Franz Kafka was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short-story writer regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature. His work, which fuses elements of realism and the fantastic features isolated protagonists facing bizarre or surrealistic predicaments and incomprehensible socio-bureaucratic powers, has been interpreted as exploring themes of alienation, existential anxiety and absurdity, his best known works include "Die Verwandlung", Der Process, Das Schloss. The term Kafkaesque has entered the English language to describe situations like those found in his writing. Kafka was born into a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today the capital of the Czech Republic, he trained as a lawyer, after completing his legal education, was employed full-time by an insurance company, forcing him to relegate writing to his spare time. Over the course of his life, Kafka wrote hundreds of letters to family and close friends, including his father, with whom he had a strained and formal relationship.
He became engaged to several women but never married. He died in 1924 at the age of 40 from tuberculosis. Few of Kafka's works were published during his lifetime: the story collections Betrachtung and Ein Landarzt, individual stories were published in literary magazines but received little public attention. In his will, Kafka instructed his executor and friend Max Brod to destroy his unfinished works, including his novels Der Process, Das Schloss and Der Verschollene, but Brod ignored these instructions, his work has influenced a vast range of writers, critics and philosophers during the 20th and 21st centuries. Kafka was born near the Old Town Square in Prague part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his family were German-speaking middle-class Ashkenazi Jews. His father, Hermann Kafka, was the fourth child of Jakob Kafka, a shochet or ritual slaughterer in Osek, a Czech village with a large Jewish population located near Strakonice in southern Bohemia. Hermann brought the Kafka family to Prague.
After working as a travelling sales representative, he became a fashion retailer who employed up to 15 people and used the image of a jackdaw as his business logo. Kafka's mother, was the daughter of Jakob Löwy, a prosperous retail merchant in Poděbrady, was better educated than her husband. Kafka's parents spoke a German influenced by Yiddish, sometimes pejoratively called Mauscheldeutsch, but, as the German language was considered the vehicle of social mobility, they encouraged their children to speak Standard German. Hermann and Julie had six children. Franz's two brothers and Heinrich, died in infancy before Franz was seven. All three died during the Holocaust of World War II. Valli was deported to the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland in 1942, but, the last documentation of her. Ottilie was Kafka's favourite sister. Hermann is described by the biographer Stanley Corngold as a "huge, overbearing businessman" and by Franz Kafka as "a true Kafka in strength, appetite, loudness of voice, self-satisfaction, worldly dominance, presence of mind, knowledge of human nature".
On business days, both parents were absent from the home, with Julie Kafka working as many as 12 hours each day helping to manage the family business. Kafka's childhood was somewhat lonely, the children were reared by a series of governesses and servants. Kafka's troubled relationship with his father is evident in his Brief an den Vater of more than 100 pages, in which he complains of being profoundly affected by his father's authoritarian and demanding character; the dominating figure of Kafka's father had a significant influence on Kafka's writing. The Kafka family had a servant girl living with them in a cramped apartment. Franz's room was cold. In November 1913 the family moved into a bigger apartment, although Ellie and Valli had married and moved out of the first apartment. In early August 1914, just after World War I began, the sisters did not know where their husbands were in the military and moved back in with the family in this larger apartment. Both Ellie and Valli had children. Franz at age 31 moved into Valli's former apartment, quiet by contrast, lived by himself for the first time.
From 1889 to 1893, Kafka attended the Deutsche Knabenschule German boys' elementary school at the Masný trh/Fleischmarkt, now known as Masná Street. His Jewish education ended with his Bar Mitzvah celebration at the age of 13. Kafka never enjoyed attending the synagogue and went with his father only on four high holidays a year. After leaving elementary school in 1893, Kafka was admitted to the rigorous classics-oriented state gymnasium, Altstädter Deutsches Gymnasium, an academic secondary school at Old Town Square, within the Kinský Palace. German was the language of instruction, but Kafka spoke and wrote in Czech, he studied the latter at the gymnasium for eight years. Although Kafka received compliments for his Czech, he never considered himself fluent in Czech, though he spoke German with a Czech accent, he completed his Matura exams in 1901. Admitted to the Deutsche Karl-Ferdinands-Universität of Pra
Margaret Ruth Kidder, professionally known as Margot Kidder, was a Canadian-American actress and activist whose career spanned over five decades. Her accolades include one Daytime Emmy Award. Though she appeared in an array of films and television, Kidder is most known for her performance as Lois Lane in the Superman film series, appearing in the first four films. Born in Yellowknife to a Canadian mother and an American father, Kidder was raised in the Northwest Territories as well as several other Canadian provinces, she began her acting career in the 1960s appearing in low-budget Canadian films and television series, before landing a lead role in Quackser Fortune Has a Cousin in the Bronx. She played twins in Brian De Palma's cult thriller Sisters, a sorority student in the slasher film Black Christmas and the titular character's girlfriend in the drama The Great Waldo Pepper, opposite Robert Redford. In 1977, she was cast as Lois Lane in Richard Donner's Superman, a role which established her as a mainstream actress.
Her performance as Kathy Lutz in the blockbuster horror film The Amityville Horror gained her further mainstream exposure, after which she went on to reprise her role as Lois Lane in Superman II, III, IV. The 1990s were marked by significant health problems for Kidder: In 1990, she sustained serious injuries in a car accident that left her temporarily paralyzed, she had a publicized manic episode and nervous breakdown in 1996 stemming from bipolar disorder. By the 2000s, she maintained steady work in independent films and television, with guest-starring roles on Smallville, Brothers & Sisters and The L Word, appeared in a 2002 Off-Broadway production of The Vagina Monologues. In 2015, she won a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance on the children's television series R. L. Stine's The Haunting Hour. In 2005, Kidder became a naturalized U. S. citizen. She was an outspoken political and anti-war activist, continued to participate in political and activist causes through the end of her life. Kidder died on May 13, 2018 at her home in Livingston, aged 69, in what was ruled a suicide by alcohol and drug overdose.
Margaret Ruth Kidder, one of five children, was born on October 17, 1948, in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, the daughter of Jocelyn Mary "Jill", a history teacher, Kendall Kidder, an explosives expert and engineer. Her mother was Canadian, from British Columbia, while her father was an American from New Mexico, she was of English descent. She had one sister, a Canadian actress and executive director of the People for Education charity, three brothers: John and Peter. Kidder's niece Janet Kidder is an actress. Kidder was born in Yellowknife because of her father's employment, which required the family to live in remote locations, her father subsequently served as the manager of the Yellowknife Telephone Company from 1948–1951. Recalling her childhood in northern Canada, Kidder said: "We didn't have movies in this little mining town; when I was 12 my mom took me to New York and I saw Bye Bye Birdie, with people singing and dancing, and, it. I knew. I was clueless, but I okay." In addition to Yellowknife, she spent some time growing up in Labrador City and Labrador.
Kidder became interested in politics from a young age, which she credited to debates her parents would have over the dinner table during her childhood. Kidder suffered with mental health issues from a young age, which stemmed from undiagnosed bipolar disorder. "I knew I was different, had these mind flights that other people didn’t seem to have," she recalled. At age 14, she attempted suicide by swallowing a bottle of codeine capsules after her then-boyfriend broke up with her. Kidder found an outlet in acting as she felt she could "let my real self out… and no one would know it was me." "Nobody encouraged me to be an actress," she recalled. "It was taken as a joke... As a teenager, I envisioned myself in every book. I wanted to be Thomas Wolfe. I wanted to eat everything on the world’s platter, but my eyes were bigger than my stomach." She attended multiple schools during her youth through her family's relocations graduating from Havergal College, a boarding school in Toronto, in 1966. After graduating from Havergal, Kidder relocated to Vancouver to attend the University of British Columbia, but dropped out after one year.
She returned to Toronto. Kidder made her film debut in a 49-minute film titled The Best Damn Fiddler from Calabogie to Kaladar, a drama set in a Canadian logging community, produced by the Challenge for Change. Kidder's 1969 appearance in the episode "Does Anybody Here Know Denny?" on the Canadian drama series Corwin earned her a Canadian Film Award for "outstanding new talent."Kidder's first major feature was the 1969 American film Gaily, Gaily, a period comedy starring Beau Bridges, in which she portrayed a prostitute. She subsequently appeared in a number of TV drama series for the CBC, including guest appearances on Wojeck, Adventures in Rainbow Country, a semi-regular role as a young reporter on McQueen, as a panelist on Mantrap which featured discussions centered on a feminist perspective. During the 1971–72 season, she co-starred as barmaid Ruth in Nichols, a James Garner-led western, which aired 22 episodes on NBC. During an August 3, 1970 interview on The Dick Cavett Show, Kidder stated that she was ambivalent t
Free City of Danzig
The Free City of Danzig was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas. It was created on 15 November 1920 in accordance with the terms of Article 100 of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles after the end of World War I; the Free City included the city of Danzig and other nearby towns and settlements that were inhabited by Germans. As the Treaty stated, the region was to remain separated from post-World War I Germany and from the newly independent nation of the Second Polish Republic, but it was not an independent state; the Free City was under League of Nations protection and put into a binding customs union with Poland. Poland was given certain rights pertaining to communication, the railways and port facilities in the city; the Free City was created in order to give Poland access to a well-sized seaport. The Free City's population of 410,000 was 1 % Polish and 1 % other. However, in the 1920 Free City of Danzig Constituent Assembly election, the Polish Party received over 6% of the vote, the percentage of votes declined to about 3%.
Poland, despite having been awarded generous rights in the Free City went ahead and built Gdynia in 1921. This new port north of Gdansk was established on territory awarded in 1919. By 1933, the commerce passing through Gdynia exceeded that of Danzig. Notwithstanding this, Poland refused to relinquish trading and other rights awarded to her, further alienating the Danzigers. By 1936, the city's Senate had a majority of local Nazis. Agitation to rejoin Germany was stepped up. Due to anti-Semitic persecution and oppression, many Jews fled. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the Nazis abolished the Free City and incorporated the area into the newly formed Reichsgau of Danzig-West Prussia; the Nazis classified the Poles and Jews living in the city as subhumans, subjecting them to discrimination, forced labor, extermination. Many were sent to their deaths including nearby Stutthof. During the city's conquest by the Soviet Army in the early months of 1945, a substantial number of citizens fled or were killed.
After the war, many surviving Germans were expelled to West or East Germany as members of the pre-war Polish ethnic minority started returning and as new Polish settlers began to come. Due to these events, Gdańsk suffered severe underpopulation and did not recover until the late 1950s. In 1945 the city became part of Poland as a consequence of the Potsdam Agreement. Danzig had an early history of independence, it was a leading player in the Prussian Confederation directed against the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussia. The Confederation stipulated with the Polish king, Casimir IV Jagiellon, that the Polish Crown would be invested with the role of head of state of western parts of Prussia. In contrast, Ducal Prussia remained a Polish fief. Danzig and other cities such as Elbing and Thorn financed most of the warfare and enjoyed a high level of city autonomy. Danzig used the title Royal Polish City of Danzig. In 1569, when Royal Prussia's estates agreed to incorporate the region into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the city insisted on preserving its special status.
It defended itself through the costly Siege of Danzig in 1577 in order to preserve special privileges, subsequently insisted on negotiating by sending emissaries directly to the Polish king. Danzig's location as a deep-water port where the Vistula river met the Baltic Sea had made it into one of the wealthiest cities in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries as grain from Poland and the Ukraine was shipped up the Vistula on barges to be loaded onto ships in Danzig, where it was shipped on to western Europe; as many of the merchants shipping the grain from Danzig were Dutch, who built Dutch-style houses for themselves, leading to other Danzigers imitating them, the city was thus given a distinctively Dutch appearance. Danzig become known as "the Amsterdam of the East", a wealthy seaport and trading crossroads that linked together the economics of western and eastern Europe,and whose location at where the Vistula flowed into the Baltic led to various powers competing to rule the city. Although Danzig became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in the Second Partitition of Poland in 1793, Prussia was conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806, in September 1807 Napoleon declared Danzig a semi-independent client state of the French Empire, known as the Free City of Danzig.
It lasted seven years, until it was re-incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1814, after Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzig by a coalition that included Russia and Prussia. The city remained part of Prussia until 1920, becoming part of the Reich in 1871. Point 14 of U. S. president Woodrow Wilson's 14 points called for Polish independence to be restored and for Poland to have "secure access to the sea", a promise that implied that Danzig which occupied a strategic location where the Vistula river flowed into the Baltic sea, should become part of Poland. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, the Polish delegation led by Roman Dmowski asked for Wilson to honor point 14 of the 14 Points by transferring Danzig to Poland, arguing that Poland would not be economically viable without Danzig and that since the city had been part of Poland until 1793, it was rightfully part of Poland anyway. However, Wilson had promised that national self-determination would be the basis of the Treaty of Versailles.
As 90% of the people in Danzig in this period were German, the Allied leaders at the Par
Romulus and the Sabines
Il ratto delle sabine is an Italian adventure comedy film from 1961, directed by Richard Pottier, written by Edoardo Anton, starring Roger Moore and Jean Marais. The scenario was based on a novel of André Castelot; the film was known under the title "L'Enlèvement des Sabines", "Il ratto delle sabine", "Les femmes de Sabine", "Der Raub der Sabinerinnen ", "El rapto de las sabinas", "Romulus and the Sabines", "O Rapto das Sabinas". Mylène Demongeot: Réa Roger Moore: Romulus Francis Blanche: Mezio Jean Marais: Mars Scilla Gabel: Dusia Folco Lulli: Titus Tatius Rosanna Schiaffino: Venus Giorgia Moll: Lavinia Claude Conty: Tarquinius Albus Luisa Mattioli: Silvia Marino Masé: Lino Walter Barnes: Stilicone Nietta Zocchi: La reine Franco Albina: Lepico Dobric: Numa Pompilius Dada Gallotti: Flaminia Mariangela Giordano: Domizia Dragan Jankovitch: Le roi Dina Santris: Albina The Rape of the Sabine Women Romulus and the Sabines on IMDb Romulus and the Sabines at Rotten Tomatoes
Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine. A suburb of Paris, Neuilly is adjacent to the city and directly extends it; the area is composed of wealthy, select residential neighbourhoods, many corporate headquarters are located there. It is most expensive suburb of Paris, it is often recognised as one of the safest and most child-friendly Parisian suburbs. Neuilly was a small hamlet under the jurisdiction of Villiers, a larger settlement mentioned in medieval sources as early as 832 and now absorbed by the commune of Levallois-Perret, it was not until 1222 that the little settlement of Neuilly, established on the banks of the Seine, was mentioned for the first time in a charter of the Abbey of Saint-Denis: the name was recorded in Medieval Latin as Portus de Lulliaco, meaning "Port of Lulliacum". In 1224 another charter of Saint-Denis recorded the name as Lugniacum. In a sales contract dated 1266, the name was recorded as Luingni. In 1316, however, in a ruling of the parlement of Paris, the name was recorded as Nully, a different name from those recorded before.
In a document dated 1376 the name was again recorded as Nulliacum. In the following centuries the name recorded alternated between Luny and Nully, it is only after 1648 that the name was set as Nully; the name spelt Neuilly after the French Academy standard of pronunciation of the ill as a y. Various explanations and etymologies have been proposed to explain these discrepancies in the names of Neuilly recorded over the centuries; the original name of Neuilly may have been Lulliacum or Lugniacum, that it was only corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully. Some interpret Lulliacum or Lugniacum as meaning "estate of Lullius" a Gallo-Roman landowner; this interpretation is based on the many placenames of France made up of the names of Gallo-Roman landowners and suffixed with the traditional placename suffix "-acum". However, other researchers object that it is unlikely that Neuilly owes its name to a Gallo-Roman patronym, because during the Roman occupation of Gaul the area of Neuilly was inside the large Forest of Rouvray, of which the Bois de Boulogne is all that remains today, was not a settlement.
These researchers contend that it is only after the fall of the Roman Empire and the Germanic invasions that the area of Neuilly was deforested and settled. Thus, they think that the name Lulliacum or Lugniacum comes from the ancient Germanic word lund meaning "forest", akin to Old Norse lundr meaning "grove", to which the placename suffix "-acum" was added; the Old Norse word lundr has indeed left many placenames across Europe, such as the city of Lund in Sweden, the Forest of the Londe in Normandy, or the many English placenames containing "lound", "lownde", or "lund" in their name, or ending in "-land". However, this interesting theory fails to explain why the "d" of lund is missing in Lulliacum or Lugniacum. Concerning the discrepancy in names over the centuries, the most probable explanation is that the original name Lulliacum or Lugniacum was corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully by inversion of the consonants under the influence of an old Celtic word meaning "swampy land, boggy land", found in the name of many French places anciently covered with water, such as Noue, Noë, Nohant, etc.
Or the consonants were inverted under the influence of the many settlements of France called Neuilly. Until the French Revolution, the settlement was referred to as Port-Neuilly, but at the creation of French communes in 1790 the "Port" was dropped and the newly born commune was named Neuilly. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, a part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was annexed by the city of Paris, forms now the neighbourhood of Ternes, in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. On 11 January 1867, part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Clichy to create the commune of Levallois-Perret. On 2 May 1897, the commune name became Neuilly-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from the many communes of France called Neuilly. However, most people continue to refer to Neuilly-sur-Seine as "Neuilly". During the 1900 Summer Olympics, it hosted the basque pelota events; the American Hospital of Paris was founded in 1906.
In 1919, the Treaty of Neuilly was signed with Bulgaria in Neuilly-sur-Seine to conclude its role in World War I. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne, hitherto divided between the communes of Neuilly-sur-Seine and Boulogne-Billancourt, was annexed in its entirety by the city of Paris, it was the site of an important royal residence during the July Monarchy. Neuilly-sur-Seine is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 1: Porte Maillot, Les Sablons and Pont de Neuilly. RATP Bus service includes the lines 43, 73, 82, 93, 157, 158, 163, 164, 174 Night Bus lines include N11 and N24. Located near France's main business district La Défense, Neuilly-sur-Seine hosts several corporate headquarters: Bureau Veritas, Marathon Media, JCDecaux, Thales Group, M6 Group, PricewaterhouseCoopers France, Parfums Christian Dior, Orangina France, Grant Thornton International France. Public schools in Neuilly: Eight écoles maternelles: Achille Peretti, Dulud, Gorce-Franklin, Miche
The Trial (1962 film)
The Trial is a dream-logic black comedy drama film directed by Orson Welles, who wrote the screenplay based on the novel of the same name by Franz Kafka. Filmed in Europe, Welles stated after completing the film: "The Trial is the best film I have made"; the film begins with Welles narrating Kafka's parable "Before the Law" to pinscreen scenes created by the artist Alexandre Alexeieff. Anthony Perkins stars as Josef K. a bureaucrat, accused of a never-specified crime, Jeanne Moreau, Romy Schneider, Elsa Martinelli play women who become involved in various ways in Josef's trial and life. Welles plays Josef's lawyer and the film's principal antagonist; the Trial has grown in reputation over the years, some critics, including Roger Ebert, have called it a masterpiece. It is praised for its scenic design and cinematography, the latter of which includes disorienting camera angles and unconventional use of focus. Josef K. is sleeping in an apartment he shares with other lodgers. He is awakened. Josef assumes the glib man is a policeman, but the intruder does not identify himself and ignores Josef's demand to produce police ID.
Several detectives tell Josef he is under open arrest. In another room Josef K. sees three co-workers from his place of employment. The police refuse to inform Josef K. of his misdeeds, or if he is being charged with a crime, they do not take him into custody. After the detectives leave, Josef converses with his landlady, Mrs. Grubach, neighbor, Miss Bürstner, about the strange visit, he goes to his office, where his supervisor thinks he has been having improper relations with his teenaged female cousin. That evening, Josef attends the opera, but is abducted from the theater by a police inspector and brought to a courtroom, where he attempts in vain to confront the still-unstated case against him. Josef returns to his office and discovers the two police officers who first visited him being whipped in a small room. Josef's uncle Max suggests that Josef consult with a law advocate. After brief encounters with the wife of a courtroom guard and a roomful of condemned men awaiting trial, Josef is granted an interview with Hastler, which proves unsatisfactory.
Hastler’s mistress suggests that Josef seek the advice of the artist Titorelli, but this proves unhelpful. Seeking refuge in a cathedral, Josef learns from a priest. Hastler abruptly appears at the cathedral to confirm the priest’s assertion. On the evening before his thirty-first birthday, Josef is apprehended by two executioners and brought to a quarry pit, where he is forced to remove some of his clothing; the executioners pass a knife back and forth deliberating on who will do the deed, before handing the knife to the condemned man, who refuses to commit suicide. The executioners leave Josef in the toss dynamite in the pit. Josef picks up the dynamite. From a distance there is an smoke billows into the air. In 1960, Welles was approached by producer Alexander Salkind to make a film from a public domain literary work. Salkind had wanted Welles to make Taras Bulba; when Salkind found out that producer Harold Hecht was making Taras Bulba with Yul Brynner in the lead, he offered Welles a list of 82 other film titles to choose from.
From that selection, Welles decided. Salkind promised that Welles would have total artistic freedom and he would not interfere with Welles’ creation. Welles and Salkind agreed to create a film based on the Franz Kafka novel The Trial, only to discover the text was not in the public domain and that they needed to obtain the rights to the property. Earlier that year, Michael Lindsay-Hogg, had casually mentioned an idea to Welles about adapting The Trial as a stage play, prompting Welles to state that The Trial was an important book and that he should re-read it. Salkind committed 650 million French francs to the budget for The Trial and secured backing from German and Italian investors. Welles took six months to write the screenplay. In adapting the work, he rearranged the order of Kafka’s chapters. In this version, the chapter line-up read 1, 4, 2, 5, 6, 3, 8, 7, 9, 10. However, the order of Kafka's chapters was arranged by his literary executor, Max Brod, after the writer's death, this order is not definitive.
Welles modernized several aspects of the story, introducing computer technology and changing Miss Burstner’s profession from a typist to a cabaret performer. Welles opened the film with a fable from the book about a man, permanently detained from seeking access to the Law by a guard. To illustrate this allegory, he used the pin screen animation of Alexandre Alexeieff, who created animated prints using thousands of pins. Welles changed the manner of Josef K.'s death. Kafka had the executioners pass the knife over the head of Josef K. thus giving him the opportunity to take the weapon and kill himself, in a more dignified manner - Josef K. does not, instead he is fatally stabbed by his executioners in the heart, as he dies Josef K. says "like a dog." In the film, whilst the executioners still offer him the knife, Josef K. refuses to take it, goads the executioners by yelling "You'll have to do it!" The film ends with the smoke of the fatal dynamite blast forming a mushroom cloud in the air while Welles rea
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona