the church building was for a used as a canon. Frederick II presented St. Peters Church to his German-speaking subjects in 1585, the building was renovated by Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder who added a gablet upper floor to the uncompleted tower, which was however replaced by a spire in the 17th century. The church became a centre for Copenhagens political, economic and military elite, the rapidly growing congregation made it necessary to expand the church in several stages.
Christian IV added a transept in 1631 and a southern transept in 1634. Just 60 years later, Christian V extended the north transept with a further three severies, the distinctive sepulchral chapels arose between 1648 and 1740. St. Peters Church was severely damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, the interior was lost to the flames but the outer walls were left intact and the church could fairly easily be rebuilt by Johan Cornelius Krieger. The church was first given a lantern spire which was replaced by the current copper-clad spire in 1756-57. The spire survived the British bombardment during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1807, as time passed, it became an impossible task for the congregation to maintain the large building complex, and in 1994 the state took over the church back into its care. St. Peters Church was originally built as a church but with Christian IVs addition of the northern and southern transepts. Most of the church, including the nave, the choir, the main entrance is located in the southern transept and is marked by a richly carved Baroque portal from 1731, carved by the sculptor Diderik Gercken.
The complex contains numerous tombs and epitaphs of important German families in Denmark, beneath the tombs contain the sarcofages of the most destinguished family members while other chests are placed in three to four layers in underground crypts. Many of the chapels are made by Johannes Wiedewelt and Andreas Weidenhaupt, amidst the chapels lies the idylic herb garden. The congregation arranges guided tours and other events in the historic building
Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus history. He was canonized as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church by Metropolite Macarius in 1547, as it was told by the prophet Isaiah, Thus sayeth the Lord, I appoint the princes because they are sacred and I direct them. He was taller than others and his voice reached the people as a trumpet, and his face was like the face of Joseph and his power was a part of the power of Samson and God gave him the wisdom of Solomon. This Prince Alexander, he used to defeat but was never defeated, born in Pereslavl-Zalessky, Alexander was the second son of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold. Alexander seemed to have no chance of claiming the throne of Vladimir, in 1236, however, he was summoned by the Novgorodians to become knyaz of Novgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders.
According to the Novgorod Chronicle written in the 14th cent, the Neva battle of 1240 saved Novgorod from a full-scale invasion from the West. Because of this battle, 19-year-old Alexander was given the sobriquet Nevsky and he would soon have to leave Novgorod because of this conflict. This supposed battle is not mentioned in any Swedish or other source, the supposed Swedish commander was called Spiridon which is an Orthodox, not Scandinavian name. Furthermore, Sweden was on the brink of war with Norway ever since the Norwegians infamous Värmland expedition in 1225, relations improved only after the Treaty of Lödöse in 1249, which was forged by the newly empowered Birger Jarl. Before the treaty, Norway remained an ally of the folkungs, giving them refuge and providing men, in this situation, it seems unlikely that Sweden could have been able to organize a major expedition against Novgorod. After Pskov had been invaded by the Germans and Estonians, the Novgorod authorities sent for Alexander, in spring of 1241 he returned from his exile, gathered an army, and drove out the invaders.
Alexander and his men faced the Livonian heavy cavalry led by the bishop of Dorpat Hermann, Nevsky faced the enemy on the ice of the Lake Peipus and defeated the German knights and Estonian infantry during the Battle of the Ice on 5 April 1242. Alexander’s victory was a significant event in the history of the Russia, foot soldiers of Novgorod had surrounded and defeated an army of knights, mounted on horseback and clad in thick armour. Tactical military considerations aside, Alexanders victory was an important milestone in the development of Muscovite Russia, after the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia’s Northwest. He sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, Alexander led his army to Finland and successfully routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256. Nevsky proved to be a cautious and far-sighted politician, historians seem to be unsure about Alexander’s behavior when it came to his relations with Mongols. He may have thought that Catholicism presented a more tangible threat to Russian national identity than paying a tribute to the Khan, Alexander tried to strengthen his authority at the expense of the boyars and at the same time suppress any anti-Mongol uprisings in the country.
According to one interpretation, Alexander’s intentions were to protect scattered principalities of what would become Muscovy from repeated invasions by the Mongol army
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Danish royal family
The Danish royal family consists of the dynastic family of the monarch. All members of the Danish royal family, except Queen Margrethe II, dynastic children of the monarch and of the heir apparent are accorded the style of His/Her Royal Highness, while other members of the dynasty are addressed as His/Her Highness. The Queen is styled Her Majesty, the Queen and her siblings belong to the House of Glücksburg, which is a branch of the Royal House of Oldenburg. The Queens children and male-line descendants belong agnatically to the family de Laborde de Monpezat, the Danish royal family enjoys remarkably high approval ratings in Denmark, possibly ranging from somewhere between 82% and 92%. During this time she was still a Princess of Denmark and thus a member of the Danish royal family, in 2005, her former mother-in-law granted her the additional title of grevinde af Frederiksborg, a personal title which would not be forfeited if Alexandra remarried. When she remarried on 3 March 2007, she lost the style of Highness and titular dignity of Princess of Denmark, until 1953 his dynastic male-line descendants remained in Denmarks order succession.
However, no Danish act has revoked usage of the title for these descendants, neither for those living in 1953. There are three members of the Greek royal family who are not known to bear the title of Prince/ss of Denmark with the qualification of His/Her Highness, the Ducal Family of Schleswig-Holstein descends in the legitimate male line from Christian III of Denmark. Danish princes who marry without consent of the Danish monarch lose their dynastic rights, the ex-dynasts are usually accorded the hereditary title Count of Rosenborg. Female descendants were eligible to inherit the throne in the event there were no surviving male dynasts born in the male line. As for the duchies and Lauenburg where the King ruled as duke, these lands adhered to Salic law, the duchies of Schleswig and Lauenburg were joined in personal union with the Crown of Denmark. That meant that the new King of Denmark would not be the new Duke of Schleswig or Duke of Holstein, in 2009, the mode of inheritance of the throne was once more changed, this time into an absolute primogeniture.
This imposed no immediate change on the line of succession as it was then, of the articles of this law, all except Article 21 and Article 25 have since been repealed. However, those who do reside in Denmark or its territories continue to require the prior permission to travel abroad. The wording excludes those whose blood cannot be traced to a Danish monarch, although all other articles of the Kongelov have been repealed by amendments to the Constitution in 1849,1853 and 1953, these two articles have thus far been left intact. 1Princess Benediktes children have no succession rights, since the children continued to be educated in Germany well past the mandatory schooling age, they are deemed to no longer have succession rights. Line of succession to the British throne Line of succession to the Greek throne Line of succession to the Norwegian throne Kongehuset. dk Official site of the Danish Monarchy
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Imperial Academy of Arts
The Russian Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts, was founded in 1757 by Ivan Shuvalov under the name Academy of the Three Noblest Arts. Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned a new building, the academy promoted the neoclassical style and technique, and sent its promising students to European capitals for further study. Training at the academy was virtually required for artists to make successful careers, formally abolished in 1918 after the Russian Revolution, the academy was renamed several times. It established free tuition, students from across the country competed fiercely for its few places annually, in 1947 the national institution was moved to Moscow, and much of its art collection was moved to the Hermitage. The building in Leningrad was devoted to the Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture, since 1991 it has been called the St. Petersburg Institute for Painting and Architecture.
The academy was located in the Shuvalov Palace on Sadovaya Street, in 1764, Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned its first rector, Alexander Kokorinov, to design a new building. It took 25 years to complete the Neoclassical edifice, which opened in 1789, konstantin Thon was responsible for the sumptuous decoration of the interiors. He designed a quayside in front of the building, with stairs down to the Neva River, Ivan Betskoy reorganized the academy into a de facto government department, it supervised matters concerning art throughout the country, distributing orders and awarding ranks to artists. The academy vigorously promoted the principles of Neoclassicism by sending the most notable Russian painters abroad, in order to learn the ancient and Renaissance styles of Italy and it had its own sizable collection of choice artworks intended for study and copying. The adherents of this movement became known as peredvizhniki, led by Ivan Kramskoi, they publicly broke with the Academy and organized their own exhibitions, which traveled from town to town across Russia.
Ilya Repin, Mikhail Vrubel and some other painters still regarded the academys training as indispensable for the development of professional and technical skills. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Imperial Academy passed through a series of transformations, after the Academys move to Moscow that year, the building in what was called Leningrad was renamed Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture. The national academy has stayed in Moscow, in 1991 it was renamed the Russian Academy of Arts. The old academys art collection, which included works by Poussin, David. During the Soviet era, academies were free of tuition fees as they were financed by the government, many would-be students would apply to the Academy for as many as six or seven years in a row without success. With just twenty places available and thousands of applicants, the competition was brutal, well-known graduates of Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture in 1930–1950s include, The Russian Academy of Arts has been headquartered in Moscow since 1947.
Its current president is Zurab Tsereteli and its vice-president is Tair Salakhov and it is called the St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Fine Arts and Architecture. - Saint Petersburg, NP-Print Edition,2007, the Leningrad School Russian Academy of Arts The St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Fine Arts Sergei V. Ivanov
Frederiks Church, popularly known as The Marble Church for its rococo architecture, is an Evangelical Lutheran church in Copenhagen, Denmark. The church forms the point of the Frederiksstaden district, it is located due west of Amalienborg Palace. Fredericks Church has the largest church dome in Scandinavia with a span of 31m, the dome rests on 12 columns. The inspiration was probably St. Peters Basilica in Rome, the foundation stone was set by king Frederick V on October 31,1749, but the construction was slowed by budget cuts and the death of Eigtved in 1754. In 1770, the plans for the church were abandoned by Johann Friedrich Struensee. The church was incomplete and, in spite of several initiatives to complete it. The deal was at the highly controversial. On 25 January 1877, a case was brought by the Folketing at the Court of Impeachment, tietgen got Ferdinand Meldahl to design the church in its final form and financed its construction. Due to financial restrictions, the plans for the church to be built almost entirely from marble were discarded.
The church was opened to the public on August 19,1894. Inscribed in gold lettering on the entablature of the front portico are the words, a series of statues of prominent theologians and ecclesiastical figures, including one of the eminent Danish philosopher Kierkegaard, encircles the grounds of the building
An onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles an onion. Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they sit and these bulbous structures taper smoothly to a point. Other types of Eastern Orthodox cupolas include helmet domes, Ukrainian pear domes, art historians disagree on when and why onion domes became a typical feature of Russian architecture. Byzantine churches and the architecture of Kievan Rus were characterized by broader, flatter domes without a special framework erected above the drum. In contrast to this ancient form, each drum of a Russian church is surmounted by a structure of metal or timber. By the end of the century, most Russian churches from before the Petrine period had bulbous domes. The largest onion domes were erected in the century in the area around Yaroslavl. Quite a few had more complicated bud-shaped domes, whose form derived from Baroque models of the seventeenth century. Pear-shaped domes are usually associated with Ukrainian Baroque, while cone-shaped domes are typical for Orthodox churches of Transcaucasia, Russian icons painted before the Mongol invasion of Rus do not feature churches with onion domes.
Two highly venerated pre-Mongol churches that have been rebuilt—the Assumption Cathedral, restoration work on several other ancient churches revealed some fragments of former helmet-like domes below newer onion cupolas. It has been posited that onion domes first appeared during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the domes of Saint Basils Cathedral have not been altered since the reign of Ivans son Fyodor I, indicating the presence of onion domes in the sixteenth-century Russia. Eight of the nine domes featured on St. Basils Cathedral represent each attack on Kazan, the ninth dome was constructed 36 years after the siege of Kazan as a tomb for Basil. The ornate finishes of these domes are bright in color and bold in shape as they are adorned with pyramids and stripes, some believe that onion domes first appeared in Russian wooden architecture above tent-like churches. According to this theory, onion domes were strictly utilitarian, as they prevented snow from piling on the roof, one example of such restoration is the Dormition Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin.
These findings demonstrated that Russian onion domes could not be imported from the Orient, sergey Zagraevsky, a modern art historian, surveyed hundreds of Russian icons and miniatures, from the eleventh century onward. He concluded that most icons painted after the Mongol invasion of Rus display only onion domes, first onion domes displayed on some pictures of twelfth century. He found only one icon from the fifteenth century displaying a dome resembling the helmet instead of an onion. Zagraevsky indicated that the oldest depictions of the two Vladimir cathedrals represent them as having onion domes, prior to their replacement by classicizing helmet domes
Catholics believe that patron saints, having already transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede effectively for the needs of their special charges. Historically, a practice has occurred in many Islamic lands. With regard to the omnipresence of this belief, the late Martin Lings wrote. Traditionally, it has been understood that the saint of a particular place prays for that places wellbeing and for the health. Saints often become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active, professions sometimes have a patron saint owing to that individual being involved somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession and it is, generally discouraged in some Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry. In Islam, the veneration or commemoration and recognition of saints is found in many branches of traditional Sunnism