Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Ilya Stepanovich Shumov was a Russian chess master. He served as an officer in the Russian Navy until 1847 worked as a civil servant in Saint Petersburg, he was invited, along with two other Russian chess masters – Alexander Petrov and Carl Jaenisch, to participate in the London 1851 chess tournament but he did not arrive. He played several matches in Petersburg. Chessgames.com – Ilya Shumov
Chessgames.com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members. The site maintains a large database of chess games, where each game has its own discussion page for comments and analysis. Limited to games where at least one player is of master strength, the database begins with the earliest known recorded games and is updated with games from current top-level tournaments. Basic membership is free, the site is open to players at all levels of ability, with additional features available for Premium members. While the primary purpose of Chessgames.com is to provide an outlet for chess discussion and analysis, consultation games are periodically organized with teams of members playing either other teams of members or strong masters, including a former US champion and two former world correspondence champions. Members can maintain their own discussion pages, there are features to assist study of openings and sacrifices; the front page features a puzzle of the day, player of the day, game of the day, the puzzle varying in difficulty throughout the week from "very easy" on Mondays to "insane" on Sundays.
Chessgames.com was founded in 2001 by Daniel Freeman and Alberto Artidiello in association with 20/20 Technologies. They developed software to integrate a chess database with a discussion forum, so that all games and players have a unique message board; the concept was popular as users can kibitz on many games and pages throughout the site. The Kramnik–Lékó World Championship 2004 match in Brissago was broadcast live on the site; this led to substantial growth in membership and interest, which has increased since due to other live events and many site enhancements. Co-founder Alberto Artidiello died on March 1, 2015, at the age of 56. Co-founder and longtime webmaster Daniel Freeman died on July 24, 2018, at the age of 50; the site is being administered on an interim basis by a user with the handle "Sargon", a longtime friend and business partner of Freeman's who had assisted him with management of the site at various times. The site's database of games was constructed by combining six large databases and weeding out duplicate games.
The primary criterion for inclusion in the Chessgames.com database is that one of the players should be master strength to reduce low quality games and erroneous fabrications. Their original goal was 750,000 games, their estimate of the total number of serious chess games, recorded up to and including 2005; the database presently contains over 700,000 games. Each game page lists a user feedback process to eliminate bad games, help correct errors, remove any duplicates; each game on Chessgames.com is hosted on a separate web page to allow internal and external weblinks to that particular game. Although other online databases may contain more games, they do not permit external links to individual games or allow for kibitzing on each game. According to its webmaster, Chessgames strives for quality games without participating in the arms-race mentality that produces chess databases containing millions of questionable games; the site has over 197,000 registered members, with 2,500 new members per month.
At any time, several hundred people are using the site. A sample of Group demographics from a 2005 questionnaire: 98 percent male, 50 percent from North America, average rating 1600–1800 with one third unrated. Members post messages under a specific username, which may be their real identity or an anonymous handle. Prominent Chessgames.com members include former Women's World Champion Susan Polgar, former World Championship candidate Nigel Short, former U. S. Champion Gata Kamsky, chess authors Grandmaster Raymond Keene and FIDE Master Eric Schiller, FIDE Master Jonathan Sarfati, past USCF President Grandmaster Maxim Dlugy, International Master Lawrence Day, Woman Grandmasters Natalia Pogonina and Yelena Dembo. Grandmasters who have posted on Chessgames.com include Varuzhan Akobian, Rogelio Antonio Jr. Keith Arkell, Oliver Barbosa, Jayson Gonzales, Danny Gormally, Jon Ludvig Hammer, Arno Nickel, David Norwood, James Plaskett, Alejandro Ramirez, Yury Shulman, Wesley So, Mihai Suba, Gert Jan Timmerman, Tansel Turgut, Mikhail Umansky, Simon Kim Williams and Patrick Wolff.
The Internet Age created the potential for one grandmaster to play against a large group in a consultation game, starting with former World Champion Anatoly Karpov defeating The World in 1996 followed by World Champion Garry Kasparov beating The World in 1999. Since other collections of amateurs have represented The World versus one grandmaster with varying degrees of success. Chessgames.com began team play as The World in 2006 and defeated noted computer expert GM Arno Nickel. The group duplicated that result by winning as Black against 2007 US Champion GM Yury Shulman, won again against the former Correspondence World Champion Gert Jan Timmerman in 2007; the Chessgames World Team drew four matches in a row: a 2008 rematch with GM Nickel, as Black in 2009 against the former ICCF World Champion Mikhail Markovich Umansky, as White in 2010 against WGM Natalia Pogonina, as Black in 2011 against GM Varuzhan Akobian. The Chessgames.com team won a rematch as White against GM Akobian in 2012, won against GM Simon Kim Williams in 2013-14.
The Team won their latest game in 2014 as white against GM Arkadij Naiditsch giving the team a current record of six wins, four draws, no losses. Chessgames.com's stated goal for members is "to participate and learn from players stronger than, while guiding those who are weaker." The site is designed to be "a worldwide
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank. Such titles are granted for life; the international chess governing body FIDE grants several titles, the most prestigious of, Grandmaster. More broadly, the term "master" can refer to any skilled chess player. In general, a chess master is a player of such skill that he or she can beat most amateurs. Among chess players, the term is abbreviated to master, the meaning being clear from context; the establishment of the world chess body, Fédération Internationale des Échecs, saw the creation of titles superior to the "national master" titles. In 1950, FIDE created the titles "Grandmaster" and "International Master", the requirements for which were formalized over the years. In 1978 FIDE created the lesser title of "FIDE Master". From the beginning of recorded chess, to the establishment of the first chess organizations, the term master was applied informally, being a matter of popular acclaim.
Strong players demonstrated their strength in play, gained the informal reputation of being chess masters. As chess became more widespread in the latter half of the 19th century, the term began to be given out by organizations. One of the most prestigious events of the time was the DSB Congress, first organised by the Deutscher Schachbund in 1876; the DSB's standard for the title of Master was the Meisterdrittel, i.e. to win at least one third of the games in the premiere tournament at a DSB Congress. The winner of the Hauptturnier or "reserve" event was entitled to compete in the premiere event in the next congress, with a chance to achieve the Meisterdrittel. Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title. Before FIDE will confer the title on a player, the player must have an Elo chess rating of at least 2500 at one time and three favorable results in tournaments involving other Grandmasters, including some from countries other than the applicant's.
There are other milestones a player can achieve to attain the title, such as winning the World Junior Championship. International Master; the conditions are less demanding. The minimum rating for the IM title is 2400. FIDE Master; the usual way for a player to qualify for the FIDE Master title is by achieving a FIDE Rating of 2300 or more. Candidate Master. Similar to FM, but with a FIDE Rating of at least 2200. All the titles listed above are open to women. Separate women-only titles, such as Woman Grandmaster, are available. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978, many women have earned the unsegregated GM title; some national chess federations award titles such as "National Master". National chess federations are free to set whatever standards they want for such titles, which are not recognized by FIDE. Standards for "Master" titles in different countries vary, but are based on criteria such as achieving a certain rating, achieving the required number of tournament performances at a certain level, or featuring prominently in the country's national championship.
In some cases, it may extend to honorary titles awarded to prominent chess administrators, business patrons or politicians. Since the introduction of the FIDE Master title in 1978, some federations such as those of Ireland and Germany have ceased awarding National Master titles regarding them as obsolete. In the Soviet Union, the Master title was conferred by the federal government and was connected to the title of Master of Sport; the first chess player to receive the title was Peter Romanovsky in 1934. Only players who featured prominently in the Soviet Chess Championship were considered for the title, less than 100 awards were made altogether; the majority of these players qualified for the FIDE International Master or Grandmaster title. The USCF gives a national title for achieving 2200 rating: Note: 1st Category titles and lower do not require the listed rating. Chess expert is a title given by the United States Chess Federation, it is awarded to chess players rated from 2000 to 2199. Players rated above that are masters.
50,000 chess players have USCF ratings, of which 2,500 are rated 2000 or better. Thus, chess experts are in the top 5% of all USCF tournament chess players. Since 2008, USCF has awarded Candidate Master titles to players that achieve five performance-based'norms' in tournaments while holding a rating above 2000. Like the title of Master, Candidate Master titles are awarded for life; the title of chess expert is not awarded for life. Every time a tournament chess player plays a game, his rating goes up or down depending on the game's outcome and on how strong his opponent is. If the rating of a chess expert falls below 2000, he is not a chess expert any more; this is in contrast to international titles awarded by FIDE. In European countries the term of "expert" is not used. Instead, players of that level are called "Candidate Masters", although the FIDE Candidate Master title requires a higher rating, it is possible, for players in the United States to have a rating that places them in the'expert' category while still retaining the titl
Carl Ferdinand von Jaenisch was a Finnish and Russian chess player and theorist. In the 1840s, he was among the top players in the world, he began a military career in Finland, but soon moved to Russia to teach rational mechanics in Petersburg. He dedicated his life to mathematics and chess, two subjects which he considered related, he tried to show their connections in his work Découvertes sur le cavalier, published in Petersburg in 1837. In 1842–43 he published a book on the openings in two volumes: Analyse Nouvelle des ouvertures. In 1862–63 he published his major work: Traité des applications de l'analyse mathématique au jeu des échecs, in three volumes, he wanted to take part in the London 1851 chess tournament, but arrived late and instead played a match with Howard Staunton, which he lost +2–7=1. Three years he lost to Ilya Shumov. Jaenisch is best remembered for having analysed and helped develop Petrov's Defence with Alexander Petrov, for his work on the Schliemann–Jaenisch Gambit of the Ruy Lopez, which begins 1.e4 e5 2.
Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 f5!? The dubious gambit 1.c4 b5 is sometimes referred to as the Jaenisch Gambit. Staunton was most upset at his death in 1872, writing to Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa in November of that year: I was sorry to lose Lewis and St. Amant, my dear friends Bolton and Sir T. Madden, others of whom we have been deprived, but for Jaenisch I entertained a particular affection, his loss was proportionately painful to me, he was an amiable and an upright man. After Jaenisch's death a scholarship fund in his honor, which survives to this day, was established by his sister. Ilya Shumov vs Carl Friedrich von Jaenisch, St Petersburg, Italian Game, a game attributed to Pope Leo XIII Carl Jaenisch player profile and games at Chessgames.com
Pskov is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, located about 20 kilometers east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. Population: 203,279 . Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia; the name of the city Pleskov, may be loosely translated as " of purling waters". It was known in English as Plescow, its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev married St. Olga. Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary; the first prince of Pskov was Vladimir the Great's youngest son Sudislav. Once imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he was not released until the latter's death several decades later. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic. In 1241, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, but Alexander Nevsky recaptured it several months during a legendary campaign dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie Alexander Nevsky.
In order to secure their independence from the knights, the Pskovians elected a Lithuanian prince, named Daumantas, a Roman Catholic converted to Orthodox faith and known in Russia as Dovmont, as their military leader and prince in 1266. Having fortified the town, Daumantas routed the Teutonic Knights at Rakvere and overran much of Estonia, his remains and sword are preserved in the local kremlin, the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears the name of "Dovmont's town". By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de facto sovereign republic, its most powerful force was the merchants. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years the veche promulgated a law code, one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497. For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe. In the 13th century German merchants were present in Zapskovye area of Pskov and the Hanseatic League had a trading post in the same area in the first half of 16th century which moved to Zavelichye after a fire in 1562.
The wars with Livonian Order, Poland-Lithuania and Sweden interrupted the trade but it was maintained until the 17th century, with Swedish merchants gaining the upper hand eventually. The importance of the city made it the subject of numerous sieges throughout its history; the Pskov Krom withstood twenty-six sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, the local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov. In 1510, the city fell to Muscovite forces; the deportation of noble families to Moscow under Ivan IV in 1570 is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka. As the second largest city of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Pskov still attracted enemy armies. Most famously, it withstood a prolonged siege by a 50,000-strong Polish army during the final stage of the Livonian War; the king of Poland Stephen Báthory undertook some thirty-one attacks to storm the city, defended by civilians.
After one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Báthory's siege. Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Latvia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior; as a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined although it has served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777. During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines, it was at a railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March 1917, after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference, the Imperial German Army invaded the area. Pskov was occupied by the Estonian army between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence when Bułak-Bałachowicz became the military administrator of Pskov.
He ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city. He put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers. Under the Soviet government, large parts of the city were rebuilt, many ancient buildings churches, were demolished to give space for new constructions. During World War II, the medieval citadel provided little protection against modern artillery of Wehrmacht, Pskov suffered substantial damage during the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. A huge portion of the population died during the war, Pskov has since struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial and cultural center of Western Russia. Pskov is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Pskovsky District though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Pskov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC