George Albert Boulenger
George Albert Boulenger was a Belgian-British zoologist who described and gave scientific names to over 2,000 new animal species, chiefly fish and amphibians. Boulenger was an active botanist during the last 30 years of his life in the study of roses. Boulenger was born in Brussels, the only son of Gustave Boulenger, a Belgian public notary, Juliette Piérart de Valenciennes, he graduated in 1876 from the Free University of Brussels with a degree in natural sciences, worked for a while at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, as an assistant naturalist studying amphibians and fishes. He made frequent visits during this time to the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris and the British Museum in London. In 1880, he was invited to work at the Natural History Museum a department of the British Museum, by Dr. Albert C. L. G. Günther and assigned to the task of cataloguing the amphibians in the collection, his position in the British Museum meant that he had to be a civil servant of the British Empire, so became a naturalized British subject.
In 1882, he became a first-class assistant in the Department of Zoology and remained in that position until his retirement in 1920. After his retirement from the British Museum, Boulenger studied roses and published 34 papers on botanical subjects and two volumes on the roses of Europe, he died in France. According to biographical accounts, he was methodical and had an amazing memory that enabled him to remember every specimen and scientific name he saw, he had extraordinary powers of writing made a second draft of anything he wrote, his manuscripts showed but few corrections before going to the publisher. Boulenger played the violin, could speak French and English apart from reading Spanish, Italian and a bit of Russian; as a zoologist, he had a working knowledge of both Greek and Latin. By 1921, Boulenger had published 875 papers totaling more than 5,000 pages, as well as 19 monographs on fishes and reptiles; the list of his publications and its index of species covers 77 printed pages. He described 1,096 species of fish, 556 species of amphibians, 872 species of reptiles.
He was famous for his monographs on amphibians and other reptiles, fishes for example his monographs on the fishes of Africa. He was a member of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists and was elected its first honorary member in 1935. In 1937, Belgium conferred on him the Order of the highest honor awarded to a civilian, his son, Edward George Boulenger, was a zoologist. In 1897, King Leopold II of Belgium started to recruit naturalists to help create the Congo museum. Boulenger was named chairman for this commission, his main discovery in 1921 was a strange fish from the Congo. It lacked pigmentation, he recognized it as unrelated to any extant epigean species of Africa. He wrote a brief paper describing this new species of cave fish, the first described from Africa, he called it Caecobarbus geertsii, from caeco = blind, barbus = barb, geertsii, honoring a mysterious person, M. Geerts, who provided him with the specimen. Today, it is known as the African blind barb. 1912: Member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium..
Boulenger described hundreds of reptile taxa. He described many amphibians and fishes; these 26 reptile species, recognised today, bear George Boulenger's name in the specific name, as boulengeri, boulengerii, or georgeboulengeri: Agama boulengeri Lataste, 1886 – Boulenger’s agama Anolis boulengerianus Thominot, 1887 – Tehuantepec anole Atractaspis boulengeri Mocquard, 1897 – Boulenger’s burrowing asp Atractus boulengerii Peracca, 1896 – Boulenger’s centipede snake Brachymeles boulengeri Taylor, 1922 – Boulenger’s short-legged skink Chabanaudia boulengeri – Gabon legless skink Chalcides boulengeri Anderson, 1892 – Boulenger’s sand skink Cnemaspis boulengerii Strauch, 1887 – Con Dao rock gecko Compsophis boulengeri – Boulenger’s forest snake Cylindrophis boulengeri Roux, 1911 – Timor pipesnake Dendragama boulengeri Doria, 1888 – Boulenger’s tree agama Elapsoidea boulengeri Boettger, 1895 – Boulenger’s gartersnake Hebius boulengeri – Tai-Yong keelback Enyalius boulengeri Etheridge, 1969 – Brazilian fathead anole Epacrophis boulengeri – Lamu blindsnake Gonyosoma boulengeri – rhinoceros ratsnake Chersobius boulengeri Duerden, 1906 – Karoo padloper Liolaemus boulengeri Koslowsky, 1898 – Boulenger’s tree lizard Morethia boulengeri – Boulenger's snake-eyed skink Nucras boulengeri Neumann, 1900 – Ugandan savanna lizard Pareas boulengeri – Boulenger’s slug snake Philodryas georgeboulengeri – southern sharp-nosed snake Rhampholeon boulengeri Steindachner, 1911 – Boulenger’s pygmy chameleon Scolecoseps boulengeri Loveridge, 1920 – Moçambique legless skink Trachyboa boulengeri Peracca, 1910 – northern eyelash boa Trachylepis boulengeri – Boulenger’s skinkIn the above list, a binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was described in a genus other than the genus to which it is assigned.
The water cobra genus Boulengerina was named for G. A. Boulenger, but it is now treated as a subgenus of Naja containing four species: Naja annulata, Naja christyi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja multifasciatus. Books written by George Albert Boulenger include: Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia
Ctenotus strauchii known as the eastern barred wedgesnout ctenotus, a small lizard, found throughout semi arid and arid regions in most of Australia's mainland states except for Western Australia, although one record does occur in WA in 1975. The eastern barred wedgesnout ctenotus is a small skink, that averages 5.5 cm and varies in colour from chocolate brown to reddish-brown. A series of pale spots are enclosed by a black laterdorsal stripe, edged by a white dorsolateral stripe This stripe is bordered above by a line of small black blotches; the upper flanks are black with a series of between 1 and 3 pale vertical dots A narrow white stripe may run from below the eye right through the mid body, where it passes through the groin and continues as a lower lateral stripe where it breaks up into spots of flecks of white along the side of the tail. Ctenotus strauchii is oviparous; this compared to other skink species which are live bearers. Egg clutch. Ctenotus strauchii's conservation status is listed as Least Concern risk.
Does not qualify for a more at-risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category. Although listed as common Ctenotus strauchii is not immune to environmental threats such as: Climate change Habitat destruction Habitat degradation Feral predators such as foxes and cats Disease Cane toads Ctenotus strauchii inhabits areas with hard stony soils with minimal vegetation cover in woodland and scrubland areas, within the semi arid and dry regions of Eastern Australia. Found amongst debris such as fallen timber, leaf litter and other debris within mallee, savannah woodland and grassland areas Ctenotus strauchii was given its name by George Albert Boulenger a Belgian-British zoologist who described and gave scientific names to over 2,000 new animal species, chiefly fish and amphibians; the Ctenotus skink family are called comb-eared skinks, a reference to the scales aligned near the ear, they are active, diurnal lizards found in a variety of habitats. Ctenotus strauchii has been recorded in New South Wales, South Australia and Northern Territory
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Eremias is a genus of lizards in the family Lacertidae, the wall lizards. They are native to Asia and southeastern Europe, where they live in steppe regions; the following 35 species are recognized. Eremias acutirostris – point-snouted racerunner Eremias afghanistanica Böhme & Shcherbak, 1991 – Afghan racerunner Eremias andersoni Darevsky & Shcherbak, 1978 – Anderson's racerunner Eremias argus W. Peters, 1869 – Mongolia racerunner Eremias arguta – steppe-runner Eremias aria S. C. Anderson & Leviton, 1967 Eremias brenchleyi Günther, 1872 – Ordos racerunner Eremias buechneri Bedriaga, 1906 – Kaschar racerunner Eremias cholistanica Baig & Masroor, 2006 Eremias dzungarica Orlova, Poyarkov Jr. Chirikova, Munkhbaatar, Munkhbayar, & Terbish, 2017 – Dzungarian racerunner Eremias fasciata Blanford, 1874 – Sistan racerunner Eremias grammica – reticulate racerunner Eremias intermedia Eremias isfahanica Rastegar-Pouyani, Rafiee, Rajabizadeh, & Wink, 2016 – Eremias kavirensis Mozaffari & Parham, 2007 Eremias kokshaaliensis Jeremčenko & Panfilov, 1999 Eremias kopetdaghica Szczerbak, 1972 – Kopet Dagh racerunner Eremias lalezharica Moravec, 1994 – Lalezhar racerunner Eremias lineolata – striped racerunner Eremias montana N. Rastegar-Pouyani & E. Rastegar-Pouyani, 2006 – mountain racerunner Eremias multiocellata Günther, 1872 – multi-ocellated racerunner Eremias nigrocellata Nikolsky, 1896 – black-ocellated racerunner Eremias nikolskii Bedriaga, 1905 – Kirghiz racerunner Eremiad papenfussi Mozaffari, Ahmadzadeh & Parham, 2011 Eremias persica Blanford, 1875 Eremias pleskei Bedriaga, 1905 – Pleske's racerunner Eremias przewalskii – Gobi racerunner Eremias quadrifrons – Alachan racerunner Eremias regeli Nikolsky, 1905 Eremias scripta – sand racerunner Eremias strauchi Kessler, 1878 – Strauch's racerunner Eremias stummeri Wettstein, 1940 – Stummer's racerunner Eremias suphani Başoğlu & Hellmich, 1980 – Başoğlu's racerunner, Suphan racerunner Eremias szczerbaki Jeremčenko, Panfilov & Zarinenko, 1992 – Szczerbak's racerunner Eremias velox – rapid racerunner, rapid fringe-toed lizard Eremias vermiculata Blanford, 1875 – variegated racerunner, Central Asian racerunner Eremias yarkandensis Blanford, 1875 – Yarkand racerunner, Yarkand sandlizard Wiegmann AFA.
Herpetologia Mexicana, seu descriptio amphibiorum Novae Hispaniae, quae itineribus comitis de Sack, Ferdinandi Deppe et Chr. Guil. Schiede in Museum Zoologicum Berolinense pervenerunt. Pars prima, saurorum species amplectens. Adiecto systematis additisque multis in hunc amphibiorum ordinem observationibus. Berlin: C. G. Luderitz. Vi + 54 pp. + Plates I-X
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. As of January 2018, it had 289,544 inhabitants, plus 19,000 United States citizens; the Wiesbaden urban area is home to approx. 560,000 people. The city, together with nearby Frankfurt am Main and Mainz, is part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, a metropolitan area with a combined population of about 5.8 million people. Wiesbaden is one of the oldest spa towns in Europe, its name translates to a reference to its famed hot springs. It is internationally famous for its architecture and climate—it is called the "Nice of the North" in reference to the city in France. At one time, Wiesbaden boasted 26 hot springs; as of 2008, fourteen of the springs are still flowing. In 1970, the town hosted the tenth Hessentag Landesfest; the city is considered the tenth richest in Germany boasting 110.3% of the national average gross domestic product in 2017. The average annual buying power per citizen is €24,783. Wiesbaden is situated on the right bank of the Rhine, below the confluence of the Main, where the Rhine's main direction changes from north to west.
The city is across the Rhine from Mainz, the capital of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Frankfurt am Main is located about 38 kilometres east. To the north of the city are the Taunus Mountains, which trend in a northeasterly direction; the city center, the Stadtmitte, is located in the north-easternmost part of the Upper Rhine Valley at the spurs of the Taunus mountains, about 5 kilometres from the Rhine. The landscape is formed by a wide lowland between the Taunus heights in the north, the Bierstadter Höhe and the Hainerberg in the east, the Mosbacher Mountain in the south, the Schiersteiner Mountain in the west, an offshoot of the Taunus range; the downtown is drained only by the narrow valley of the Salzbach, a tributary of the Rhine, on the eastern flanks of the Mosbacher Mountain. The city's main railway line and the Mainz road follow this valley. Several other streams drain into the Salzbach within the city center: the Wellritzbach, the Kesselbach, the Schwarzbach, the Dambach, the Tennelbach, as well as the outflow of many thermal and mineral springs in the Kurhaus district.
Above the city center, the Salzbach is better known as the Rambach. The highest point of the Wiesbaden municipality is located northwest of the city center near the summit of the Hohe Wurzel, with an elevation of 608 metres above sea level; the lowest point is the harbour entrance of Schierstein at 83 metres above sea level. The central square is at an elevation of 115 metres. Wiesbaden covers an area of 204 km2, it is 17.6 kilometres from north to 19.7 kilometres from west to east. In the north are vast forest areas, which cover 27.4% of the urban area. In the west and east are vineyards and agricultural land, which cover 31.1% of the area. Of the municipality's 79 kilometres -long border, the Rhine makes up 10.3 kilometres. Wiesbaden has a temperate-oceanic climate with cold winters and warm summers, its average annual temperature is 9.8 °C, with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.0 °C in January to 18.6 °C in July. While evidence of settlement at present-day Wiesbaden dates back to the Neolithic era, historical records document continuous occupancy after the erection of a Roman fort in 6 AD which housed an auxiliary cavalry unit.
The thermal springs of Wiesbaden are first mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia. They were famous for their recreation pools for Roman army horses and as the source of a mineral used for red hair dye; the Roman settlement is first mentioned using the name Aquae Mattiacorum in 121. The Mattiaci were a Germanic tribe a branch of the neighboring Chatti, who lived in the vicinity at that time; the town appears as Mattiacum in Ptolemy's Geographia. The line of Roman frontier fortifications, the Limes Germanicus, was constructed in the Taunus not far north of Wiesbaden; the capital of the province of Germania Superior, base of 2 Roman legions, was just over the Rhine and connected by a bridge at the present-day borough of Mainz-Kastel, a fortified bridgehead. The Alamanni, a coalition of Germanic tribes from beyond the Limes, captured the fort around 260. In the 370s, when the Romans and Alamanni were allied, the Alemanni gained control of the Wiesbaden area and were in charge of its defense against other Germanic tribes.
After the Franks under Clovis I defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac in 496, the Franks displaced the Alamanni in the Wiesbaden area over the course of the 6th century. In the 8th century, Wiesbaden became the site of a royal palace of the Frankish kingdom; the first documented use of the name Wiesbaden is by Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, whose writings mention "Wisabada" sometime between 828 and 830. When the Frankish Carolingian Empire broke up in 888, Wiesbaden was in the eastern half, called East Francia; the town was part of the heartland of East Francia. In the 1170s, the Count of Nassau, Walram I, received the area around Wiesbaden as a fiefdom; when Franconia fragmented in the early 13th century, Nassau emerged as an independent state as part of the Holy Roman Empir
Nota bene is a Latin phrase meaning'note well'. The phrase first appeared in English writing c. 1711. Abbreviated as NB, n.b. or with the ligature N B, the phrase is Latin for "note well" and comes from the Latin roots notāre and bene. It is in the singular imperative mood, instructing one individual to note well the matter at hand, i.e. to take notice of or pay special attention to it. In Modern English, it is used in legal papers, to draw the attention of the reader to a certain aspect or detail of the subject on hand. While NB is often used in academic writing, note is a common substitute; the markings used to draw readers' attention in medieval manuscripts are called nota bene marks. The common medieval markings do not, include the abbreviation NB; the usual medieval equivalents are anagrams from the four letters in the word nota, the abbreviation DM from dignum memoria, or a symbol of a little hand, called a manicule or index, with the index finger pointing towards the beginning of the significant passage.
Annotation Footnote List of Latin abbreviations List of Latin phrases List of legal Latin terms Obiter dictum Postscript