Helena "Nellie" Scott was an Australian illustrator of natural history. She and her sister Harriet Morgan were the daughters of the Australian entomologist Alexander Walker Scott. In 1846, the family moved from Sydney to the remote Ash Island in the Hunter River estuary, near Hexham. Located in an untouched area of native vegetation and wildlife, they flourished under the guidance of their artistic father and Harriet Calcott, their mother. For a period of some 20 years, they remained on the island, documenting its plants and wildlife, with an emphasis on the butterflies and moths. Harriet and Helena kept unusually detailed records, they compiled a handwritten catalogue in 1862 entitled "The Indigenous Botany of Ash Island", a list of their well-preserved botanical specimens. Their striking depictions and descriptions of the island's moths and butterflies attest to the enormous dedication of the family to their self-imposed project. A glimpse into the daily lives of the two sisters is provided by the meticulous records.
Together with their father, they collected live specimens from their neighbourhood determined the proper food plants to take back home and feed the hungry creatures. They conducted a lively correspondence with various specialists to pin down the identities of the problematic species, their father gave them full credit for their achievements, praising the quality of the drawings that showed the insects in all their various stages. The 1860s had brought dark days for Helena – her mother's death, her father's bankruptcy and the death of her husband, Edward Forde, whom she had married in 1864. Facing enormous financial problems, the family were forced to leave their island home; the sisters were now obliged to seek payment for their work. While finishing some plates of birds' eggs for Edward Ramsay in 1866, Harriet asked "... above all... let nobody know you are paying me for doing them for you." She married Dr Cosby William Morgan in 1882, but the widowed Helena continued to struggle financially.
Both sisters continued to illustrate commercially for the rest of their lives. Harriet produced botanical illustrations for the 1879, 1884 and 1886 editions of the "Railway Guide to New South Wales", both were involved in the production of Australia's first Christmas cards in 1879. Helena died in Harris Park in 1910 leaving no descendants. By 1864, a large number of plates of moths and butterflies had been completed, ready for the publication of the first volume of their father's Australian Lepidoptera and Their Transformations. A number of illustrating commissions sprang from this work, some from their father's contacts as trustee of the Australian Museum, they provided the illustrations for James Charles Cox's Monograph of Australian Land Shells, for Gerard Krefft's Snakes of Australia and Mammals of Australia – the artwork from these publications was singled out for praise at the Sydney Intercolonial Exhibition in 1870. When the prominent natural historian William Swainson examined the growing number of paintings a decade earlier, he wrote in the Sydney Morning Herald... these drawings are equal to any I have seen by modern artists... every tuft of hair in the caterpillar, the silken webs of the cocoon, or the delicate and intricate pencillings on the wings of a moth, stand out with a prominence of relief which it is impossible to reproduce by simple water colours...
The brilliant colours and painstaking detail, a tribute to the sisters' patient observation and labour, are just as pleasing 150 years later. The museum purchased the 100 completed plates for ₤200 in 1884; the standard of their work led to their being elected honorary members of the Entomological Society – a signal honour for women in that period of history. The Australian Museum were persuaded to publish the remainder of the Lepidoptera material, which they had purchased in 1884, together with the sisters' drawings and notes. Under Helena's supervision, working with museum entomologist Arthur Sidney Olliff, the second volume of the Lepidoptera was published in five parts between 1890 and 1898; the two sisters did most of the lithography for this volume, printed by the Australian Museum, sent to England to be hand coloured, using the sisters' paintings as colour benchmark. Helena, with her sister Harriet, were forgotten until the 2011 exhibition Beauty from Nature: Art of the Scott Sisters at the Australian Museum in Sydney.
Vanessa Finney, Transformations: Harriet and Helena Scott, Colonial Sydney's Finest Natural History Painters, NewSouth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-74223-580-6 Australian Museum Gallery Other scientific illustrations Australian Museum Helena Scott DAAO The Scott Sisters
William Woolls was an Australian botanist and schoolmaster. Woolls, the nineteenth child of merchant Edward Woolls, was born at Winchester and educated at the grammar school, Bishop's Waltham, at 16 years of age endeavoured unsuccessfully to obtain a cadetship in the British East India Company's service. A year he emigrated to Australia, landing in Sydney on 16 April 1832, was soon appointed an assistant-master at The King's School, having met William Grant Broughton—then Church of England Archdeacon of New South Wales—on the way out. About four years he went to Sydney and maintained himself by journalism and giving private tuition, he was for a period classical master at Sydney College, but resigned this to open a private school at Parramatta which he conducted for many years. He married Dinah Catherine Hall in 1838 and she bore a son and a daughter before dying in childbirth in 1844. In 1845, he married Ann Boag, he published two boyish productions in verse, The Voyage: A Moral Poem, in 1832, Australia: A Moral and Descriptive Poem in 1833.
In 1838 he brought out Miscellanies in Prose and Verse prose essays. He published in 1841 A Short Account of the Character and Labours of the Rev. Samuel Marsden, his friendship with the Rev. James Walker, headmaster of The King's School between 1843 and 1848, led to Woolls becoming interested in botany, he subsequently did much work on the flora of Australia. A paper on "Introduced Plants" sent to the Linnean Society at London led to his being elected a fellow of the society and other work of his brought the degree of PhD from the University of Göttingen, Germany. In 1862 he married Sarah Elizabeth Lowe, he gave up his school in 1865 and in 1867 published A Contribution to the Flora of Australia, a collection of his botanical papers. In 1873 Woolls took holy orders in the Church of England, became incumbent of Richmond, rural dean. Another collection of his papers, Lectures on the Vegetable Kingdom with special reference to the Flora of Australia, appeared in 1879. According to K. J. Cable, "...
Woolls was best known for his promotion of Australian botany and his assistance to other scholars rather than for large-scale systematic work."Woolls retired from the ministry in 1883 and lived at Sydney for the rest of his life. He assisted him in his botanical work. Woolls's next volume, Plants of New South Wales, was published in 1885, his Plants Indigenous and Naturalized in the Neighbourhood of Sydney, a revised and enlarged edition of a paper prepared in 1880, came out in 1891, he died of paraplegia in the Sydney suburb of Burwood survived by his third wife. Gilbert, Lionel Arthur. William Woolls, 1814-1893: "A Most Useful Colonist". Canberra: Mulini Press. P. 138. ISBN 9780949910158. OCLC 247984779. Retrieved 16 October 2012
Johann Ludwig Gerard Krefft, one of Australia's first and greatest zoologists and palaeontologists. In addition to many scientific papers, his books include The Snakes of Australia, A Catalogue of the Minerals and Rocks in the Australian Museum and A Short Guide to the Australian Fossil Remains in the Australian Museum, he published the scientific description of the Queensland Lungfish, considered a "living fossil". Krefft was born in the Duchy of Brunswick the son of William Krefft and his wife Johanna, née Buschhoff, he was educated at St Martin's College, as a youth was interested in art and wished to study painting. He was, placed in a mercantile house and about 1850 emigrated to New York City. Krefft arrived in Australia in November 1852 and worked in the Victorian goldfields for some years before joining William Blandowski's explorations on the Murray River and Darling River in 1856-1857. Krefft visited Germany in 1858 following the death of his father. Krefft arrived in Sydney, New South Wales in 1860 and was appointed Assistant Curator of the Australian Museum on the recommendation of Governor Sir William Denison.
In 1858 Krefft showed examples of his drawings at the Victoria Industrial Society Exhibition. In 1864 he was appointed Director. In 1864 he published a Catalogue of Mammalia in the Collection of the Australian Museum, in 1865, as a pamphlet, Two Papers on the Vertebrata of the Lower Murray and Darling and on the Snakes of Sydney; these papers had been read before the Philosophical Society of New South Wales and, though the title did not show it, a third paper on the Aborigines of the Lower Murray and Darling was included in the publication. In 1869 Krefft brought out The Snakes of Australia and in 1871 The Mammals of Australia, both with plates by Helena Scott and Harriet Scott, his Catalogue of the Minerals and Rocks in the Collection of the Australian Museum was published in 1873. Krefft was fired in 1874, he was thrown into the street. He had fallen foul of the Trustees, William John Macleay in particular, because he had accused them of using the museum's resources to augment private collections.
They responded by accusing him of drunkenness, falsifying attendance records and allowing the sale of dirty postcards. He subsequently brought an action against one of the trustees and obtained a verdict for £250; the judge held that Krefft was a superior officer under government, that no one had power to remove him but the governor with the advice of the executive council. Subsequently, parliament passed a vote of £1000 to be applied in satisfaction of Krefft's claims. In 1877 he began the publication of Krefft's Nature in Australia, a popular journal for the discussion of questions of natural history, but it ceased publication. Krefft died on 19 February 1881 from congestion of the lungs, he was buried in the churchyard of St Jude's Church of England, Randwick, he was survived by his wife Annie, née McPhail, whom he had married on 6 February 1869, two sons. Krefft was one of the few supporters of Darwinism in Australia during 1870s, he became a correspondent of Charles Darwin and they exchanged supportive letters.
Krefft was a member of many scientific societies, contributed papers to the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London and other scientific and popular journals. Some of these were printed separately as pamphlets. Krefft is honored in the scientific names of two reptiles endemic to Australia: Cacophis krefftii, a species of venomous snake; the mountain group of Krefftberget at Barentsøya, Svalbard, is named after him. Works by or about Gerard Krefft at Internet Archive Serle, Percival. "Krefft, Johann Ludwig Gerard". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 2009-09-05. Gerard Krefft in the National Library of Australia's collection
Parliament of New South Wales
The Parliament of New South Wales, located in Parliament House on Macquarie Street, Sydney, is the main legislative body in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a bicameral parliament elected by the people of the state in general elections; the parliament shares law making powers with the Australian Federal Parliament. It is Australia's oldest legislature; the New South Wales Parliament follows the Westminster parliamentary traditions of dress, Green–Red chamber colours and protocol. The Parliament derives its authority from the Queen of Australia, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, who chairs the Executive Council of New South Wales, it consists of a lower house, the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, an upper house, the New South Wales Legislative Council. Each house is directly elected by the people of New South Wales at elections held every four years; the Parliament of New South Wales is Australia's oldest legislature. It had its beginnings.
A small, appointed Legislative Council began meeting in 1824 to advise the Governor on legislative matters. By 1843, this had been enlarged with two-thirds of its members elected by adult males who met certain property requirements. In 1856, under a new Constitution, the Parliament became bicameral with a elected Legislative Assembly and an appointed Legislative Council with a Government taking over most of the legislative powers of the Governor; the right to vote was extended to all adult males in 1858. In 1850 the Australian Colonies Government Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament; this expanded the New South Wales Legislative Council so that by 1851 there were 54 members – again, with two-thirds elected. In 1853, a select committee chaired by William Wentworth began drawing up a Constitution for responsible self-government; the Committee’s proposed Constitution was placed before the Legislative Council in August that year and, for the most part, accepted. The Constitution, with an upper house whose members were appointed for life, was sent to the Imperial Parliament and was passed into law on 16 July 1855.
The new Parliament of New South Wales was to be a bicameral legislature, similar to that of the United Kingdom. On 22 May 1856, the newly constituted New South Wales Parliament sat for the first time. With the new 54-member Legislative Assembly taking over the council chamber, a second meeting chamber for the 21 member upper house had to be added to the Parliament building in Macquarie Street. In 1859 Queensland was made a colony separate from New South Wales; the Legislative Assembly was reduced from 80 to 72 members by the loss of the Queensland seats. In 1901, New South Wales became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia and many government functions were transferred to the new Commonwealth government; the current Constitution of New South Wales was adopted in 1902: the Constitution Act 1902. Women gained the right to vote in Commonwealth elections in April 1902 and in New South Wales state elections in August 1902. In 1918, reforms permitted women to be Members of Parliament, although no woman was elected until 1925 when Millicent Preston-Stanley was elected to represent Eastern Suburbs.
That same year, a proportional representation system was introduced for the Legislative Assembly with multiple representatives from each electorate. Women were not able to be appointed to the Legislative Council until 1926; the first two women appointed to the Legislative Council were both ALP members proposed on 23 November 1931: Catherine Green, who took her seat the following day, Ellen Webster, who joined her two days later. In 1925, 1926 and 1929, Premier Jack Lang made attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, following the example of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1922, but all were unsuccessful; the debate did, result in another round of reforms, in 1933, the law was changed so that a quarter of the Legislative Council was elected every three years by members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council, rather than being appointed by the Governor. In 1962 Indigenous Australians gained the right to vote in all state elections. In 1978, the Council became a directly elected body in a program of electoral reform introduced by the Wran Labor government.
The number of members was reduced to 45, although transitional arrangements meant that there were 43 members from 1978 to 1981, 44 from 1981 to 1984. Further reform in 1991 by the Greiner Liberal-National government saw the size of the Legislative Council cut to 42 members, with half being elected every 4 years. In 1991, the Legislative Assembly was reduced from 109 to 99 Members and to 93 members in 1999; the Parliament building was built on the orders of Governor Lachlan Macquarie to be Sydney's second major hospital because, when he arrived in Sydney, he recognised the need for a new hospital. In 1810, he awarded the contract to Alexander Riley and Dr. D'Arcy Wentworth; the contract gave the builders the right to import 45,000 gallons of rum, for which they paid a duty of 3 shillings a gallon. They were able to sell it for a huge profit and in turn the government refunded them the duty as a payment for their work, thereby gaining for their construction the title of the'Rum Hospital'. Consisting of three buildings, the central main building was demolished in 1879 to make way for the new Sydney Hospital, completed in 1885.
The first building, now known as the Sydney Mint, was given to the Royal Mint in 1851 to become the
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Metamorphosis is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral feature of all chordates; some insects, amphibians, crustaceans, cnidarians and tunicates undergo metamorphosis, accompanied by a change of nutrition source or behavior. Animals that go through metamorphosis are called metamorphoses. Animals can be divided into species that undergo complete metamorphosis, incomplete metamorphosis, or no metamorphosis. Scientific usage of the term is technically precise, it is not applied to general aspects of cell growth, including rapid growth spurts. References to "metamorphosis" in mammals are imprecise and only colloquial, but idealist ideas of transformation and monadology, as in Goethe's Metamorphosis of Plants, have influenced the development of ideas of evolution; the word metamorphosis derives from Greek μεταμόρφωσις, "transformation, transforming", from μετα-, "after" and μορφή, "form".
Metamorphosis is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral feature of all chordates. In insects growth and metamorphosis are controlled by hormones synthesized by endocrine glands near the front of the body. Neurosecretory cells in an insect's brain secrete a hormone, the prothoracicotropic hormone that activates prothoracic glands, which secrete a second hormone ecdysone, that induces ecdysis. PTTH stimulates the corpora allata, a retrocerebral organ, to produce juvenile hormone, which prevents the development of adult characteristics during ecdysis. In holometabolous insects, molts between larval instars have a high level of juvenile hormone, the moult to the pupal stage has a low level of juvenile hormone, the final, or imaginal, molt has no juvenile hormone present at all. Experiments on firebugs have shown how juvenile hormone can affect the number of nymph instar stages in hemimetabolous insects. All three categories of metamorphosis can be found in the diversity of insects, including no metamorphosis, incomplete or partial metamorphosis, complete metamorphosis.
While ametabolous insects show little difference between larval and adult forms, both hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects have significant morphological and behavioral differences between larval and adult forms, the most significant being the inclusion, in holometabolus organisms, of a pupal or resting stage between the larval and adult forms. In hemimetabolous insects, immature stages are called nymphs. Development proceeds in repeated stages of growth and ecdysis; the juvenile forms resemble adults, but are smaller and lack adult features such as wings and genitalia. The size and morphological differences between nymphs in different instars are small just differences in body proportions and the number of segments. In holometabolous insects, immature stages differ markedly from adults. Insects which undergo holometabolism pass through a larval stage enter an inactive state called pupa, emerge as adults; the earliest insect forms showed direct development, the evolution of metamorphosis in insects is thought to have fuelled their dramatic radiation.
Some early ametabolous "true insects" are still present today, such as bristletails and silverfish. Hemimetabolous insects include cockroaches, grasshoppers and true bugs. Phylogenetically, all insects in the Pterygota undergo a marked change in form and physical appearance from immature stage to adult; these insects either have hemimetabolous development, undergo an incomplete or partial metamorphosis, or holometabolous development, which undergo a complete metamorphosis, including a pupal or resting stage between the larval and adult forms. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of holometaboly from hemimetaboly centering on whether or not the intermediate hemimetabolous forms are homologous to pupal form of holometabolous forms. More scientific attention has turned to characterizing the mechanistic basis of metamorphosis in terms of its hormonal control, by characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of hormone expression relative to metamorphosis in a wide range of insects.
According to research from 2008, adult Manduca sexta is able to retain behavior learned as a caterpillar. Another caterpillar, the ornate moth caterpillar, is able to carry toxins that it acquires from its diet through metamorphosis and into adulthood, where the toxins still serve for protection against predators. Many observations have indicated that programmed cell death plays a considerable role during physiological processes of multicellular organisms during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. Sequence illustrating complete metamorphosis in the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae In typical amphibian development, eggs are laid in water and larvae are adapted to an aquatic lifestyle. Frogs and newts all hatch from the eggs as larvae with external gills but it will take some time for the amphibians to interact outside with pulmonary respiration. Afterwards, newt larvae start a predatory lifestyle, while tadpoles scrape food off surfaces with their horny tooth ridges. Metamorphosis in amphibians is regulated by thyroxin concentration in the blood, which stimulates metamorphosis, prolactin, which counteracts its effe
Ferdinand von Mueller
Baron Sir Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller, was a German-Australian physician and most notably, a botanist. He was appointed government botanist for the colony of Victoria by Governor Charles La Trobe in 1853, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, he founded the National Herbarium of Victoria. He named many Australian plants. Mueller was born in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. After the early death of his parents and Louisa, his grandparents gave him a good education in Tönning, Schleswig. Apprenticed to a chemist at the age of 15, he passed his pharmaceutical examinations and studied botany under Professor Ernst Ferdinand Nolte at Kiel University. In 1847, he received his degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Kiel for a thesis on the plants of the southern regions of Schleswig. Mueller's sister Bertha had been advised to seek a warmer climate for her health, the great botanist Ludwig Preiss, who had returned from Perth, recommended Australia, so in 1847, Mueller and his two surviving sisters sailed from Bremen.
While still on the ship, he fished his first plants out of the water to analyse them. He arrived at Adelaide on 18 December 1847 and found employment as a chemist with Moritz J. Heuzenroeder, in Rundle Street, he was an inveterate explorer, walking alone to Mount Brown during his first year. Shortly afterwards, he obtained 20 acres of land not far from Adelaide in the Bugle Ranges, had a cottage built there, he moved there with his sister Clara, intending to start a farm, but after a few months, he returned to his former employment. Mueller thought to open a chemist's shop in the gold diggings, so in 1851, he moved to Melbourne, capital of the new colony of Victoria, he had contributed a few papers on botanical subjects to German periodicals, in 1852, sent a paper to the Linnean Society of London on "The Flora of South Australia", thus beginning to be well known in botanical circles. Mueller was appointed government botanist for Victoria by Governor Charles La Trobe in 1853, a post, newly created for him.
He examined its flora the Alpine vegetation of Australia, unknown. He explored the Buffalo Ranges went to the upper reaches of the Goulburn River and across Gippsland to the coast; the neighbourhoods of Port Albert and Wilsons Promontory were explored, the journey of some 1,500 miles was completed along the coast to Melbourne. In the same year, he established the National Herbarium of Victoria, which can still be visited today, it has many plants from Australia and abroad. His large private library was transferred to the government of Victoria in 1865 and is incorporated into the library of the herbarium in Melbourne; as a phytographic naturalist, he joined the expedition sent out under Augustus Gregory by the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of State for the colonies. He explored the Victoria River and other portions of North Australia, was one of the four who reached Termination Lake in 1856, accompanied Gregory's expedition overland to Moreton Bay. Mueller, for his part, found nearly 800 species in Australia new to science.
He published in this year his Definitions of Hitherto Undescribed Australian Plants. From 1854 to 1872, Mueller was a member of the Victorian Institute for the Advancement of Science, which became the Philosophical Institute of Victoria, he was president of the Philosophical Institute in 1859 when it received a royal charter and became the Royal Society of Victoria. He was an active member of the society's "Exploration Committee" which established the Burke and Wills expedition of 1860. Mueller promoted the exploration of Australia, as one of only two members of the Exploration Committee with any experience of exploration, he made several speeches to the society on the topic, he did not favour the selection of Burke as leader, but due to factionalism in the committee, he had little say in the establishment, provisioning, or composition of the exploration party. From 1857 to 1873, he was director of the Royal Botanic Gardens and not only introduced many plants into Victoria, but made the excellent qualities of the blue gum known all over the world, succeeded in introducing it into the south of Europe and South Africa and the extratropical portions of South America.
Mueller was decorated by many foreign countries, including Germany, Spain and Portugal. He was appointed a fellow of the Royal Society in 1861, knighted as Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1879. A list of his'Orders, offices and sundry honours' has been assembled. Many of his decorations were received in return for supplying zoological specimens to royal museums, he was the benefactor of the discoverer of Lake Amadeus and Kata Tjuta. Giles had wanted to name these Lake Mueller and Mt Ferdinand, but Mueller prevailed upon Giles to name them Lake Amadeus, after King Amadeus of Spain, Mt Olga, after Queen Olga of Württemberg. In 1871, King Karl of Württemberg gave him the hereditary title of Freiherr, to mark his distinction in'natural sciences and in particular for the natural history collections and institutions of Our Kingdom' He was known as Baron Sir Ferdinand von Mueller. By 1873, influential Melburnians were critical of Mueller's scientific and educational approach with the Royal Botanic Gardens.
Development of the gardens with an eye to aesthetics was sought. Mueller was dismissed from his position as director of the Botanic Gardens on 31 May 1873. He