Bruce County is a county in Southwestern Ontario, Canada comprising eight lower-tier municipalities and with a 2016 population of 66,491. It is named for James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, sixth Governor General of the Province of Canada; the Bruce name is linked to the Bruce Trail and the Bruce Peninsula. It has three distinct areas; the Peninsula is part of the Niagara Escarpment and is known for its views, rock formations and hiking trails. The Lakeshore includes nearly a hundred kilometers of soft sandy beaches; the Interior Region has a strong history in farming. Bruce County comprises eight municipalities: Two First Nation communities are included within the Bruce census division, but are separate from the county administration: Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation Saugeen First Nation The territory of the County arose from various surrenders of First Nations lands: The Queen's Bush, coming from the 1836 Saugeen Tract Agreement The cession of the Indian Strip in 1851, for a road between Owen Sound and Southampton The Saugeen Surrenders of 1854, which transferred the Bruce Peninsula to the Crown Huron County was organized in the Huron District in 1845, the District itself was abolished at the beginning of 1850.
Legislation passed in the same session of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada provided instead for it to be reconstituted as the United Counties of Huron and Bruce, with the territory of the Bruce Peninsula withdrawn and annexed to Waterloo County. The Bruce Peninsula was withdrawn from Waterloo and transferred to Bruce in 1851; the County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time, was separated from the United Counties in 1853. In 1849, the Huron District Council united the area of the county with the United Townships of Wawanosh and Ashfield as a single municipality, which lasted until 1851 when Wawanosh and Ashfield were withdrawn; the area became known as the "United Townships in the County of Bruce", which lasted until its division into municipalities in 1854. A Provisional Municipal Council was established for Bruce County at the beginning of 1857, Walkerton was proclaimed as the county seat, in preference to Kincardine, but local opposition forced the proclamation to be deferred until each town and village had presented a case for its selection.
A subsequent proclamation confirmed Walkerton's selection. In 1863, the provisional council promoted a bill in the Legislative Assembly to divide the county into the counties of Bruce and Wallace, but it only went as far as second reading and did not proceed further; the provisional council asked for legislation to provide for a referendum as to whether Walkerton, Kincardine or another place would be the most acceptable choice. The referendum was held in September 1864, Paisley received a plurality of the votes. In early 1865, the provisional council asked for legislation to confirm the result, but changed its mind in the year in favour of Walkerton. Confirming legislation was passed in 1866 to provide for the dissolution of the United Counties on January 1, 1867, with Huron and Bruce becoming separate counties for all purposes. Bruce County had a population of 68,147 based on the 2016 Canada census, representing a 3.1% growth since the 2011 census, lower than the provincial average of 4.6%.
Residents of Bruce County are poorer than the Ontario average. As of 2016, the median age of Bruce County is 48.5 years, much older than the Ontario median of 41.3. The median household income was $71,193, lower than the provincial average of $74,287. Bruce County has no visible minorities, representing only 3% of the population compared to the provincial average of 29%, but has a high aboriginal population representing 6% of the population, higher than the provincial average of 4%. Bruce County is overwhelmingly English speaking, with 92% of the population having English as their mother tongue, but has a German speaking population consisting of 3%; the County of Bruce is governed by a council consisting of a warden and mayors of the area municipalities. County council meetings are held in the Bruce County Administration building in Ontario; the function of the Business to Bruce Program is to support business development, business recruitment and business enhancement. This program focuses on "inspiring and supporting business owners and entrepreneurs by engaging and mobilizing the local business communities and municipalities while using County level resources to give the project reach and scale".
Explore the Bruce, a tourism sub-brand of Bruce County and promotes the area as a place to visit. Explore the Bruce runs the annual Adventure Passport program; this program is a Bruce County-wide scavenger hunt that takes participants off the beaten track in Bruce County. It takes place from May 1st until October 31st each year and families and individuals of all ages can participate. In 2015, the Adventure Passport program was presented with a Tourism Marketing Campaign Award at the Ontario Tourism Summit in Toronto. Spruce the Bruce supports local community efforts to facilitate long-term downtown revitalization plans, bringing together stakeholders to build community capacity and assist with strategic policy and capital investment; the program provides communities with th
Bank of Upper Canada
The Bank of Upper Canada was established in 1821 under a Charter granted by the legislature of Upper Canada in 1819 to a group of Kingston merchants. This charter was appropriated by the more influential Executive Councillors to the Lt. Governor, the Rev. John Strachan and William Allan and moved to Toronto; the bank was associated with the group that came to be known as the Family Compact, formed a large part of their wealth. This association with the Family Compact and underhanded practices made Reformers, including Mackenzie, regard the Bank of Upper Canada as a prop of the Government. Complaints about the bank were a staple of Reform agitation in the 1830s due to its monopoly and aggressive legal actions against debtors; the first Bank of Upper Canada was located on the south-east corners of King and Frederick street in Toronto. Toronto at the time was too small for a bank and its promoters were unable to raise the minimal 10% of the £200,000 authorized capital required for start-up; the bank succeeded only because its promoters had the political influence to have this minimum reduced by half, because the provincial government subscribed for two thousand of its eight thousand shares.
The Lt. Governor appointed four of the bank's fifteen directors making for a tight bond between the nominally private company and the state. Despite these tight bonds, the Receiver General, the reform-leaning John Henry Dunn, refused to use the bank for government business; the bank's principal promoters were the Rev. John Strachan, William Allan. William Allan, who became president, was an Executive and Legislative Councillor. He, like the Rev. John Strachan, played a key role in solidifying the Family Compact and ensuring its influence within the colonial state. Forty-four men served as bank directors during the 1830s. More all 11 men who had sat on the Executive Council sat on the board of the Bank at one time or another. Ten of these men sat on the Legislative Council; the overlapping membership on the boards of the Bank of Upper Canada and on the Executive and Legislative Councils served to integrate the economic and political activities of the church and the "financial sector." These overlapping memberships reinforced the oligarchic nature of power in the colony and allowed the administration to operate without any effective elective check.
Henry John Boulton, the solicitor general, author of the bank incorporation bill, the Bank's lawyer admitted the bank was a "terrible engine in the hands of the provincial administration."William Lyon Mackenzie, the Reform politician and newspaper publisher, was the first to demonstrate the nature of this oligarchic power by showing that the government, its officers, legislative councillors owned 5,381 of its 8,000 shares. Once elected to the House of Assembly, he critiqued the Bank's lack of transparency and accountability to the legislature. William Allan William Proudfoot Thomas Gibbs Ridout, cashier Henry John Boulton, lawyer The directorate of the bank was dominated by government officers. Forty-four men served as bank directors during the 1830s; the Bank of Upper Canada at York had obtained its charter at the expense of the larger, more economically developed town of Kingston. Deprived of their charter, they established an unchartered bank in 1818 supported with American capital; the government refused to accept its notes given its American ties, it went bankrupt in 1822.
After its failure, the Bank of Upper Canada used all of its influence to prevent any other bank from being chartered in the province. This monopoly was crucial to boosting its profits, they succeeded only until 1832 when the Commercial Bank of the Midland District was chartered giving Kingston the bank it desired. Paper currency was a banking innovation in this era, it had been experimented with to fund the American Revolutionary War but had devalued badly, leading to general distrust of banknotes. Banknotes in this period were not legal tender, issued by a state bank, they were, similar to cheques written by the bank promising to pay the bearer with "real" money, or specie, if they returned the cheque to the bank. Any bank which could not redeem its banknotes with specie was forced to close for good; the Bank of Upper Canada was able to loan out many more banknotes than it had the cash to redeem because Upper Canada was a specie poor province, the notes would pass from hand to hand to enable trade without being returned to the bank.
On average the bank loaned out more than three times more banknotes. The bank's manager, Thomas Ridout, estimated that in the first three years of its operation, the bank's notes comprised between 74 and 77% of the province's money supply. Between 1823 and 1837, its profit on paid in capital ranged between 3.6% and 16.5% at a time when the maximum legal interest rate was 6%. The Bank of Upper Canada suspended payments from March 5, 1838 – November 1, 1839 during the financial panic of that year, it was bankrupt, but a special act of legislature allowed it to continue operating without having to repay its loans with specie. The bank was a small operation which, like many early Canadian banks, collapsed in 1866. On 10 July 1832, President Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill for the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States, arguing that it was utilized by a "moneyed aristocracy"
The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay; the "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast. It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who were granted land to settle in Upper Canada; the province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and civil and criminal law not mixed like in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada; the US had hoped to capture Upper Canada. The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. Representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from its establishment on 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War global conflict and the French and Indian War in North America, Great Britain retained control over the former New France, defeated in the French and Indian War.
The British had won control after Fort Niagara had surrendered in 1759 and Montreal capitulated in 1760, the British under Robert Rogers took formal control of the Great Lakes region in 1760. Fort Michilimackinac was occupied by Roger's forces in 1761; the territories of contemporary southern Ontario and southern Quebec were maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations and laws; the British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west, other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and parts of Minnesota. After the American War of Independence ended in 1783, Britain retained control of the area north of the Ohio River; the official boundaries remained undefined until the Jay Treaty.
The British authorities encouraged the movement of people to this area from the United States, offering free land to encourage population growth. For settlers, the head of the family received 100 acres and 50 acres per family member, soldiers received larger grants; these settlers are known as United Empire Loyalists and were English-speaking Protestants. The first townships along the St. Lawrence and eastern Lake Ontario were laid out in 1784, populated with decommissioned soldiers and their families."Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, but did not yet specify official borders for Upper Canada; the division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada could have English laws and institutions, the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion.
The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. The 1795 Jay Treaty set the borders between British North America and the United States north to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark to York, judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans; the Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the image and transcript" of the British constitution, based on the principle of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy and democracy; the Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, the Officers of the Crown: the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General, Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
Armstrong, pp. 8–12 The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, ho
Dundee is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom. The mid-year population estimate for 2016 was 148,270, giving Dundee a population density of 2,478/km2 or 6,420/sq mi, the second-highest in Scotland, it lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea. Under the name of Dundee City, it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Part of Angus, the city developed into a burgh in the late 12th century and established itself as an important east coast trading port. Rapid expansion was brought on by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century when Dundee was the centre of the global jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute and journalism". Today, Dundee is promoted as "One City, Many Discoveries" in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, built in Dundee and is now berthed at Discovery Point.
Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities -- the University of the Abertay University. In 2014 Dundee was recognised by the United Nations as the UK's first UNESCO City of Design for its diverse contributions to fields including medical research and video games. A unique feature of Dundee is that its two professional football clubs, Dundee F. C. and Dundee United, have stadiums all but adjacent to each other. With the decline of traditional industry, the city has adopted a plan to regenerate and reinvent itself as a cultural centre. In pursuit of this, a £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre started in 2001 and is expected to be completed within a 30-year period; the V&A Dundee – the first branch of the V&A to operate outside of London – is the main centre piece of the waterfront project. In recent years, Dundee's international profile has risen.
GQ magazine named Dundee the'Coolest Little City In Britain' in 2015 and The Wall Street Journal ranked Dundee at number 5 on its'Worldwide Hot Destinations' list for 2018. The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: meaning fort. While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant, Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of William the Lion's charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, David in the late 12th century; the situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre led to a period of prosperity and growth. The earldom was passed down amongst whom was John Balliol; the town became a Royal Burgh on John's coronation as king in 1292. The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the First War of Independence and recaptured by Robert the Bruce in early 1312; the original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327. The burgh suffered during the conflict known as the Rough Wooing of 1543 to 1550, was occupied by the English forces of Andrew Dudley from 1547.
In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground. In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose; the town was destroyed by Parliamentarian forces led by George Monck in 1651. The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jacobite cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee raised the Stuart standard on the Dundee Law in 1689; the town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, James VIII and III, made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king. A notable resident of Dundee was Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan of Baron of Lundie, he was born in the son of Alexander Duncan of Lundie, Provost of Dundee. Adam was educated in Dundee and joined the Royal Navy on board the sloop Trial, he in October 1797 defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown.
This was seen as one of the most significant actions in naval history. The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century. Two government Acts in the mid 18th century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success: the textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on Osnaburg linen produced for export. Expansion of the whaling industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skill base. Dundee, Scotland more saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821; the phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles for cheaper, tough fabrics. The discovery that the dry fibres of jute could be lubricated with whale oil (of which Dundee had a surfeit, following the opening of its gasworks
York County, Ontario
York County is a historic county in Upper Canada, Canada West, the Canadian province of Ontario. It was organized by the Upper Canada administration from the lands of the Toronto Purchase and others. Created in 1792, at its largest size, it encompassed the area that presently comprises the City of Toronto, the regional municipalities of Halton and York as well as portions of Regional Municipality of Durham and the City of Hamilton; however by 1851, York County only consisted of the areas presently comprising Toronto and Regional Municipality of York. In 1953, York County was split again, with the area south of Steeles Avenue forming the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. York County was formally dissolved in 1971, with its remaining municipalities forming the Regional Municipality of York. York County was created on 16 June 1792 and was part of the jurisdiction of the Home District of Upper Canada, it comprised all of what is now the City of Toronto, the regional municipalities of Halton and York as well as portions of Regional Municipality of Durham and the City of Hamilton.
The Town of York/the City of Toronto served as the initial seat for the county. In 1816, Wentworth and Halton counties were created, with portions of York County transferred to the new counties. In 1851, the western portions of York County was separated to form Peel County. In the same year, the eastern portions of York County was separated forming Ontario County. In April 1953 the Metropolitan Toronto Act, 1953 was passed in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario; the Metropolitan Toronto Act saw municipalities south of Steeles Avenue severed from York County, with the severed counties reforming the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. As a result of this separation, the county offices for the County was moved from Toronto to Newmarket. At a meeting in Richmond Hill on 6 May 1970, officials representing the municipalities of York County approved plans for the creation of a regional government entity to replace York County. In 1971, the remaining portion of York County was dissolved, replaced by the Regional Municipality of York.
The following table is a list of historic municipalities that were at one point situated within York County. The seat of government for York County was situated in Toronto from 1792 to 1953. After the creation of Metropolitan Toronto in 1953, the seat of government for York County was moved to Newmarket. Offices used by York County included: List of Ontario census divisions Middleton, Jesse Edgar. Province of Ontario — A History 1615 to 1927. Toronto: Dominion Publishing Company. Boylen, J. C.. York Township: An Historical Summary 1850-1954. Toronto: Municipal Corporation of the Township of York and the Board of Education of the Township of York. Sawdon, Herb H.. The Woodbridge Story. Pp. 13–14
Between 1866 and 1871, the Fenian raids of the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish Republican organization based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada, were fought to bring pressure on the UK to withdraw from Ireland. They divided Catholic Irish-Canadians, many of whom were torn between loyalty to their new home and sympathy for the aims of the Fenians; the Protestant Irish were loyal to the UK and fought with the Orange Order against the Fenians. While US authorities arrested the men and confiscated their arms, there is speculation that some in the US government had turned a blind eye to the preparations for the invasion, angered at actions that could have been construed as British assistance to the Confederate States during the American Civil War. There were all of them ended in failure. Led by John O'Mahony, this Fenian raid occurred at Campobello Island, New Brunswick. A Fenian Brotherhood war party of over 700 members arrived at the Maine shore opposite the island intending to seize Campobello from the British.
British commander Charles Hastings Doyle, stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia responded decisively. On 17 April 1866 he left Halifax with Royal Navy warships carrying over 700 British regulars and proceeded to Passamaquoddy Bay, where the Fenian force was concentrated; this show of British might discouraged the Fenians, they dispersed. The invasion reinforced the idea of protection for New Brunswick by joining with the British North American colonies of Nova Scotia, the United Province of Canada Upper Canada and Lower Canada, to form the Dominion of Canada. After the Campobello raid, the "Presidential faction" led by Fenian founders James Stephens and John O'Mahony focused more on fundraising for rebels in Ireland; the more militant "Senate Faction" led by William R. Roberts believed that a marginally successful invasion of the Province of Canada or other parts of British North America would provide them with leverage in their efforts. After the failure of the April attempt to raid New Brunswick, blessed by O'Mahony, the Senate Faction implemented their own plan for invading Canada.
Drafted by the senate "Secretary for War" General T. W. Sweeny, a distinguished former Union Army officer, the plan called for multiple invasions at points in Canada West and Canada East intended to cut Canada West off from Canada East and possible British reinforcements from there. Key to the plan was a diversionary attack at Fort Erie from Buffalo, New York, meant to draw troops away from Toronto in a feigned strike at the nearby Welland Canal system; this would be the only Fenian attack, other than the Quebec raid several days that would be launched in June 1866. 1000 to 1300 Fenians crossed the Niagara River in the first 14 hours of June 1 under Colonel John O'Neill. Sabotaged by Fenians in its crew, the U. S. Navy's side-wheel gunboat USS Michigan did not begin intercepting Fenian reinforcements until 2:15 p.m. — 14 hours after Owen Starr's advance party had crossed the river ahead of O'Neill's main force. Once the USS Michigan was deployed, O'Neill's force in the Niagara Region was cut off from further supplies and reinforcements.
After assembling with other units from Canada and travelling all night, Canadian troops advanced into a well-laid ambush by 600–700 Fenians the next morning north of Ridgeway, a small hamlet west of Fort Erie. The Canadian militia at the Battle of Ridgeway consisted of inexperienced volunteers with no more than basic drill training but armed with Enfield rifled muskets equal to the armaments of the Fenians. A single company of the Queen's Own Rifles of Toronto had been armed the day before on their ferry crossing from Toronto with state-of-the-art seven-shot Spencer repeating rifles, but had not had an opportunity to practise with them and were issued with only 28 rounds per man; the Fenians were battle-hardened American Civil War veterans, armed with weapons procured from leftover war supplies, either Enfield rifled muskets or the comparable Springfield. The opposing forces exchanged volleys for about two hours, before a series of command errors threw the Canadians into confusion; the Fenians took advantage of it by launching a bayonet charge that broke the inexperienced Canadian ranks.
Seven Canadians were killed on the battlefield, two died shortly afterwards from wounds, four would die of wounds or disease while on service. Two Fenians were sixteen wounded. After the battle, the Canadians retreated to Port Colborne, at the Lake Erie end of the Welland Canal; the Fenians rested at Ridgeway, before returning to Fort Erie. Another encounter, the Battle of Fort Erie, followed that saw several Canadians wounded and the surrender of a large group of local Canadian militia who had moved into the Fenian rear. After considering the inability of reinforcements to cross the river and the approach of large numbers of both militia and British regulars, the remaining Fenians released the Canadian prisoners and returned to Buffalo early in the morning of June 3, they were surrendered to the American navy. The traditional historical narrative alleges that the turning point in the Battle of Ridgeway was when Fenian cavalry was erroneously reported and the Canadian militia ordered to form square, the standard tactic for infantry to repel cavalry.
When the mistake was recognized, an attempt was made to reform in column. In his 2011
Richard Harcourt was a Canadian lawyer and politician. He served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario for the riding of Monck from 1879 to 1908, he was Ontario's treasurer from 1890 to 1899. He was born in Seneca Township, Haldimand County, Canada West in 1849, the son of Michael Harcourt, a member of the parliament for the Province of Canada, studied at the University of Toronto, he was principal of Cayuga High School and served as inspector of schools in Haldimand County from 1871 to 1876 studying law during that period. In 1876, he married Augusta H. Young, was called to the bar in the same year and set up practice in Welland. Harcourt served as deputy judge in Welland County in 1886. In 1890, he was named Queen's Counsel, he served as inspector of schools for Welland and the town of Niagara Falls. He died in Welland in 1932. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history The Canadian parliamentary companion, 1889, JA Gemmill Prominent men of Canada: a collection of persons distinguished in professional and political life...
GM Adam Excerpt from Ontario Canada Deaths, 1869-1932 at site Ancestors of Karyn Van Kainen